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Perspectives on Teaching and Learning with Computers

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  • 1. Instructional Computer TECH2111 Dr. Alaa Sadik Instructional & Learning Technologies Department www.alaasadik.net [email_address]
  • 2. Instructional Computer TECH2111 Lecture Two: Perspectives on Teaching and Learning with Computers “ We shouldn't use computers or technology without thinking about how kids will learn! ” (Gardner, 1996)
  • 3. Remember Last Lecture!
    • Introduction
    • Computers have changed the face of the world: how? [p.4] .
    • Computers at schools: past and present [p. 5] .
    • Computer integration into the curriculum: why? [p.10,11] , how?
    • Computers and changes in the educational system [p.18].
    Textbook: pp.4-20
  • 4. Perspectives on Teaching and Learning with Computers
    • Learning theories
    • Cooperative learning
    • Types of intelligence
    • Perception
    • Assessment
    Textbook: 89-119
  • 5. Perspectives on Teaching and Learning with Computers
    • 1. Learning theories
      • Behaviorism Constructivism
    Textbook: 89-96
  • 6. Perspectives on Teaching and Learning with Computers
    • 1. Learning theories
      • Behaviorism: Assumptions
      • A teacher-directed approach (controlled by the teacher).
      • Learning is manipulated by the teacher (the source).
      • Learning is described as a stimulus and response relationship.
      • The primary means of investigating learning is by observation.
      • Students learn new concepts via the observation of the teacher and content.
    Textbook: 89-96
  • 7. Perspectives on Teaching and Learning with Computers
    • 1. Learning theories
      • Behaviorism: Assumptions
      • Learning content is provided in small chunks (steps).
      • Learning content is provided in linear sequence.
      • The student can’t study a new topic before achieving the prior topic.
      • Learning processes can be studied most objectively when the focus of study is on stimulus and responses.
      • Learning involves a behavior change .
    Textbook: 89-96
  • 8. Perspectives on Teaching and Learning with Computers
    • 1. Learning theories
      • Behaviorism: Elements of good lesson
      • Gaining attention
      • Informing learner of the objective
      • Recall of prerequisite learning
      • Presenting the stimulus material
      • Providing learning guidance
      • Electing the performance
      • Providing feedback
      • Assessing the performance
      • Enhancing retention and transfer
    Textbook: 89-96
  • 9. Perspectives on Teaching and Learning with Computers
    • 1. Learning theories
      • Behaviorism: Example of software
            • Drill and practice software
            • Tutorials
            • e.g., Math Blaster , Math Munchers Deluxe Word Munchers Early Music Skills Organic Chemistry
    Textbook: 89-96
  • 10. Perspectives on Teaching and Learning with Computers
    • 1. Learning theories
      • Constructivism: Assumptions
      • Learning is an active and individualized process.
      • The learner must construct new knowledge based on his/her own individualized experience (learner background).
      • The student is the producer of information rather than the consumer.
      • The teacher is a member of learning community rather than the only source of information (facilitator).
      • Learning emphasizes the application of knowledge in real life situations.
    Textbook: 89-96
  • 11. Perspectives on Teaching and Learning with Computers
    • 1. Learning theories
      • Constructivism: Assumptions
      • Teaching must fosters critical thinking and creates active and motivated learners.
      • Learning is a cooperative process constructed within the social context of the classroom.
      • Assessment is a continuous and interactive process that measures the achievement of the learner and the quality of the learning experience .
    Textbook: 89-96
  • 12. Perspectives on Teaching and Learning with Computers
    • 2. Cooperative learning
    Textbook: 97-98
  • 13. Perspectives on Teaching and Learning with Computers
    • 2. Cooperative learning
      • Ways of learning:
      • Individual (alone)
      • Competitive (against each other)
      • Cooperative (together)
  • 14. Perspectives on Teaching and Learning with Computers
    • 2. Cooperative learning
      • Is a productive strategy that uses small teams of students through which they work together to develop communication skills, higher-order thinking skills, and social awareness, and maximize learning.
      • The computer is a powerful tool for facilitating cooperation can serve an important role in cooperative learning environments.
      • Suitable for computer-poor schools
  • 15. Perspectives on Teaching and Learning with Computers
    • 3. Types of intelligence
    Professor Howard Gardner
  • 16. Perspectives on Teaching and Learning with Computers
    • 3. Types of intelligence
    • 1. Linguistic
    • enjoy writing, reading, telling stories or doing crossword puzzles.
    • 2. Logical-Mathematical
    • interested in patterns, categories and relationships. They are drawn to arithmetic problems, strategy games and experiments.
    • 3. Bodily-Kinesthetic
    • process knowledge through bodily sensations, often athletic, dancers or good at crafts such as sewing or woodworking.
    • 4. Spatial
    • think in images and pictures, fascinated with mazes or puzzles, or spend free time drawing, building with Leggos.
  • 17. Perspectives on Teaching and Learning with Computers
    • 3. Types of intelligence
    • 5. Musical
    • always singing or drumming to themselves. They are usually quite aware of sounds others may miss.
    • 6. Interpersonal
    • leaders among their peers, good at communicating and who seem to understand others' feelings and motives possess interpersonal intelligence.
    • 7. Intrapersonal
    • shy, aware of their own feelings and are self-motivated.
  • 18. Perspectives on Teaching and Learning with Computers
    • 3. Types of intelligence
    • Using Technology to Teach to the Multiple Intelligences
    • Example: Linguistic Intelligence
    • These kids are most likely to use word processing programs on the computer than anything else. They will know how to manipulate the text, do crazy things like create columns and outlines that actually work and look good.
  • 19. Perspectives on Teaching and Learning with Computers
    • 3. Types of intelligence
    • Using Technology to Teach to the Multiple Intelligences
    • Example: Linguistic Intelligence
    • To use their linguistic intelligence to benefit the entire class, you might want to consider making these students the recorders of any group they work with. If you are creating a newsletter in your classroom, for example, have these kids type in everyone's contributions and work on the layout. They will be able to write some excellent articles as well.
    • More examples available at: http://172.26.10.114/courses/tech2111/resources.htm
  • 20. Perspectives on Teaching and Learning with Computers
    • 4. Perception
    • Perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting and organizing sensory information .
    • e.g., visual perception, auditory perception
    Textbook: 89-119
  • 21. Perspectives on Teaching and Learning with Computers
    • 4. Perception
    • Because perceptions are organized into understandings:
    • The quality of the visual and aural stimuli embodied in software is very important.
    • Software design must limit distraction and guide the learner’s attention to the essential information.
    Textbook: 89-119
  • 22. Perspectives on Teaching and Learning with Computers
    • 5. Assessment
    • All those activities undertaken by teachers and/or by their students, which provide information to be used as feedback to modify the teaching and learning activities in which they are engaged.
      • Learners learn best when they ...
      • understand clearly
      • are given feedback
      • are given advice
      • are fully involved
    Textbook: 98-100
  • 23. Perspectives on Teaching and Learning with Computers
    • 5. Assessment
    • Assessment should be performance-based (authentic)
    • Authentic assessment refers to assessment tasks that
    • resemble real-world situations
    • promote higher-order thinking
    • solve problems
    Textbook: 98-99
  • 24. Discussion & Conclusion