Goals of talk Definition Rapid diagnosis and treatment Review risks
Case 1. Healthy 32 yo G2P1. Augmented vaginal delivery, no tears. Nurse calls you one hour after delivery because of heavy bleeding. What do you do? What do you order?
Case 2 26 yo G4 now P4. NSVD, with help from medical student. You leave the room to answer a page while waiting for placenta to deliver, but are called back overhead, stat. Huge blood clot seen in vagina. What is this, and what do you do next?
Definition Mean blood loss with vaginal delivery: 500cc > 1000cc is “hemorrhage” Mean blood loss with C/S: 1000cc >1500cc is “hemorrhage” Seen in ~5% of deliveries.
Early vs. Late Most authors define early as < 72h. ALSO defines it as <24h. Late hemorrhage is more likely due to infection and retained placental tissue.
Prenatal Risk Factors Most patients with hemorrhage have none. Pre-eclampsia (RR 5.0) Previous postpartum hemorrhage (RR 3.6) Multiple gestation (RR 3.3) Previous C/S (RR 1.7) Multiparity (RR1.5)
Easy to miss Physicians underestimate blood loss by 50% Slow steady bleeding can be fatal Most deaths from hemorrhage seen after 5h Abdominal or pelvic bleeding can be hidden
Always look for signs of bleeding Estimate blood loss accurately. Evaluate all bleeding, including slow bleeds. If mother develops hypotension, tachycardia or pain…rule out intra- abdominal blood loss.
Initial Assessment Identify possible post partum hemorrhage. Simultaneous evaluation and treatment. Remember ABCs. Use O2 4L/min. If bleeding does not readily resolve, call for help. Start two 16g or 18g IVs.
ALSO’s 4 Ts Tone (Uterine tone) Tissue (Retained tissue--placenta) Trauma (Lacerations and uterine rupture) Thrombin (Bleeding disorders)
“Tone: Think of Uterine Atony” Uterine atony causes 70% of hemorrhage Assess and treat with uterine massage Use medication early Consider prophylactic medication...
Bimanual Uterine Exam Confirms diagnosis of uterine atony. Massage is often adequate for stimulating uterine involution.
Medications for Uterine Atony 1. Oxytocin promotes rhythmic contractions. Give IM or IU, not IV. (Can cause ↓ BP) 40U/L at 250cc/h. 2. Methergine 0.2mg (1 amp) IM 3. Hemabate 0.25mg IM q 15min (max X8).
Medications: Methergine Causes tetanic uterine contraction. May trap placenta. Can cause Hypertension, especially IV. Contraindicated in hypertensive patients and those with pre-eclampsia. Some authors skip Methergine altogether.
Prostaglandin F2 15-methyl Hemabate 0.25mg IM or IU. Used to be called Prostin. Controls hemorrhage in 86% when used alone, and 95% in combination with above. Can repeat up to eight times. Contraindicated in active systemic diseases. Can cause nausea/vomiting/diarrhea, ↑ BP.
Tissue: Retained placenta Delay of placental delivery > 30 minutes seen in ~ 6% of deliveries. Prior retained placenta increases risk. Risk increased with: prior C/S, curettage p- pregnancy, uterine infection, AMA or increased parity. Prior C/S scar & previa increases risk (25%) Most patients have no risk factors. Occasionally succenturiate lobe left behind.
Abnormal Placental Implantation Attempt to remove the placenta by usual methods. Excess traction on cord may cause cord tear or uterine inversion. If placenta retained for >30 minutes, this may be caused by abnormal placental implantation.
Abnormal implantation defined. Caused by missing or defective decidua. Placenta Accreta: Placenta adherent to myometrium. Placenta Increta: myometrial invasion. Placenta Percreta: penetration of myometrium to or beyond serosa. These only bleed when manual removal attempted.
Removal of Abnormal Placenta Oxytocin 10U in 20cc of NS placed in clamped umbilical vein. If this fails, get OB assistance. Check Hct, type & cross 2-4 u. Two large bore IVs. Anesthesia support.
Removal of Abnormal Placenta Relax uterus with halothane general anesthetic and subcutaneous terbutaline. Bleeding will increase dramatically. With fingertips, identify cleavage plane between placenta and uterus. Keep placenta intact. Remove all of the placenta.
Removal of Abnormal Placenta If successful, reverse uterine atony with oxytocin, Methergine, Hemabate. Consider surgical set-up prior to separation. If manual removal not successful, large blunt curettage or suction catheter, with high risk of perforation. Consider prophylactic antibiotics.
Uterine Inversion Blue-gray mass protruding from vagina. Copious bleeding. Hypotension worsened by vaso-vagal reaction. Consider atropine 0.5mg IV if bradycardia is severe. High morbidity and some mortality seen: get help and act rapidly.
Uterine Inversion Push center of uterus with three fingers into abdominal cavity. Need to replace the uterus before cervical contraction ring develops. Otherwise, will need to use MgSO4, tocolytics, anesthesia, and treatment of massive hemorrhage. When completed, treat uterine atony.
Uterine Rupture Rare: 0.04% of deliveries. Risk factors include: Prior C/S: up to 1.7% of these deliveries. Prior uterine surgery. Hyperstimulation with oxytocin. Trauma. Parity > 4.
Uterine Rupture Risk factors include: Epidural. Placental abruption. Forceps delivery (especially mid forceps). Breech version or extraction.
Uterine Rupture Sometimes found incidentally. During routine exam of uterus. Small dehiscence, less than 2cm. Not bleeding. Not painful. Can be followed expectantly.
Uterine Rupture before delivery Vaginal bleeding. Abdominal tenderness. Maternal tachycardia. Abnormal fetal heart rate tracing. Cessation of uterine contractions.
Uterine Rupture after delivery May be found on routine exam. Hypotension more than expected with apparent blood loss. Increased abdominal girth.
Uterine Rupture When recognized, get help. ABCs. IV fluids. Surgical correction.
Birth Trauma Lacerations of birth tract not rare: causes post partum hemorrhage in 1/1500 deliveries.
Birth Trauma Repair lacerations quickly. Place initial suture above the apex of laceration to control retracted arteries.
Repair of cervical laceration
Birth Trauma: Hematomas Hematomas less than 3cm in diameter can be observed expectantly. If larger, incision and evacuation of clot is necessary. Irrigate and ligate bleeding vessels. With diffuse oozing, perform layered closure to eliminate dead space. Consider prophylactic antibiotics.
Thrombin (4th “T”) Coagulopathies are rare. Suspect if oozing from puncture sites noted. Work up with platelets, PT, PTT, fibrinogen level, fibrin split products, and possibly antithrombin III.
Prevention? Some evidence supports use of oxytocin after delivery of anterior shoulder, in umbilical vein or IV.