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Principles of Ecology       bio 271   dr.Abdulhadi Aloufi        1st   lecture   www.draloufi.com
What is ecology?
Is this Ecology?
Or this?
Origin of the word…”Ecology”•Greek origin  OIKOS = house,home  LOGOS = study of…•Study of the “house/environment” in whi...
                                      •                                   ...
        Ernst                           Ecology...
                 Ecology                                ...
Ecology is study of interactions betweenNon-living components in the environment…  light  water  wind  nutrients in soil  ...
Living organisms… Plants Animals microorganisms in soil, etc.
To study Ecology involves…For non-living (abiotic)      For living (biotic)  •Climatology                  •Animal  beha...
The Hierarchy of Ecology                      ...
‫‪The Hierarchy of Ecology=Levels of Organization‬‬‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ‬   ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬                              ‫ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ‬ ...
The Hierarchy of Ecology=Levels of Organization                                                   ...
1st Level of OrganizationOrganism :An individual livingthing that is made ofcells, uses energy,reproduces, responds,grows...
‫‪1st Level of Organization‬‬                   ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻦ ﺍﳊﻲ :‬                    ‫‪Organism‬‬             ‫ﻓﺮﺩ ﺣﻲ ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣ...
2nd Level of OrganizationPopulation:A group of organisms,all of the samespecies, whichinterbreed and live inthe same plac...
‫‪2nd Level of Organization‬‬             ‫ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋــﺔ ‪:Population‬‬             ‫ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬             ‫ﺍﳊﻴــــﺔ ﻣ...
3rd Level of OrganizationBiological community:All the populations ofdifferent species thatlive in the same placeat the sa...
‫‪3rd Level of Organization‬‬                ‫ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ‬               ‫‪Biological Community‬‬             ‫ﳎﻤــﻮﻉ ﺍﳉ...
4th Level of OrganizationEcosystem:Populations of plants andanimals that interact witheach other in a given areawith the ...
‫‪4th Level of Organization‬‬                      ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬                 ‫‪Ecosystem‬‬               ‫ﲨﺎﻋـﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ...
5th   Level of OrganizationBiosphere: •The portion of Earth that supports life.• 
‫5‬‫‪th‬‬   ‫‪Level of Organization‬‬                                                ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ‬                        ...
Species   Population   community   Ecosystem
biotic   abiotic   Ecosystem
‫5‬‫‪th‬‬   ‫‪Level of Organization‬‬                                                ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ‬                        ...
‫ﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺓ ‪Biosphere‬ﹸﻃﹾﻠ‪‬ﻖ‪ ‬ﻣﺼﻄﻠ ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ‬                 ‫ﺢ‬          ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻋﺎﻡ ٥٧٨١ﻡ ﺑﻮﺳﺎﻃﺔ ﺍﳉﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺴﺎﻭﻱ ...
‫ﻓﻼﺩﻣﲑ ﻓﲑﻧﺎﺩﺳﻜﺎﻱ‬     ‫ﺇﺩﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺳﻮﻳﺲ‬‫٣٦٨١- ٥٤٩١ﻡ‬       ‫٨٣٨١- ٤١٩١ﻡ‬
‫‪‬ﻘﹾﺼ‪  ‬ﺑﺎﻟﻐﻼﻑ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ ‪ Biosphere‬ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎﹰ ﺍﻵﰐ:‬                                                ‫ﻳ ﺪ‬         ‫١- ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍ...
‫ﺷﻮﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﻗﻂ‬              ‫‪Gyps‬‬        ‫‪rueppellii‬‬              ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﻴﺶ ﰲ ﻭﺳﻂ ﺃﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ‬              ‫ﻳﻄﲑ ﻋﻠ...
‫ﻳﻌﻴﺶ ﺛﻮﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﱪﻱ‬‫‪ Bos grunniens‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻳﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﻣـﻦ ٠٠٢٣ﻡ‬‫ﺇﱃ ٠٠٤٥ﻡ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻣﺴـﺘﻮﻯ‬‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﰲ ﺟﺒﺎﻝ ﺍﳍﻤﻼﻳﺎ‬‫ﻭﻫﻀﺒﺔ ﺍﻟ...
‫ﻳﻌﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻜﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﺎﺏ‬‫ـﻰ‬ ‫‪ Euophrys omnisuperstes‬ﻋﻠـ‬‫ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﳓـﻮ ٠٠٧٦ﻡ ﻓـﻮﻕ‬‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﰲ ﺟﺒﻞ ﺇﻓﺮﺳـﺖ،‬‫ﻭﺭﲟ...
‫ﻻ ﺗﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻷﺷﺠﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻘﺮ‬               ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ، ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺟﺪﺍﹰ ﻣﺜﻞ: ...
‫ﺑﺮﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﺎﺟﺎﻣﺎ ‪ Sajama‬ﰲ ﺑﻮﻟﻴﻔﻴﺎ‬
‫ﱂ ﺗﺴﺒﻖ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﲰﻜﺔ ﺣﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻖ‬                      ‫ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ٧ ﻛﻠﻢ، ﺣﱴ ﺍﺳﺘﻄﺎﻉ ﻓﺮﻳﻖ‬                      ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪ...
‫ﺧﺎﲤﺔ: ﺍﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻐﻄﻴﻬـﺎ ﻏـﲑ‬‫ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﻘﺪﺓ ﺟﺪﺍﹰ، ﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﲨﺎﻻﹰ ﺗﺘﺮﻛﺰ ﺭﺃﺳﻴﺎﹰ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻄـﺎﻕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﲢﻠﻖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻌ...
‫ﺍﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻓﲔ ﺍﳉﻮﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺨﺮﻱ‬‫ﺍﻟﻄﻴﻮﺭ ﺗﻄﲑ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ٠٥٦-٠٠٨١ ﻡ‬‫ﻓﻮﻕ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ، ﻛﻤﺎ ...
‫ﺍﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻲ‬‫ﻳﺘﺮﻛﺰ ﳓﻮ ٠٩٪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻖ ﻻ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ٠٠٢ﻡ ﲢـﺖ‬‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ، ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ...
‫ﳝﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ ﺗﻌـﻴﺶ ﻓﻴـﻪ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻧﻄﺎﻗﺎﹰ ﺿـﻴﻘﺎﹰ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﺍﹰ، ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﻼﻓﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﺨﺮﻱ ﻭﺍﳉـﻮﻱ،‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﻻ ﻳﺰ...
Autecology                                                                    ...
Abiotic Components             Climatic    Chemical+naturalMedium                        factors              factors
Lets see how much you know!Remember the pictures.Think about what we talked about.Think about what you learned.
Abiotic or Biotic?    Biotic
Abiotic or Biotic?       Abiotic
Abiotic or Biotic?       Abiotic
Abiotic or Biotic?        Biotic
What level of organization?                   Organism
What level of Organization?       Community
What level of Organization?        Population
Is it  or  ?Ecosystem=Community + Abiotic environment,interacting
Thankswww.draloufi.com
1st lecture ecology pdf
1st lecture ecology pdf
1st lecture ecology pdf
1st lecture ecology pdf
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  1. 1. Principles of Ecology bio 271 dr.Abdulhadi Aloufi 1st lecture www.draloufi.com
  2. 2. What is ecology?
  3. 3. Is this Ecology?
  4. 4. Or this?
  5. 5. Origin of the word…”Ecology”•Greek origin OIKOS = house,home LOGOS = study of…•Study of the “house/environment” in which welive.•The study of interactions between organisms andtheir environment.
  6. 6.  • • ••  
  7. 7.  Ernst  EcologyHaeckel      Okologie Logos HomeOikos To study
  8. 8.  Ecology    
  9. 9. Ecology is study of interactions betweenNon-living components in the environment… light water wind nutrients in soil heat solar radiation atmosphere, etc. AND…
  10. 10. Living organisms… Plants Animals microorganisms in soil, etc.
  11. 11. To study Ecology involves…For non-living (abiotic)  For living (biotic) •Climatology •Animal behavior •Hydrology • Taxonomy •Oceanography • Physiology •Physics •Mathematics •Chemistry (population studies) •Geology • etc.. •soil analysis, etc.
  12. 12. The Hierarchy of Ecology    OrganismEcologists have organized the interactions anorganism takes part in into different levelsaccording to complexity.
  13. 13. ‫‪The Hierarchy of Ecology=Levels of Organization‬‬‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ )ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻦ ﺍﳊﻲ(‬
  14. 14. The Hierarchy of Ecology=Levels of Organization               
  15. 15. 1st Level of OrganizationOrganism :An individual livingthing that is made ofcells, uses energy,reproduces, responds,grows, and develops
  16. 16. ‫‪1st Level of Organization‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻦ ﺍﳊﻲ :‬ ‫‪Organism‬‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺩ ﺣﻲ ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻳﺎ،‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ،‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﻨﺎﺳﻞ، ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺠﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ، ﻭﻳﻨﻤﻮ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺎﹰ، ﻭﻳﺘﻜﻴﻒ،‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﻐﺬﻯ.‬
  17. 17. 2nd Level of OrganizationPopulation:A group of organisms,all of the samespecies, whichinterbreed and live inthe same place at thesame time.
  18. 18. ‫‪2nd Level of Organization‬‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋــﺔ ‪:Population‬‬ ‫ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴــــﺔ ﻣــــﻦ ﺍﻟﻨــــﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺴــﻪ، ﺗﺘﻨﺎﺳــﻞ ﻣــﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻀ ـﻬﺎ، ﻭﺗﻌ ـﻴﺶ ﻣ ـﻊ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻀــــﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻜــــﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ.‬
  19. 19. 3rd Level of OrganizationBiological community:All the populations ofdifferent species thatlive in the same placeat the same time.
  20. 20. ‫‪3rd Level of Organization‬‬ ‫ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ‬ ‫‪Biological Community‬‬ ‫ﳎﻤــﻮﻉ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋـــﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣـﻦ ﺃﻧــﻮﺍﻉ ﳐﺘﻠﻔـﺔ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺗﻌــــﻴﺶ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻜـــﺎﻥ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻣـــــﺎﻥ ﻧﻔﺴـــــﻪ‬
  21. 21. 4th Level of OrganizationEcosystem:Populations of plants andanimals that interact witheach other in a given areawith the abioticcomponents of that area.(terrestrial or aquatic)
  22. 22. ‫‪4th Level of Organization‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ ‫‪Ecosystem‬‬ ‫ﲨﺎﻋـﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﺗﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﰲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ )ﺑﺮﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎﺋﻴﺔ( ﻭﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺔ.‬
  23. 23. 5th Level of OrganizationBiosphere: •The portion of Earth that supports life.• 
  24. 24. ‫5‬‫‪th‬‬ ‫‪Level of Organization‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ‬ ‫‪Biosphere‬‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﳍﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﺭﺿﻴﺔ‬
  25. 25. Species Population community Ecosystem
  26. 26. biotic abiotic Ecosystem
  27. 27. ‫5‬‫‪th‬‬ ‫‪Level of Organization‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ‬ ‫‪Biosphere‬‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﳍﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﺭﺿﻴﺔ‬
  28. 28. ‫ﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺓ ‪Biosphere‬ﹸﻃﹾﻠ‪‬ﻖ‪ ‬ﻣﺼﻄﻠ ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺢ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻋﺎﻡ ٥٧٨١ﻡ ﺑﻮﺳﺎﻃﺔ ﺍﳉﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﺇﺩﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬‫ﺳﻮﻳﺲ ﻭﻋ ‪‬ﻓﻪ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ "ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﳊﻴﺎ ﹸ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﺮ‬‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ" ﻭﻗﺪ ﹸ ‪‬ﺭﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﺓ ﻻﺣﻘﺎﹰ ﻋـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻃﻮ‬‫٦٢٩١ﻡ ﺑﻮﺳﺎﻃﺔ ﻋﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻌـﺎﺩﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺳـﻲ‬‫ﻓﻼﺩﻣﲑ ﻓﲑﻧﺎﺩﺳﻜﺎﻱ ﰒ ﺗﻌﺪﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎ ‪ ‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺕ‬‫ﺗﺒﻌﺎﹰ ﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍ ﹸﻌ‪ ‬ﻑ ﻭﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻪ، ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﺘﺴ ‪ ‬ﻟﻪ.‬ ‫ﺐ‬ ‫ﳌﺮ‬
  29. 29. ‫ﻓﻼﺩﻣﲑ ﻓﲑﻧﺎﺩﺳﻜﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺳﻮﻳﺲ‬‫٣٦٨١- ٥٤٩١ﻡ‬ ‫٨٣٨١- ٤١٩١ﻡ‬
  30. 30. ‫‪‬ﻘﹾﺼ‪  ‬ﺑﺎﻟﻐﻼﻑ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ ‪ Biosphere‬ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎﹰ ﺍﻵﰐ:‬ ‫ﻳ ﺪ‬ ‫١- ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻄﻦ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ.‬‫٢- ﺍﳊﻴﺰ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺸﻐﻠﻪ، ﻭﺗﻌﻴﺶ ﻓﻴـﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ.‬‫٣- ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺪﻋﻤﻬﺎ، ﻭﻫـﻲ: ﺍﻟﻐـﻼﻑ ﺍﳉـﻮﻱ،‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺋﻲ، ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺨﺮﻱ، ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ.‬ ‫.‬
  31. 31. ‫ﺷﻮﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﻗﻂ‬ ‫‪Gyps‬‬ ‫‪rueppellii‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﻴﺶ ﰲ ﻭﺳﻂ ﺃﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻄﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻳﺼـﻞ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﳓﻮ ٠٠٣.١١ ﻣﺘـﺮ ﻓـﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ، ﻭﻧـﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﺻـﻄﺪﺍﻡ ﺇﺣـﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮﺍﺕ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﺳﺎﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺝ.‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﻗﻂ‬
  32. 32. ‫ﻳﻌﻴﺶ ﺛﻮﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﱪﻱ‬‫‪ Bos grunniens‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻳﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﻣـﻦ ٠٠٢٣ﻡ‬‫ﺇﱃ ٠٠٤٥ﻡ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻣﺴـﺘﻮﻯ‬‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﰲ ﺟﺒﺎﻝ ﺍﳍﻤﻼﻳﺎ‬‫ﻭﻫﻀﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺖ، ﻭﻗـﺪ ﺗﺒﻠـﻎ‬‫٠٠١٦ﻡ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮﺕ ﳍـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ.‬
  33. 33. ‫ﻳﻌﻴﺶ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻜﺒﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﺎﺏ‬‫ـﻰ‬ ‫‪ Euophrys omnisuperstes‬ﻋﻠـ‬‫ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﳓـﻮ ٠٠٧٦ﻡ ﻓـﻮﻕ‬‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﰲ ﺟﺒﻞ ﺇﻓﺮﺳـﺖ،‬‫ﻭﺭﲟﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻳﻌﻴﺶ ﻓﻴﻪ‬‫ﺣﻴﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻓـﻮﻕ‬‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ، ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺎﹰ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ "ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻒ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ"‬
  34. 34. ‫ﻻ ﺗﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻷﺷﺠﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻘﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ، ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺟﺪﺍﹰ ﻣﺜﻞ: ﺃﺷﺠﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻋﺮ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﻳﻘﻲ‬‫‪ Juniperus procera‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﻤﻮ ﰲ ﺟﺒﺎﻝ ﺷﺮﻕ ﺃﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻋـﺎﺕ‬‫ﺗﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ٠٠٦٣ﻡ ﻓـﻮﻕ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺳﻄـﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ، ﻛﻤـﺎ ﺗﻨﻤـﻮ ﺃﺷـﺠﺎﺭ‬‫‪ Polylepis tarapacana‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﻳﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ٠٠٠٤-٠٠٢٥ﻡ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﺤﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﺎﺟﺎﻣﺎ ‪ Sajama‬ﰲ ﺑﻮﻟﻴﻔﻴﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺗﻨﻤﻮ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﺷﺠﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ.‬
  35. 35. ‫ﺑﺮﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﺎﺟﺎﻣﺎ ‪ Sajama‬ﰲ ﺑﻮﻟﻴﻔﻴﺎ‬
  36. 36. ‫ﱂ ﺗﺴﺒﻖ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﲰﻜﺔ ﺣﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻖ‬ ‫ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ٧ ﻛﻠﻢ، ﺣﱴ ﺍﺳﺘﻄﺎﻉ ﻓﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ ﺗﺼـﻮﻳﺮ‪‬‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﲰﻜﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ‬ ‫‪Pseudoliparis amblystomopsis‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺃﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ ﻋـﺎﻡ ٨٠٠٢ﻡ ﰲ ﺧﻨـﺪﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﺍﳍﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻖ ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﳓﻮ ٣٠٧.٧ ﺃﻣﺘﺎﺭ.‬‫ﺃﲰﺎﻙ ﰲ ﺧﻨﺪﻕ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ‬
  37. 37. ‫ﺧﺎﲤﺔ: ﺍﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻐﻄﻴﻬـﺎ ﻏـﲑ‬‫ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﻣﻌﻘﺪﺓ ﺟﺪﺍﹰ، ﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﲨﺎﻻﹰ ﺗﺘﺮﻛﺰ ﺭﺃﺳﻴﺎﹰ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻄـﺎﻕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﲢﻠﻖ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﻮﺭ، ﻭﺗﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻗﻤﻢ ﻛـﺜﲑ ﻣـﻦ‬‫ﺍﻷﺷﺠﺎﺭ، ﻭﻫﻮ ﳝﺘﺪ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ‬‫ﻗﺸﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻀﺮﺏ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺷﺠﺎﺭ ﲜـﺬﻭﺭﻫﺎ، ﻭﲢﻔـﺮ‬‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ‪‬ﺎ ﺟﺤﻮﺭﻫﺎ، ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﻐﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻴﺶ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺑﻜﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ.‬
  38. 38. ‫ﺍﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻓﲔ ﺍﳉﻮﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺨﺮﻱ‬‫ﺍﻟﻄﻴﻮﺭ ﺗﻄﲑ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ٠٥٦-٠٠٨١ ﻡ‬‫ﻓﻮﻕ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ، ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺼﻞ ﻗﻤﻢ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺷـﺠﺎﺭ ﻣﺜـﻞ‬‫ﺍﳋﺸﺐ ﺍﻷﲪﺮ ﺇﱃ ﳓﻮ ٥٥.٥١١ﻡ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﺍ‪‬ـﺎﻭﺭﺓ‬‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺘﱰﻩ ﺭﺩ ﻭﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﲏ ﺑﻮﻻﻳﺔ ﻛﺎﻟﻴﻔﻮﺭﻧﻴﺎ ﺑﺄﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ، ﻛﻤﺎ ﲢﻔـﺮ‬‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ﺟﺤﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﺗﻀﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﺷﺠﺎﺭ ﲜـﺬﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﰲ‬‫ﻃﺒﻘﺔ ﻗﺸﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺸﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻣﺘﺎﺭ، ﺣﻴﺚ ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺟﺬﻭﺭ‬‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﺠﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻛﺎﺷﻴﺎ ‪ Acacia erioloba‬ﳑﺘﺪﺓ ﺇﱃ ﳓﻮ ٨٦ﻡ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﺮﺍﺀ ﻛﻠﻬﺎﺭﻱ.‬
  39. 39. ‫ﺍﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻲ‬‫ﻳﺘﺮﻛﺰ ﳓﻮ ٠٩٪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻖ ﻻ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ٠٠٢ﻡ ﲢـﺖ‬‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ، ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﺪ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺼﻠﻬﺎ ﺿﻮﺀ ﴰﺲ‬‫ﺣﱴ ﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﺀﺓ ‪Photic‬‬‫‪ ،zone‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﺘﺮﻛﺰ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨـﺎﺀ‬‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﺘﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ، ﻭﻻ ﻳﻌﻴﺶ ﲢـﺖ ﻫـﺬﻩ‬‫ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻨﻘﺺ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ، ﻭﺗﻘﻞ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﳌﻴـﺎﻩ، ﻭﺗـﺰﺩﺍﺩ‬‫ﺑﺮﻭﺩ‪‬ﺎ، ﻭﻳﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ، ﺳﻮﻯ ﻛﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺣﻴـﺔ ﳏﻠﻠـﺔ ﻣـﻦ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺘﲑﻳﺎ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ، ﻭﺃﲰﺎﻙ ﺗﻘﺘﺎﺕ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗـﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧـﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻴﺘـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻀﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺮﺳﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ.‬
  40. 40. ‫ﳝﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ ﺗﻌـﻴﺶ ﻓﻴـﻪ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻧﻄﺎﻗﺎﹰ ﺿـﻴﻘﺎﹰ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﺍﹰ، ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﻼﻓﲔ ﺍﻟﺼﺨﺮﻱ ﻭﺍﳉـﻮﻱ،‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﻻ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﻋﻦ ١٢ ﻛﻠﻢ، ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻕ ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺎﺕ )١١ ﻛﻠﻢ( ﺇﱃ ﻗﻤـﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺒﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ )٠١ ﻛﻠﻢ( ﻭﻫﻮ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﳝﺎﺛﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎﹰ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻚ‪ ‬ﻗﺸﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺣـﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴـﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺳ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻤﻬﺎ.‬
  41. 41. Autecology   ‫ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬Ecology Synecology  
  42. 42. Abiotic Components Climatic Chemical+naturalMedium factors factors
  43. 43. Lets see how much you know!Remember the pictures.Think about what we talked about.Think about what you learned.
  44. 44. Abiotic or Biotic? Biotic
  45. 45. Abiotic or Biotic? Abiotic
  46. 46. Abiotic or Biotic? Abiotic
  47. 47. Abiotic or Biotic? Biotic
  48. 48. What level of organization? Organism
  49. 49. What level of Organization? Community
  50. 50. What level of Organization? Population
  51. 51. Is it  or  ?Ecosystem=Community + Abiotic environment,interacting
  52. 52. Thankswww.draloufi.com
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