1st lec desert ecology pdf

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1st lec desert ecology pdf

  1. 1. Desert Ecology Dr.Abdulhadi Aloufi www.draloufi.com 
  2. 2. ‫? ‪What is a Biome‬‬ ‫• ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﺋﻲ : ﻫﻮ ﳎﺘﻤﻊ ﺫﻭ ﺍﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﰲ ﻳﺴﻮﺩﻩ‬‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ﻧﺒﺎﰐ ﻣﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ‪،Climax‬ﻭ‬‫ﻳﻠﻌﺐ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﹰ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﺎ ﰲ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ .‬ ‫‪Biome‬‬‫‪Aquatic biomes‬‬ ‫‪Terrestrial biomes‬‬
  3. 3. Terrestrial biomesDeserts Tundra prairie Savannas Temperate Tropical deciduous forests forests
  4. 4. Biomes
  5. 5. Desert Ecology 1st lecture
  6. 6. What is a Desert ?    
  7. 7. What is a Desert ? 
  8. 8. ‫? ‪What is a desert‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻧﺴﱯ ﻭﻏﲑ ﳏﺪﺩ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ، ﻭﻫﻲ ﺗ‪‬ﻌﺮ‪‬ﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺗ‪‬ﺼﻨﻒ ﺗﺒﻌﺎﹰ ﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﺃﺳﺲ ﻣﺜﻞ: ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻀﺎﺭﻳﺲ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺎﺥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ.‬‫‪‬ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﳉﺎﻓﺔ ﺍ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺨﲑ‬‫ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﺍﻷﻣﻄﺎﺭ . ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﻣﻌﺪﻟﻪ ﺃﻗﻞ‬‫ﻣﻦ ٠٥٢ ﻣﻠﻠﺘﺮ ﺳﻨﻮﻳﺎ)٠١ ﺑﻮﺻﺎﺕ/ﺳﻨﺔ(،ﻭ ﺗﻜﺎﺩ ﲣﻠﻮ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ .‬‫‪ ‬ﻭ ﺗﻄﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺮﺍﺀ ﰲ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﲝﻴﺎﺓ ﻧﺒﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﻭﺣﻴﻮﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﲑﺓ ﺟﺪﺍﹰ، ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻇﺮﻭﻓﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻴﺔ.‬
  9. 9. ‫‪‬ﺗﻐﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺭﻱ ﲟﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﳓﻮ‬ ‫٢٣٪ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎﹰ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺓ.‬‫‪ ‬ﺗﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺭﻱ ﺇﲨﺎﻻﹰ ﻓﻘﲑﺓ ﲟﺤﺘﻮﺍﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ، ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻜﻴﻔﺖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬‫ﻛﺎﻟﻨﻘﺺ ﺍﳊﺎﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ، ﻭﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﱪﻭﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪﺗﲔ. ﻭﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻴﺴﻮﺭﺍﹰ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻴﺔ.‬
  10. 10. Deserts location
  11. 11. why ?٣٠ ‫• ﺗﻘﻊ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺭﻱ ﺑﲔ ﺧﻄﻲ ﻋﺮﺽ ٠٣ ﴰﺎﻻﹰ ﻭ‬‫ﺟﻨﻮﺑﺎﹰ ﻗﺮﻳﺒﺎﹰ ﻣﻦ)ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻃﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺍﳉﺪﻱ( ، ﻫﺬﻩ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ‬ : ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺷﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻄﺎﺭ ،ﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ‬   
  12. 12. Deserts ClassificationRainfall Temperature Topography Extremely Hot Deserts subtropical Arid Arid Cold Deserts Cool coastal Semi Arid Temperate Rain shadow Desert Interior - continental
  13. 13. Deserts Classification by Topography
  14. 14. ‫‪Cool Coastal Deserts‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺣﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩﺓ‬‫‪ ‬ﻳﻨﺪﺭ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﺍﻷﻣﻄﺎﺭ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺭﻱ ﺭﻏﻢ ﻛﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺎﺭﺩﺓ .‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﻴﻄﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻜﺜﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﲞﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺀ ﻭ ﺇﻧﺰﺍﻟﻪ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻄﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺛﻠﺞ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺣﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﲝﻴﺚ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺒﻘﻰ ﺷﻲ ﻣﻦ ﲞﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺍﺕ .‬ ‫‪‬ﻋﻠﻞ :‬‫‪‬ﻧﻼﺣﻆ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﶈﻴﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩﺓ .‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬
  15. 15. ‫ﺻﺤﺎﺭﻯ ﺍﳊﺮﻣﺎﻥ‬
  16. 16. Rain Shadow Deserts ‫ﺻﺤﺎﺭﻯ ﻇﻞ ﺍﳌﻄﺮ‬
  17. 17. Mohavi+Pataginia
  18. 18. Interior – Continental Deserts ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬  •     •  
  19. 19. Goppi+Karaakum
  20. 20. Subtropical Deserts‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﳌﺪﺍﺭﻳﺔ‬  •        • 
  21. 21. At 30 degreesnorth and southof equator theair sinksforming highpressure which highbrings dry fineweather Low pressure at equatorAt equator High pressurewarm air isforced to rise asit does, it cools,condenses andforms cloudsand you get rain
  22. 22. ‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔ ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ ،ﻣﺎ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺎﺭﻱ ؟‬
  23. 23. Activity• What are the characteristics of a desert habitat? [A desert is an area that is very dry and gets less than ten inches of rain per year.]• What kind of adaptations might an animal need to survive in the Sahara desert? [: Answers may vary but could include that an animal would need to be able to stay cool during the day and warm at night.]• If Antarctica is covered with ice and snow, why do you think it is considered a desert? Write a sentence or two to explain your answer. [It is a desert because it probably does not get very much precipitation each year. The snow and ice that are there have accumulated over time.]
  24. 24. Desert – an ecosystem found where there is verylittle rainfall.• Deserts are dry and hot. There are very few clouds.• Two kinds of deserts: – Hot deserts – Cold deserts• Hot deserts – Temperatures are very warm all year round – The summers are very hot• Cold deserts – Short, warm summers – Long, cold winters – Found in places near the north and south poles
  25. 25. Lets see how much you know!• Remember the pictures.• Think about what we talked about.• Think about what you learned.

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