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Chap14 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 14
    • The Virtual Office
    MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 8/E Raymond McLeod, Jr. and George Schell Copyright 2001 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 14-
  • 2. Introduction
    • Automation began in the factory
      • Numerical control (NC)
      • Direct numerical control (DNC)
      • CAD/CAM
      • Robotics
    • Office automation (OA) began with IBM in the 1960’s
      • Word processing
      • Magnetic Tape/Selectric Typewriter
    • Office automation systems are characterized by communication
    14-
  • 3. Office Automation (OA)
    • Formal and informal electronic systems
    • Communication of information
    • Persons inside and outside the firm are affected
    • Used by managers, professionals, secretaries, and clerical employees
      • managers and professionals are collectively known as knowledge workers
    14-
  • 4. The Virtual Office
    • Office work can be done at virtually any geographic location
    • Must be linked by electronic communication
    • Impact
      • Emerged with the appearance of low cost microprocessors
      • Teleprocessing
      • Telecommuting
    14-
  • 5. Advantages of the Virtual Office
    • Reduced facility costs
    • Reduced equipment cost
    • Formal communications network
    • Reduced work stoppages
    • Social contributions
      • Those unable to leave their homes can now work in new ways
    14-
  • 6. Disadvantages of the Virtual Office
    • Sense of not belonging
    • Fear of job loss
    • Low morale
    • Family tension
    These are disadvantages to the employee! 14-
  • 7. Recommended Virtual Office Strategy
    • Provide computer resources
    • Provide access to information sources
    • Provide noncomputer supplies
    • Arrange to forward phone calls
    • Utilize conference calls
    • Schedule regular meetings
    • Follow a work routine
    14-
  • 8. Virtual Organization
    • Extends idea of a virtual office to an entire organization
    • No ties to physical location
    • Three I Economy
      • Information
      • Ideas
      • Intelligence
    14-
  • 9. OA Model
    • Information and communication
      • No data
    • Computer and noncomputer applications
    • "Other problem solvers"
      • Internal
      • Environmental
    14-
  • 10. Environment Environment The firm Problem Solver Other Problem Solvers Database Transform Noncomputer Apps Computer- Apps Input physical resources Output physical resources An OA Model Communications Information Office Automation System 14-
  • 11. Office Automation (OA) Applications
    • Word processing
    • Electronic and voice mail
    • Computer calendaring
    • Audio conferencing
    • Video conferencing
    • Computer conferencing
    • FAX
    • Videotex
    • Imaging
    • Desktop publishing
    14-
  • 12. Word Processing
    • Use of a computer to perform automatically many of the tasks necessary to prepare typed or printed documents
    • Contribution to managers is the preparation of more effective communications
    14-
  • 13. A Word Processing System Secretary or manager Document storage CPU Typed documents 14-
  • 14. Electronic Mail (E-mail)
    • Use of a computer network that allows users to send, store and retrieve messages using terminals and storage devices
    • Good when two-way conversation is not needed
    • Easy asynchronous communication
    • Eliminates phone tag
    14-
  • 15. An Electronic Mail System Mail storage CPU Mail display and entry Mail display and entry Mail display and entry User 1 User 2 User n 14-
  • 16. Voice Mail
    • Like e-mail except messages are sent and received over telephone systems in audio form
    • Requires computers with an ability to store audio messages digitally and convert them back upon retrieval
    • Managers do not have to type
    • Less equipment and infrastructure than
    • e-mail
    14-
  • 17. Computer Message coding and decoding unit User 1 User 2 Secondary storage A Voice Mail System 14-
  • 18. Electronic Calendaring
    • Use of a networked computer to store and retrieve a manager’s appointment calendar
    • Allows other managers’ calendars to be accessed
    • Facilitates scheduling
    • Does not communicate problem-solving information
    14-
  • 19. An Electronic Calendaring System Calendar storage CPU Calendar display and entry Calendar display and entry Calendar display and entry Manager 1 Manager 2 Manager n 14-
  • 20. Audio Conferencing
    • Uses voice communications equipment to establish an audio link between geographically dispersed people
    • Conference call was first form of this system
    14-
  • 21. Rules for Added Efficiency in Audio Conferencing
    • Have a moderator
    • Keep participants to a manageable size
    • Send an agenda first
    • Identify yourself when speaking
    • Keep a taped record
    • Distribute a hard copy transcript or meeting minutes
    14-
  • 22. An Audio Conferencing System Audio Channel Location 1 Location n 14-
  • 23. Video Conferencing
    • Use of television equipment to link geographically dispersed conference participants
    • Three general configurations
      • One-way video and audio
      • One-way video and two-way audio
      • Two-way video and audio
    14-
  • 24. Video channel Video channel Location 1 Location n A. One-way video transmission B. Two-way video transmission Video Conferencing 14-
  • 25. Desktop Video Conferencing
    • Video and audio equipment are attached to each workstation in the network enabling the two-way communication of picture and sound
    • Technical concerns
      • Many desktop computers are powerful enough already
      • Requires high-speed communications network
      • Cost is typically less that $1,000 for the additional equipment to make a standard PC a desktop video station
    14-
  • 26. Computer Conferencing
    • Uses a networked computer that allows participants with some common characteristic to exchange information regarding a particular topic
    • One of the largest was an IBM PC computer conference
      • Over 4,000 topic areas
      • Over 40,000 members
    • Computers must be networked together
    14-
  • 27. Teleconferencing
    • Incorporates all other conferencing techniques
    • Includes:
      • audio
      • video
      • computer conferencing
    14-
  • 28. FAX Original document Facsimile machine Analog channel Facsimile machine Uses special equipment that can read a document at one end of a communication channel and make a copy at the other end 14- Document copy
  • 29. Videotex
    • Uses a computer to store and display a stored narrative and graphic material on a CRT screen
      • Can be created in the firm’s own computer
      • Can be owned by a service and accessed by the firm (such as the Dow Jones News / Retrieval Service)
      • Can be owned by other firms
    14-
  • 30. Imaging
    • Uses optical character recognition (OCR) to convert data on paper to a digital format for storage in a secondary storage device
    • Performed by a document management (DM) system
    • Conserves space since documents are not stored in paper form
    14-
  • 31. A Document Management System OCR Reader Network server DBMS Workstation Workstation Workstation Workstation Laser printer Optical disk storage unit 14- Laser printer Documents to be read
  • 32. Desktop Publishing
    • Uses a computer to prepare output that is very close in quality to that produced by a typesetter
    • Requires high resolution monitor and printing devices
    • Three areas of applications
      • administrative
      • technical
      • corporate
    14-
  • 33. Desk-Top Publishing System High-resolution screen Keyboard Microcomputer Laser printer output Document storage 14-
  • 34. OA and Virtual Office in Perspective
    • Aimed at the heart of business problem solving
      • Supplements interpersonal communications
      • Provides opportunity for better communications
    14-
  • 35. Summary
    • Early OA was directed at secretarial staff and clerks
    • Communication needs of managers and knowledge workers were recognized
    • Virtual office concept emerged
    • Goal of OA is increased productivity
    14-
  • 36. Summary [cont.]
    • Variety of applications
      • Word processing
      • E-mail
      • Voice mail
      • Electronic calendaring
      • Audio conferencing
      • Video conferencing
      • Computer conferencing
      • Fax
      • Videotex
    14-