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Chap14

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    • 1. Chapter 14
      • The Virtual Office
      MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 8/E Raymond McLeod, Jr. and George Schell Copyright 2001 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 14-
    • 2. Introduction
      • Automation began in the factory
        • Numerical control (NC)
        • Direct numerical control (DNC)
        • CAD/CAM
        • Robotics
      • Office automation (OA) began with IBM in the 1960’s
        • Word processing
        • Magnetic Tape/Selectric Typewriter
      • Office automation systems are characterized by communication
      14-
    • 3. Office Automation (OA)
      • Formal and informal electronic systems
      • Communication of information
      • Persons inside and outside the firm are affected
      • Used by managers, professionals, secretaries, and clerical employees
        • managers and professionals are collectively known as knowledge workers
      14-
    • 4. The Virtual Office
      • Office work can be done at virtually any geographic location
      • Must be linked by electronic communication
      • Impact
        • Emerged with the appearance of low cost microprocessors
        • Teleprocessing
        • Telecommuting
      14-
    • 5. Advantages of the Virtual Office
      • Reduced facility costs
      • Reduced equipment cost
      • Formal communications network
      • Reduced work stoppages
      • Social contributions
        • Those unable to leave their homes can now work in new ways
      14-
    • 6. Disadvantages of the Virtual Office
      • Sense of not belonging
      • Fear of job loss
      • Low morale
      • Family tension
      These are disadvantages to the employee! 14-
    • 7. Recommended Virtual Office Strategy
      • Provide computer resources
      • Provide access to information sources
      • Provide noncomputer supplies
      • Arrange to forward phone calls
      • Utilize conference calls
      • Schedule regular meetings
      • Follow a work routine
      14-
    • 8. Virtual Organization
      • Extends idea of a virtual office to an entire organization
      • No ties to physical location
      • Three I Economy
        • Information
        • Ideas
        • Intelligence
      14-
    • 9. OA Model
      • Information and communication
        • No data
      • Computer and noncomputer applications
      • "Other problem solvers"
        • Internal
        • Environmental
      14-
    • 10. Environment Environment The firm Problem Solver Other Problem Solvers Database Transform Noncomputer Apps Computer- Apps Input physical resources Output physical resources An OA Model Communications Information Office Automation System 14-
    • 11. Office Automation (OA) Applications
      • Word processing
      • Electronic and voice mail
      • Computer calendaring
      • Audio conferencing
      • Video conferencing
      • Computer conferencing
      • FAX
      • Videotex
      • Imaging
      • Desktop publishing
      14-
    • 12. Word Processing
      • Use of a computer to perform automatically many of the tasks necessary to prepare typed or printed documents
      • Contribution to managers is the preparation of more effective communications
      14-
    • 13. A Word Processing System Secretary or manager Document storage CPU Typed documents 14-
    • 14. Electronic Mail (E-mail)
      • Use of a computer network that allows users to send, store and retrieve messages using terminals and storage devices
      • Good when two-way conversation is not needed
      • Easy asynchronous communication
      • Eliminates phone tag
      14-
    • 15. An Electronic Mail System Mail storage CPU Mail display and entry Mail display and entry Mail display and entry User 1 User 2 User n 14-
    • 16. Voice Mail
      • Like e-mail except messages are sent and received over telephone systems in audio form
      • Requires computers with an ability to store audio messages digitally and convert them back upon retrieval
      • Managers do not have to type
      • Less equipment and infrastructure than
      • e-mail
      14-
    • 17. Computer Message coding and decoding unit User 1 User 2 Secondary storage A Voice Mail System 14-
    • 18. Electronic Calendaring
      • Use of a networked computer to store and retrieve a manager’s appointment calendar
      • Allows other managers’ calendars to be accessed
      • Facilitates scheduling
      • Does not communicate problem-solving information
      14-
    • 19. An Electronic Calendaring System Calendar storage CPU Calendar display and entry Calendar display and entry Calendar display and entry Manager 1 Manager 2 Manager n 14-
    • 20. Audio Conferencing
      • Uses voice communications equipment to establish an audio link between geographically dispersed people
      • Conference call was first form of this system
      14-
    • 21. Rules for Added Efficiency in Audio Conferencing
      • Have a moderator
      • Keep participants to a manageable size
      • Send an agenda first
      • Identify yourself when speaking
      • Keep a taped record
      • Distribute a hard copy transcript or meeting minutes
      14-
    • 22. An Audio Conferencing System Audio Channel Location 1 Location n 14-
    • 23. Video Conferencing
      • Use of television equipment to link geographically dispersed conference participants
      • Three general configurations
        • One-way video and audio
        • One-way video and two-way audio
        • Two-way video and audio
      14-
    • 24. Video channel Video channel Location 1 Location n A. One-way video transmission B. Two-way video transmission Video Conferencing 14-
    • 25. Desktop Video Conferencing
      • Video and audio equipment are attached to each workstation in the network enabling the two-way communication of picture and sound
      • Technical concerns
        • Many desktop computers are powerful enough already
        • Requires high-speed communications network
        • Cost is typically less that $1,000 for the additional equipment to make a standard PC a desktop video station
      14-
    • 26. Computer Conferencing
      • Uses a networked computer that allows participants with some common characteristic to exchange information regarding a particular topic
      • One of the largest was an IBM PC computer conference
        • Over 4,000 topic areas
        • Over 40,000 members
      • Computers must be networked together
      14-
    • 27. Teleconferencing
      • Incorporates all other conferencing techniques
      • Includes:
        • audio
        • video
        • computer conferencing
      14-
    • 28. FAX Original document Facsimile machine Analog channel Facsimile machine Uses special equipment that can read a document at one end of a communication channel and make a copy at the other end 14- Document copy
    • 29. Videotex
      • Uses a computer to store and display a stored narrative and graphic material on a CRT screen
        • Can be created in the firm’s own computer
        • Can be owned by a service and accessed by the firm (such as the Dow Jones News / Retrieval Service)
        • Can be owned by other firms
      14-
    • 30. Imaging
      • Uses optical character recognition (OCR) to convert data on paper to a digital format for storage in a secondary storage device
      • Performed by a document management (DM) system
      • Conserves space since documents are not stored in paper form
      14-
    • 31. A Document Management System OCR Reader Network server DBMS Workstation Workstation Workstation Workstation Laser printer Optical disk storage unit 14- Laser printer Documents to be read
    • 32. Desktop Publishing
      • Uses a computer to prepare output that is very close in quality to that produced by a typesetter
      • Requires high resolution monitor and printing devices
      • Three areas of applications
        • administrative
        • technical
        • corporate
      14-
    • 33. Desk-Top Publishing System High-resolution screen Keyboard Microcomputer Laser printer output Document storage 14-
    • 34. OA and Virtual Office in Perspective
      • Aimed at the heart of business problem solving
        • Supplements interpersonal communications
        • Provides opportunity for better communications
      14-
    • 35. Summary
      • Early OA was directed at secretarial staff and clerks
      • Communication needs of managers and knowledge workers were recognized
      • Virtual office concept emerged
      • Goal of OA is increased productivity
      14-
    • 36. Summary [cont.]
      • Variety of applications
        • Word processing
        • E-mail
        • Voice mail
        • Electronic calendaring
        • Audio conferencing
        • Video conferencing
        • Computer conferencing
        • Fax
        • Videotex
      14-