Introduction to linux

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  • 1. Introduction To Linux
  • 2. What is Linux ? • Generically : a class of operating system that use a common kernel • “Distribution” cobbled together from various different user-space tools • Many core tools originated in the GNU project; thus systems are sometimes called “GNU/Linux” • Specifically : the kernel it self
  • 3. Linux Kernel • Originally started as a hobby by an undergrad at the University of Helsinki : Linus Torvalds • Linux still leads the kernel development project • Monolithic kernel • Device drivers built in, but with module support • Latest stable version was 3.11.0 on 1/12/2013 • www.kernel.org
  • 4. Linux System MAIN components of Linux operating system GUI: Gnome, KDE, XFCE, LXDE, X.org LAMP : Apache, PHP, MySQL Net : Sshd, inetd gcc GNU Coreutils Bash Other libraries GNU C Library SCI Device files Linux kernel File systems processes Sockets Protocols Memory management Drivers and modules Computer hardware http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LINUX
  • 5. Linux Distributions • A large number of differenr distributions have been created (see www.distrowatch.com) • Distributions can be classified by which package manager they use • Package managers install extra software and update existing software
  • 6. Package Managers • Red Hat Package Manager (RPM) • RHEL, Fedora, Mandriva, OpenSUSE, etc. • Advanced package Tool (APT) • Debian, Ubuntu, BlankOn, etc • Other binary formats • Slackware (tgz), Arch Linux (pacman), etc • Source formats • Gentoo (ebuilds), Linux From Scratch, etc
  • 7. Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) • A linux dsitribution from Red Hat, Inc. • RTP (Durham), NC • Open-source (like other distributions), but the official product is sold with an updates subscription, accesses via per-installation serial numbers • RPM package format
  • 8. Debian GNU/Linux • Fully open source distribution (avoids proprietary software) • Emphasis on security and stability • Achieves stability by using well-tested packages • Package versions tend to be rather dated • An “unstable” version is available with more bleedingedge packages • APT package format
  • 9. Ubuntu • Distribution sponsored by Canonical, Lts., based in South Africa • Designed to be easy to use and friendly to new users switching from competing platforms • New releases every 6 months • Dist-upgrade rarely works properly in practice, • Package pinning policy means that security updates are back-ported to packages, but installing a new release is required to obtain feature updates • APT package format
  • 10. Arch Linux • Minimalist framework for creating a custom system • Different philosophy from traditional distributions • Not based on any prior distribution (written from scratch) • Rolling distribution • No discrete versions • Updating the system updates all packages to the latest version, with all the latest bugs • Pacman package manager
  • 11. BlankOn • Distribution sponsored by YPLI., based in Indonesian • Designed to be easy to use and friendly to new users switching from competing platforms • New releases every 12 months • Dist-upgrade rarely works properly in practice, • Package pinning policy means that security updates are backported to packages, but installing a new release is required to obtain feature updates • APT package format
  • 12. Thank You For Attentions Thanks for :