Name: Akta Gupta
GDGWI ID: 100100
Course: BBA Business St...



According to Stogdill (1974), there are as many definitions of leadership, ...



showing traits of an above average individual, but this was not sufficient. Her



in her sleep, peacefully.
Considering today’s leadership concepts, Helen Keller is believ...



persistent push to the US government for supporting the blind resulted in a lifetime



people in the industries and wished to change their lives for which she joined the
Union ...



Abiodum, M. (2009) Leadership definitions by scholars. [online] Available a...



Hater, J. and Bass, B. (1988) Superiors' evaluations and subordinates' perceptions of



at: http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/cutting-edge-leadership/201210/whatis-charisma-an...
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Hellen keller Leadership


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This articles covers some leadership situations in the life of Hellen Keller.

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Hellen keller Leadership

  1. 1. Helen%Keller% Rethinking%Leadership% Individual)Assignment) ) Name: Akta Gupta GDGWI ID: 100100 Course: BBA Business Studies Module: Rethinking Leadership Module Code: MNGT320 Module Leader: Dr. Arindam Chatterjee Word Count: 2039 Words Cohort: 2010-2013
  2. 2. MNGT320) GDGWI)ID:)100100) 2) Helen%Keller) According to Stogdill (1974), there are as many definitions of leadership, as the number of people who have tried to define it, but for theoretical purpose, leadership can be defined as a process or action of influencing the actions of a structured group in its efforts towards setting a goal and achieving it (Stogdill, 1950, Rauch & Behling, 1984). As Eugene Habecker (1987) stated in his book The Other Side of Leadership that a true leader is the one who serves others for their best interest because they are motivated by loving others, rather than putting self-glory before others and in doing so may not always become popular. It should be noted that every leader was once a follower of someone. One such leader was Helen Adams Keller who was an American author, an activist and a lecturer. Imagine being blind and deaf, and still having the ability of communicate, travel around the world, meet people, make friends, and most importantly make a difference in the lives of others. This was the life of Helen Keller. “I am only one, but still I am one. I cannot do everything, but still I can do something; and because I cannot do everything, I will not refuse to do the something that I can do.” – Helen Keller A lady, who was perceived to be incompetent for any challenge in this world but changed the lives of many, stated the above words. Helen Keller was the first child to Captain Arthur Henry Keller and Kate Adams Keller born on the 27th June 1880 at the Keller Plantation in Tuscumbia Alabama. Her early childhood days were filled with colors, sounds and laughter, which dramatically changed to a lifetime of absenteeism of sounds, sight and vocalization. This change was due to an acute blockage of the stomach and brain at the age of nineteen months, which though could not be diagnosed but was believed to be brain fever. Today’s doctors perceive it to be either a case of meningitis or Streptococcus. Whatever the disease maybe, it left the happy child blind, deaf and stole her ability to functionally communicate. Her medium of communication was now restricted to touching people to recognize them. Helen being a sensitive and an extremely intelligent child was able to build about sixty signs to communicate with her family by the age of seven suggesting her level of intelligence even when she was partially disabled thus
  3. 3. MNGT320) GDGWI)ID:)100100) 3) showing traits of an above average individual, but this was not sufficient. Her frustration built due to lack of communication, which resulted in her being a problem child. To help the Keller family, on the advice of Alexander Graham Bell, 20 years old Anne Mansfield Sullivan was hired as Helen’s teacher who herself was partially blind. Thus, she could well understand Helen’s condition. Ultimately, with Anne’s help, Helen was able to learn the alphabets, the method of learning to read lips through touch, the Braille and also learnt how to partially speak. Helen in her early years through the medium of feeling and support from Anne Sullivan learnt more than any other blind and deaf individual did during her time. She is seen as an effective follower of Anne Sullivan who leaded Helen into the world of knowledge through her empathetic leadership. Helen in 1888 successfully attended the Perkins Institute for Blind just like Anne Sullivan, and later in 1894 went on to study at the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf, New York. She was the first deaf-blind student to attend the Radcliffe College and successfully completed her graduation in B.A. cum laude (in German and English) in 1904. She also received doctorates from Universities of Berlin, Delhi, Glasgow and Johannesburg, Temple University and Harvard. Helen due to the interest in learning was able to understand German, English, Greek, Latin and French, which for a deaf and blind person, is almost impossible. Keller’s writing career started during her graduation at Radcliffe college where she wrote her autobiography “The story of my Life”, which was later translated in fifty languages. She further went on to author many books, essays, newspaper articles, magazines, etc whose subjects were generally related to blindness, socialism, deafness, women’s rights and social issues. These were the days when Keller started becoming a poster child for many individuals. She became the topic of discussions and her ability to learn was considered a “miracle”. These accomplishments did not stop satisfy her hunger to learn about people and work for the disabled. She along with Anne Sullivan’s support visited about 39 countries to learn about their cultures and got the opportunity to meet many influential people such as Winston Churchill, Jawaharlal Nehru, John Kennedy, etc. During her visits, she gave lecturers on many social, political, academic topics and to educate them about disabilities (Reeves, 2010). She also received many honors and awards such as the Gold Medal of Merit (Lebanon), Order of the Sacred Treasure in Japan, National Humanitarian award from Variety Clubs International, etc. She died in 1968
  4. 4. MNGT320) GDGWI)ID:)100100) 4) in her sleep, peacefully. Considering today’s leadership concepts, Helen Keller is believed to be a true effective leader, born out of effective followership. As David Dunning stated, effective leadership is “leading from within” and working towards what an individual believes in. This is what Helen Keller did. Helen Keller who herself was deaf and blind knew how the lives of others who suffered the same was. With her high levels of emotional intelligence, she involved herself in social activities in her early 20s, which marked the start of Keller’s leadership. Keller’s passion to work for the deaf, blind and disabled paid off and she herself being an example, through the medium of her writings and lectures educated people about how the disabled individuals could be productive and contribute positively to the society if given an opportunity. She is perceived to be a transformational leader who was born with some traits of a leader that was displayed by her ability to learn signs without support but was limited due to her disability, but with support from Anne Sullivan, she learnt how to be a leader thus justifying the behavioral theories according to which leaders can be made through teaching. According to Bass & Hater (1988), “The dynamics of transformational leadership involve strong personal identification with the leader, joining in a shared vision of the future, or going beyond the self-interest exchange of rewards for compliance”. Such leaders have a realistic goal for the future (Yammarino & Bass, 1990). They are visionaries who wish to bring a change in the society to achieve higher results for the common good, which will ultimately transform the organization or society (Tichy & Devanna, 1990). Though Keller did not have sight, she did posses what most did not, a vision. Helen Keller spent a major portion of her life trying to transform the lives of the disabled, who in her time were considered an embarrassment to the family. With her appetite to work for the blind, she participated in a six-month fund raising event by the American Foundation for the Blind (AFB) and was able to raise $2 million. Through her support at the AFB, it received great recognition and even today continues to assist the blind people in fields such as education, independent living, technology, employment and education. Her aim to make the lives of the blind easier led her to the campaign of making Braille as the standard system to educate the blind since there were about five methods to teach them. Having multiple mediums to communicate made the lives of the blind difficult and equally confusing. Through her efforts and literacy works, Braille was declared as the standard system to educate the blind, worldwide. Her
  5. 5. MNGT320) GDGWI)ID:)100100) 5) persistent push to the US government for supporting the blind resulted in a lifetime boon for them. President Roosevelt (1935) included blind people in the category of “disabled” according to which they could now receive financial support for the government such as unemployment insurance, retirement funds, etc. Her continuous support and worldwide campaign resulted in improving the lives of many blind people as they could now receive better education and jobs. Her magnetic interest towards making changes in the lives of the disabled have resulted in researchers to believe of her as a charismatic leader. Charismatic leaders are people who through experience in life have built strong emotions towards something and are able to build a vision on the same, alongside are able to build strong emotions in their followers as well (Riggio, 2012). Helen during her lifetime has portrayed servant leadership in most of her actions. Theoretically, servant leadership is considered a branch of transformational leadership (Patterson, 2003) where the leader is the servant to the people in the organization (Greenleaf, 1996). In the case of Helen Keller, her organization is the entire world and her followers are group of the people who are disabled due to blindness. A servant leader is a one whose primary concern are the people of the organization and not the organization (Patterson, 2003). He believes himself to be responsible for the followers who are affected by his thoughts, actions and words (Greenleaf, 1996). Helen Keller was considered the international spokesperson to the disabled and blind and her words did affect the society that resulted in the above changes. She believed that her actions would affect her followers and tried to do her best for their welfare during her visits. She has in some portions of her life also depicted affiliative style and coaching style of leadership as well. According to Goleman (2000), affiliative style of leadership aims at creating harmony and building emotions while coaching leadership aims at developing people for the future. She tried not to define a goal but provide a vision to the blind that considered themselves worthless. She believed in building trust and respect from the followers and provides the followers the freedom to choose they own path (Haller, 2011). Her primary medium of bringing about a change in the lives of the disabled was through communication and self-awareness. She does not impose her ideas on her followers but motivates them and gives them an opportunity to develop themselves through the stressful times that would support them in the long run. She was touched by the horrible working conditions of the
  6. 6. MNGT320) GDGWI)ID:)100100) 6) people in the industries and wished to change their lives for which she joined the Union State Socialist Party and became a staunch supporter of socialism over communism. Her party never won but she campaigned the beliefs of the party irrespective of it and met influential people and spoke about the injustice done to the workers. She took every opportunity to help the blind and spreading her word in ways such as joining associations like Royal National Institute for the Blind, International Relations Counselor at the American Foundation for the Overseas Blind (now known as the Helen Keller International), National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), etc. Helen Keller is also seen to be an example of the Women Leadership Style according to which, women leaders are more inclined towards coaching and mentoring of the followers rather than controlling and commanding. Though both are equally efficient but women leaders aim to involve the followers by encouraging participation (Eagly & Johnson, 1990). This was what exactly Helen Keller did. She worked towards transforming using leadership styles that provided flexibility and emotional contact rather than being autocratic. In the above examples, an achievement oriented leadership style of Keller can be seen where she tries to make the most of the opportunity and fulfill goals. Achieve what she desires and build the life of others through it. Her disabilities did not stop her but motivated her to make the lives of others better and make a difference to them. Through the life and actions of Helen Keller it can be seen that leaders are not afraid of boundaries and will succeed irrespective of the circumstances and in their strive to succeed, it is the people who believe in them who reap the benefits. “If your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more and become more, you are a leader.” -John Quincy Adams
  7. 7. MNGT320) GDGWI)ID:)100100) 7) Bibliography, Abiodum, M. (2009) Leadership definitions by scholars. [online] Available at: http://adeoyemayowaleadership.blogspot.com/ [Accessed: 3 Mar 2013]. Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1994). Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership. Thousand Oaks, Sage Publications. Bass, B. M., & Yammarino, F. J. (1988). Long Term Forecasting of Transformational Leadership and Its Effects Among Naval Officers: Some Preliminary Findings. Ft. Belvoir, Defense Technical Information Center. Bove, V. (2007) THE SENTINEL: Helen Keller: Enduring Icon of Leadership. [online] Available at: http://vincentbove.blogspot.com/2007/05/helen-kellerenduring-icon-of.html [Accessed: 3 Mar 2013]. Braillebug (1968) Helen Keller Kids Museum - Helen Keller Biography. [online] Available at: http://www.braillebug.org/helen_keller_bio.asp [Accessed: 3 Mar 2013]. Braillebug (2005) Helen Keller Kids Museum - Ask Keller. [online] Available at: http://www.braillebug.org/askkeller.asp?issueid=200512 [Accessed: 3 Mar 2013]. Dean and Tuttle, N. (2002) Hall of Fame: Helen Adams Keller. [online] Available at: http://www.aph.org/hall/bios/keller.html [Accessed: 3 Mar 2013]. Dunning, D. (n.d.) Leadership. [online] Available at: http://www.effectiveleader.com/EL1/Leadership.html [Accessed: 3 Mar 2013]. Edberg, H. (2007) 25 Great Quotes on Leadership. [online] Available at: http://www.positivityblog.com/index.php/2007/07/06/25-great-quotes-onleadership/ [Accessed: 3 Mar 2013]. Graceproducts (n.d.) "In Search of the Heroes": Tragedy to Triumph--Helen Keller. [online] Available at: http://www.graceproducts.com/keller/life.html [Accessed: 3 Mar 2013]. Greenleaf, R. K., Frick, D. M., & Spears, L. C. (1996). On becoming a servantleader. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass Publishers. Habecker, E. B. (1987). The other side of leadership. Wheaton, Ill, Victor Books. Haller, C. (2011) The Affiliative (Counselor) Leadership Style | Leadership is a Choice. [online] Available at: http://actpresidential.com/the-affiliativecounselor-leadership-style/ [Accessed: 3 Mar 2013]. Hartog, D. et al. (1997) Transactional versus transformational leadership: An analysis of the MLQ. Occupational and organizational psychology, (70), p.19-34. [Accessed: 3 Mar 2013].
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