disaster managment - AKSHAY WILSON


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disaster managment - AKSHAY WILSON

  1. 1. DISASTER MANAGEMENT Akshay wilson Ix/4
  2. 2. WHAT IS A DISASTER? *A DISASTER is a natural or man- made hazard that cause significant physical damage or destruction, loss of life, or drastic change to the environment. *Disasters are seen as the consequence of inappropriate risks. These risks are the product of a combination of both hazard/s and vulnerability. *Developing countries suffer the greatest costs when a disaster hits – more than 95 % of all deaths caused by disasters occur in developing countries.
  3. 3. WHAT IS DISASTER MANAGEMENT  Disaster Management is a strategic process, and not a tactical process, thus it usually resides at the Executive level in an organization. It normally has no direct power, but serves as an advisory or coordinating function to ensure that all parts of an organization are focused on the common goal.  The most senior person in the organization administering the program is normally called an Emergency Manager, or a derived form based upon the term used in the field (e.g. Business Continuity Manager). DISASTER MANAGEMENT
  4. 4. TYPES OF DISASTERS There are two types of disasters:  Natural Disasters  Man-Made Disasters DISASTER MANAGEMENT
  5. 5. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f D i s a s t e r s Natural Disasters Meteorological Topographical Environmental Man made Disasters Technological Industrial Warfare 6
  6. 6. WHAT IS VULNERABILITY?  The extent to which a community, structure, service or geographic area is likely to be damaged or disrupted by the impact of particular disaster hazard.  Vulnerability is the propensity of things to be damaged by a hazard DISASTER MANAGEMENT
  7. 7. NATURAL DISASTERS • A natural disaster is a consequence when a natural calamity affects humans and/or the built environment. Human vulnerability, and often a lack of appropriate emergency management, leads to financial, environmental, or human impact. The resulting loss depends on the capacity of the population to support or resist the disaster: their resilience. This understanding is concentrated in the formulation: "disasters occur when hazards meet vulnerability". A natural hazard will hence never result in a natural disaster in areas without vulnerability. • Various disasters like earthquake, landslides, volcanic eruptions, flood and cyclones are natural hazards that kill thousands of people and destroy billions of dollars of habitat and property each year. DISASTER MANAGEMENT
  9. 9. TYPES OF NATURAL DISASTERS Avalanches: During World War I, an estimated 40,000 to 80,000 soldiers died as a result of avalanches during the mountain campaign in the Alps at the Austrian-Italian front, many of which were caused by artillery fire.
  10. 10. Earthquakes An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by vibration, shaking and sometimes displacement of the ground. The vibrations may vary in magnitude. Earthquakes are caused mostly by slippage within geological faults, but also by other events such as volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts, and nuclear tests.
  11. 11. Volcanic eruptions Volcanoes can cause widespread destruction and consequent disaster through several ways. The effects include the volcanic eruption itself that may cause harm following the explosion of the volcano or the fall of rock. Second, lava may be produced during the eruption of a volcano. As it leaves the volcano, the lava destroys many buildings and plants it encounters. Third, volcanic ash generally meaning the cooled ash - may form a cloud, and settle thickly in nearby locations. When mixed with water this forms a concrete-like material. In sufficient quantity ash may cause roofs to collapse under its weight but even small quantities will harm humans if inhaled.
  12. 12. Floods A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land. The EU Floods directive defines a flood as a temporary covering by water of land not normally covered by water. In the sense of "flowing water", the word may also be applied to the inflow of the tide. Flooding may result from the volume of water within a body of water.
  13. 13. Droughts If a particular area has no rainfall or less rain than normal for a long period of time is called drought. it is not only lack of rainfall that causes drought. Hot dry winds, very high temperature and evaporation of moisture from the ground can result in conditions of drought.
  14. 14. Tsunamis Tsunamis are caused by undersea earthquakes. Tsunamis generally consist of a series of waves with periods ranging from minutes to hours, arriving in a so-called "wave train". Wave heights of tens of metres can be generated by large events. Although the impact of tsunamis is limited to coastal areas, their destructive power can be enormous and they can affect entire ocean basins. The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was among the deadliest natural disasters in human history with over 230,000 people killed in 14 countries bordering the Indian Ocean.
  15. 15. Tornadoes A tornado is a violent, dangerous, rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. They are often referred to as a twister or a cyclone, although the word cyclone is used in meteorology in a wider sense, to name any closed low pressure circulation. Tornadoes come in many shapes and sizes, but are typically in the form of a visible condensation funnel, whose narrow end touches the earth and is often encircled by a cloud of debris and dust.
  16. 16. MAN-MADE DISASTERS Anthropogenic hazards or man-made hazards can come to fruition in the form of a man-made disaster. In this case, "anthropogenic" means threats having an element of human intent, negligence, or error; or involving a failure of a man-made system. Airplane crashes and terrorist attacks are examples of man-made disasters: they cause pollution, kill people, and damage property.
  17. 17. Technological • Transport failure • Public place failure • Fire Industrial • Chemical spills • Radioactive spills Warfare • War • Terrorism • Internal conflicts • Civil unrest • CBRNE 18