WHAT IS A DISASTER?
*A DISASTER is a natural or man-
made hazard that cause significant
physical damage or destruction, loss of life,
or drastic change to the environment.
*Disasters are seen as the consequence of
inappropriate risks. These risks are the
product of a combination of both hazard/s
*Developing countries suffer the greatest
costs when a disaster hits – more than 95 %
of all deaths caused by disasters occur in
WHAT IS DISASTER MANAGEMENT
Disaster Management is a strategic process, and not
a tactical process, thus it usually resides at the Executive
level in an organization. It normally has no direct power,
but serves as an advisory or coordinating function to
ensure that all parts of an organization are focused on
the common goal.
The most senior person in the organization
administering the program is normally called an
Emergency Manager, or a derived form based upon the
term used in the field (e.g. Business Continuity Manager).
TYPES OF DISASTERS
There are two types of disasters:
C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f D i s a s t e r s
WHAT IS VULNERABILITY?
The extent to which a community, structure,
service or geographic area is likely to be damaged
or disrupted by the impact of particular disaster
Vulnerability is the propensity of things to be
damaged by a hazard
• A natural disaster is a consequence when a natural
calamity affects humans and/or the built environment.
Human vulnerability, and often a lack of
appropriate emergency management, leads to financial,
environmental, or human impact. The resulting loss
depends on the capacity of the population to support or
resist the disaster: their resilience. This understanding is
concentrated in the formulation: "disasters occur when
hazards meet vulnerability". A natural hazard will hence
never result in a natural disaster in areas without
• Various disasters like earthquake, landslides, volcanic
eruptions, flood and cyclones are natural hazards that
kill thousands of people and destroy billions of dollars of
habitat and property each year.
TYPES OF NATURAL DISASTERS
During World War I, an estimated 40,000 to 80,000 soldiers died as
a result of avalanches during the mountain campaign in
the Alps at the Austrian-Italian front, many of which were caused
by artillery fire.
An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of
energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic
waves. At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest
themselves by vibration, shaking and sometimes
displacement of the ground. The vibrations may vary
in magnitude. Earthquakes are caused mostly by
slippage within geological faults, but also by other
events such as volcanic activity, landslides, mine
blasts, and nuclear tests.
Volcanoes can cause widespread destruction and consequent disaster
through several ways. The effects include the volcanic eruption itself
that may cause harm following the explosion of the volcano or the
fall of rock.
Second, lava may be produced during the eruption of a volcano. As it
leaves the volcano, the lava destroys many buildings and plants it
Third, volcanic ash generally meaning the cooled ash - may form a
cloud, and settle thickly in nearby locations. When mixed with water
this forms a concrete-like material. In sufficient quantity ash may
cause roofs to collapse under its weight but even small quantities
will harm humans if inhaled.
A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water
that submerges land. The EU Floods directive
defines a flood as a temporary covering by
water of land not normally covered by
water. In the sense of "flowing water", the
word may also be applied to the inflow of
the tide. Flooding may result from the volume
of water within a body of water.
If a particular area has no rainfall or less rain than normal for a
long period of time is called drought. it is not only lack of rainfall
that causes drought. Hot dry winds, very high temperature and
evaporation of moisture from the ground can result in conditions
Tsunamis are caused by undersea earthquakes. Tsunamis generally
consist of a series of waves with periods ranging from minutes to
hours, arriving in a so-called "wave train".
Wave heights of tens of metres can be generated by large events.
Although the impact of tsunamis is limited to coastal areas, their
destructive power can be enormous and they can affect entire ocean
The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was among the deadliest natural
disasters in human history with over 230,000 people killed in 14
countries bordering the Indian Ocean.
A tornado is a violent, dangerous, rotating column of air that is
in contact with both the surface of the earth and
a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus
They are often referred to as a twister or a cyclone, although
the word cyclone is used in meteorology in a wider sense, to
name any closed low pressure circulation.
Tornadoes come in many shapes and sizes, but are typically in
the form of a visible condensation funnel, whose narrow end
touches the earth and is often encircled by a cloud
of debris and dust.
Anthropogenic hazards or man-made hazards can come to
fruition in the form of a man-made disaster. In this case,
"anthropogenic" means threats having an element of human
intent, negligence, or error; or involving a failure of a man-made
Airplane crashes and terrorist attacks are examples of man-made
disasters: they cause pollution, kill people, and damage property.
• Public place
• Civil unrest