bergey'smanual

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bergey'smanual

  1. 1. BERGEY’s MANUAL OF SYSTEMATIC BACTERIOLOGY Presented By :- AKSHAY PAREEK M.Sc. Biotech II sem
  2. 2. 1.Gram (-) bacteria 2.Gram (+) bacteria 3.Cyanobacteria & Archaea 4.Actinomycetes Edition 1 of Bergey’s Manual
  3. 3. Characterstics used for classification in edition 1 • General shape & morphology • Gram staining properties • Oxygen relationship • Motility • Presence of endospores • Mode of energy production
  4. 4. • Includes medicinally important bacteria • Thin peptidoglycan layer • Outer membrane containing lipopolysaccharide • periplasmic space • Phototrophic, Chemolithotropic or Chemoorganotropic • No teichoic acids or lipoteichoic acids • Contain Braun's lipoprotein and porins Gram (-) Bacteria
  5. 5. Gram (+) Bacteria • Thick peptidoglycan layer • Teichoic acids present • Chemoorganoheterotrophic • Peptidoglycan molecules are cross-linked by pentaglycine chains • Primarily exotoxins are produced • 2 rings in basal body of flagella • Some can form endospores
  6. 6. Archaea • They are extremophiles like methanotrophs , halophiles • Cell wall is made of pseudomurein rather than peptidoglycan. • Ether bonds in membrane lipids • obligate anaerobes • Asexual reproduction by binary fission
  7. 7. Actinobacteria • High G+C content • Anaerobes or microaerophilic • Produce filamentous hyphae • Decomposition of organic materials so important part of humus formation • No production of endospore • Secondary metabolite producers • Representing Genera- Mycobacterium, Corynebacterium, Actinomycete s etc.
  8. 8. Edition 2 of Bergey’s Manual 1.Archaea 2.Proteobacteria 3.Low G+C Gram(+) bacteria 4.High G+C Gram(+) bacteria 5.Spirochaetes, Fusobacteria, Plancomycetes, Bacteroidetes & Fibrobacters
  9. 9. Published in 1984 Particularly based on phylogenetic analysis Phylogenetic analysis is basically depends on Sequencing of rRNA, DNA and proteins
  10. 10. Proteobacteria • Variety of pathogens, such as Escherichia, Salmonella, Vibrio • Gram-negative • Facultatively or obligately anaerobic chemoautotrophs, and heterotrophic • convert energy from light through photosynthesis • It includes Nitrobacter, Nitrococcus, Rickettsia, Rhizobium and Agrobacterium etc.
  11. 11. Fimricutes • Refrers to low G+C content • Their DNA typically has fewer G and C DNA bases • reproduce through binary fission • Some can form endospores like Bacillus • Representative Genera – Mycoplasma, Clostridium, Lactobacillus etc. • Bacillus subtilis is one of the primary model organisms.
  12. 12. Spirochaete • Long helically coiled cells • Gram (-) cell wall • Aerobic, Anaerobic or facultative anaerobic • Chemoheterotropic • Flagella arranged as axial filaments • Twisting motion • Repesentative Genera – Treponema and Borrelia
  13. 13. THANK YOU

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