Tcp ip
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  • Connection connection must be established before data is transferred Reliable Data guaranteed to eventually arrive with no errors

Tcp ip Tcp ip Presentation Transcript

  • 1Introduction to TCP/IP
  • 2 OSI and Protocol Stack OSI: Open Systems Interconnect OSI Model TCP/IP Hierarchy Protocols 7th Application Layer 6th Presentation Layer Application Layer 5th Session Layer 4th Transport Layer Transport Layer 3rd Network Layer Network Layer 2nd Link Layer Link Layer 1st Physical LayerLink Layer : includes device driver and network interface cardNetwork Layer : handles the movement of packets, i.e. RoutingTransport Layer : provides a reliable flow of data between two hostsApplication Layer : handles the details of the particular application
  • 3 Packet Encapsulation The data is sent down the protocol stack Each layer adds to the data by prepending headers 22Bytes 20Bytes 20Bytes 4Bytes 64 to 1500 Bytes
  • 4 Ethernet  Computer <-> Computer communication on same network  Each device has unique MAC address (48-bit) example: 00-C0-4F-48-47-93Ethernet Packet: Preamble Dest. Source Type Data CRC address address 8bytes 6bytes 6bytes 2bytes 64 - 1500bytes 4bytes MAC: Media Access Control
  • 5 ARP : Address Resolution Protocol ARP provides mapping 32bit IP address <-> 48bit MAC address 128.97.89.153 <-> 00-C0-4F-48-47-93 ARP cache maintains the recent mappings from IP addresses to MAC addressesProtocol4. ARP request broadcast on Ethernet5. Destination host ARP layer responds
  • 6 IP: Internet Protocol  Unreliable … connectionless datagram delivery service  Responsible for routing of data through intermediate networks and computers 11 1111 1111 2222 2222 2233IP header: 0123 4567 8901 2345 6789 0123 4567 8901 1 :ICMP 6 :TCP 17 :UDP
  • 7 IP Routing Source Destination Application Application Transport Router Transport Network Network Network Link Link Link Routing Table Destination IP address IP address of a next-hop router Flags Network interface specification
  • 8 ICMP : Internet Control Message Protocol Used to report problems with delivery of IP Datagrams within an IP network Used by Ping, Tracerout commands ICMP Message 20bytes 4bytes IP ICMP ICMP Header Header DataTypes and Codes Echo Request (type=8, code=0) Type Code Checksum Echo Reply(type=0, code=0) 1byte 1byte 2bytes Destination Unreachable(type=3, code=0) Time Exceeded(type=11, code=0) : Time-to-Live =0
  • 9 TCP : Transmission Control Protocol Connection-Oriented, Reliable, Byte Stream ServiceProtocol3. Set up connection4. Transfer data5. Close connection TCP Header Format 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 Source Port Destination Port Sequence Number Acknowledgement Number - - - - Data Window Offset                 Checksum                        Urgent Pointer                                        Options  (0                to     10  Words of 32 Bits) TCP Payload 
  • 10TCP : State Diagram
  • 11 TCP : Connection Client Host Client HostSend SYN seq=x Send FIN seq=x Receive SYN segment Receive FIN segment Send SYN seq=y, Send ACK x+1 Receive ACK segmentReceive SYN ACK x+1+ACK segment Send FIN seq=y, Receive FIN ACK x+1 + ACK segmentSend ACK y+1 Send ACK y+1 Receive ACK segment Receive ACK segment Establishing a TCP Connection Closing a TCP Connection
  • 12 TCP : Data transfer Client Host Send Packet 1 Start Timer Packet Lost Packet should arriveTimer ACK should be sent ACK would normally Arrive at this time Time Expires Retransmit Packet1Timer Start Timer Receive Packet 1 Send AXK 1 Receive ACK 1 Cancel Timer
  • 13 HTTP : Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Stateless Transaction Protocol Each transaction creates a new connectionSteps in Transaction4. Establish connection5. Request Method <URL> <CR>7. Response Response Code <Data> <CR>9. Close connection
  • 14 HTTP Common Request Methods GET, PUT, POST Response Categories Informational :100 Successful :200 Redirection :300 Client Error :400 (eg. 404 Not found) Server Error :500
  • 15 Example: Access www.ee.ucla.eduClient Server Http requestAppl GET “http://www.ee.ucla.edu”<CR> Appl Http response HTTP 200 “” <CR> <html file in MIME format> HTTPTransp Initiate connection (hdshk) Transp Package data (add TCP header) send http request packet TCP Assemble response TCP (break into several packets) Send http response packets Close connection (hdshk) send data to next hopNet Net Net Relay data IP ARP to provide IP IP IP/MAC translationLink Link Linkethernet ethernet ethernet Router(s)
  • 16 References “TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 1 The Protocols “ by W. Richard Stevens (http://yenigul.net/tcpip) “Internet Working with TCP/IP Volume 1” by Douglas E. Comer “Sams Teach Yourself TCP/IP in 24 Hours” by Joe Casad. Published by Sams. ( http://www.informit.com)