L6 mecse ncc

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L6 mecse ncc

  1. 1. VITN Lecture : 05C Sub: Net-Centric ComputingC Unit 01 : OSI Model Class : ME CSE(Info.Tech) Date : 21/08/2007 Delivered By Manik Dhore April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 1
  2. 2. VITNCC I need no warrant for being, and no word of sanction upon my being. I am the warrant and the sanction April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 2
  3. 3. VIT What OSI Defines ?  How n/w devices contact each other?N  Methods by which device knows when to transmit data and whenC not toC  Methods to ensure that n/w transmission is received correctly and by the right recipient  How to ensure that network devices maintain a proper DTR of data flow ?  How bits are represented on the n/w media ?  How to sequence the layers with Connection / Connectionless?  How to organize network functions into seven layers ?  How to organize peer to peer mode ? April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 3
  4. 4. VIT Design Issues of Protocol LayersN  Mechanism for identifying sender and receiverC I.e. AddressingC  Rules for Data Transfer Unidirectional ( Simplex ) Bi-directional ( Half and Full Duplex)  Methods for Error Control : Error Detection Error Correction  Queuing mechanism for Fast Sender and Slow Receiver  Methods to process arbitrarily long messages April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 4
  5. 5. VIT  Algorithms for Route decisionsN  Multiplexing and demultiplexing for multiple connectionsC CentralizedC Decentralized Dynamic  Logical decompositions of complex network  Standard interfaces between n/w layers  Symmetry in functions  Standard communication network language April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 5
  6. 6. VIT  Link approachN  Connection OrientedC  ConnectionlessC Connection Oriented Means iv. Acknowledgment v. Flow Control vi. Error Control Connectionless Means  No Acknowledgment  No Flow Control  No Error Control April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 6
  7. 7. VITNC Happiness is that state of consciousnessC which proceeds from the achievement of ones values. April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 7
  8. 8. VIT OSI ModelNC 7. Application 1. Application 6. Presentation 2. PresentationC 5. Session 3. Session 4. Transport 4. Transport 3. Network 5. Network 2. Data Link 6. Data Link 1. Physical 7. Physical April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 8
  9. 9. VIT Application Layer  provides network services to application processes ( such as electronic mail, file transfer,terminal emulation )N  Interface to TDI or Third PartyC  Gateways for different network file formatsC Presentation Layer  Data representation  Format of data  Data structures  Ensure data is readable by receiving system  Negotiates data transfer syntax for application layer.  Resolves differences between format April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 9
  10. 10. VIT Session Layer  Interhost communicationN  Establishes, manages and terminates sessions between applicationsC  Controlling dialogues between applications in the endC systems  Dialogue discipline, Grouping and Recovery  Ex.  Logging Process  Remote Terminal Access in half duplex  Transaction Processing checkpoints, backups Token management in half duplex mode April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 10
  11. 11. VIT Transport Layer  End-to-end connection reliabilityN  Concerned with data transports issues between hostsC  Data transport reliabilityC  Establishes, maintains, terminates virtual circuits. / multiple network connections  Fault detection and recovery / Error Control  Flow control management  Error free delivery of data  Fragmentation and reassembly ( into packets as per network layer specification )  Decision about service type April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 11
  12. 12. VIT Network Layer  Addresses ResolutionN  Controlling Subnet  Providing best pathC  Provides connectivity and path selection between two endC systems  Domain of routing / Route decision and selection  Congestion Control Mgt.  Accounting  Large Packet Mgt.  Heterogeneous n/w problem mgt  Determines Quality of Service April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 12
  13. 13. VIT Data Link Layer  Access to mediaN  Provides reliable transfer of data across media.C  Physical addressing, network topology, error notification,C flow control.  Framing : Break packets into frames according to the specifications of physical layer standard I.e encapsulation and de-capsulation of data  Error Control and Recovery for physical Channel  Link Management  Collision Avoidance and collision content resolution April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 13
  14. 14. VIT Physical Layer  Binary transmissionN  Wires / CablesC  ConnectorsC  Voltages  Data rates  Initial Connection  Turn down connection  Pin assignments  Concentrators / Hubs/ Repeaters  Wiring Schemes April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 14
  15. 15. VITNCC Dont fall before youre pushed April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 15
  16. 16. VIT Needs of DOD  Ability to connect multiple networks ie homogeneous as well as heterogeneous ( Internetworking )NC  Network must be able to survive the loss of subnet hardwareC  Multiple transmission lines  Connectionless services  Real Time Speech Transmission April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 16
  17. 17. VIT TCP / IP ModelNC 4. Application 3. Host to HostC 2. Internet 1. Network Access Layer April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 17
  18. 18. VIT OSI TCP/IP ISO in 1977 and adopted in DoD in 1974 by Vint Cerf & 1983 Robert KahnNC Developed by dedicated team Developed by open processC Copyrighted and carry a Free Purchase fees Proprietary Non-proprietary Intended to be a Inter- Never indented to be National standard Designed with layers Not designed with layers April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 18
  19. 19. VIT OSI TCP/IP Devised first and protocols Protocol came first and then Invented latter modelNC Seven Layers Four LayersC T-Layer is connection Both- less and oriented N/w –Layer is both N/w layer is connection oriented Gives interface,service No clear distinction And protocols Generalized Not Generalized April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 19
  20. 20. VIT OSI TCP/IP Strongly describes protocol Poorly describes protocol stack stackNC Separate Layers Can view in layersC Not Popular Very Popular April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 20
  21. 21. VIT TCP/IP Network ComponentsNC FTP, Telnet, POP TFTP, DNS, BOOTPC SMTP,FINGER,HTTP SNMP,NFS TCP UDP ICMP ARP RARP IP OSPF RIP X.25 Packet Level April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 21
  22. 22. VIT TCP/IP ModelNCC April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 22
  23. 23. VIT TCP  Port NumbersN  32-bit Sequence Number  32-bit Ack NumberC  Flags : URG, ACK, PSH, RST, SYN, FINC  Urgent Pointers  Connection Oriented  Reliable  Full Duplex  ID Assignment to multiple virtual circuits  Works with IP  Maintain the sessions April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 23
  24. 24. VIT TCP HeaderNCC April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 24
  25. 25. VIT UDP  Provides a lossy connection (data may vanish).N  Does not guarantee packets are delivered in order.CC  Useful for real time applications.  UDP applications can implement their own packet loss checking but it is best to use TCP for this. April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 25
  26. 26. VIT UDP Frame FormatNCC April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 26
  27. 27. VIT IP  ConnectionlessN  Unreliable  Uses only packet switchingC  TOS : Priority, Delay, Throughput, ReliabilityC Satellites and Leased Lines  Flags : DF and MF Don’t and More  TTL : Number of hops ( If not delivered return to)  Protocol : Application Layer  Padding  Offset of fragment  Packet Size : 64 K April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 27
  28. 28. VIT IP headerNCC April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 28
  29. 29. VIT ICMP  Internet Control Message Protocol packets are used forN various control purposes. Here are some common ones:C  Time exceeded: TTL hit 0.C  Echo request: Can you hear me out there?  Echo reply: Yes I can hear you.  Source Quench: Stop sending so much data.  Timestamp request/reply (as echo but with times). April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 29
  30. 30. VIT Netware IPX/SPX Network ComponentNCC SAP NLSP File Server NCP RIP SPX IPX LSL MLID ODI April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 30
  31. 31. VITNCC April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 31
  32. 32. VIT Netware SuiteN  Proprietary Protocol SuiteCC  Developed by : Xerox Network System  IPX : Internetwork Packet Exchange  SPX : Sequenced Packet Exchange  Modular in nature  Architecture is server – centric April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 32
  33. 33. VIT IPX Connectionless datagram serviceN Broadcast mechanism for error notification and timeC synchronization Dynamic route selectionC Transport Control : Max 16 bridges using counter Packet Type : 0x8035 Destination Address : 12 bytes  Network Number – 4 bytes  Node Address -- 6 bytes  Socket Number -- 2 bytes Data in packets : 546 bytes April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 33
  34. 34. VIT Microsoft NetBIOS/ NetBEUI Network ComponentsNCC File I/O Named Pipes Redirector Server Mail slots NetBIOS Sockets SMB NetBEUI NDIS April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 34
  35. 35. VIT NETBIOS (Network Basic Input Output System)N •NetBios is also a session/transport layer protocolC • Starting and stopping sessions.C • Name registration • Session layer data transfer(reliable) • Datagram data transfer(unreliable) • Protocol driver and network adapter management functions 1) nbstat -n Lists all registered NetBios names. 2) nbstat -c Shows the NetBios cache. 3) nbstat -R Reloads the NetBios name cache from the lmhosts file. April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 35
  36. 36. VIT NetBEUI NetBIOS Extended User InterfaceN  Basically Transport Layer ProtocolCC  Performance in LAN environment is very good  Requires small amount of configuration  Requires small amount of resources (Memory)  Can handle maximum 254 sessions April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 36
  37. 37. VIT Books Lecture 01/02/03/04/06 :N 3. Tananbaum : Computer Networks PHI De Facto StandardC 2. High Speed Networks and Internet PHIC 3. ISDN Broadband ISDN with Frame Relay and ATM Pearson 4. Data Communication and Networking by Forouzan Edition 2 and 3 , TMH Short questions and answers April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 37
  38. 38. VIT 5. Data and Computer Communication by William StallingN 4th and 6th edition PHI 6. Network Communication Technology by ElahiC Thomson Pub, Short questions and answersC 7. An Introduction to Computer Networking by Mansfield and Antonakos, Pearson Education 8. Building Practical Ethernet Networks BPB 9. Internetworking By Miller 10. Networking Devices by Miller April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 38
  39. 39. VIT 11. Telecommunications Network Design Algorithms by Kershanbaum A. TMHN 12. Comer : Computer Networks Vol.1, 2 and 3C 13. TCP/IP Illustrated By Steven Vol. 1,2 and 3C 14. IP Telephony by Douskails B. Pearson And N- number of cited web references April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 39
  40. 40. VIT 1. Write a Client – Server program for ping by building your own packets. ( Individual) ( c-Language) ( Time 1 week)N 2. Design a sniffer for windows by using packet driver and calculateC the bandwidth utilization ( protocolwise) of your network 3. Design a configurable firewall for windows(VB)C 4. Develop a simulation software to simulate working of Frame Relay 5. Develop a simulation software to simulate working of ATM 6. Develop a simulation software to simulate working of ISDN 7. Develop a package for the following compression methods I) Run length Encoding ii) Facsimile Compression iii) String Matching iv) Wavelet Compression v) JPEG Note : Assignment 2-7 are group assignment Team Size is 5 ( According to roll number) April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 40
  41. 41. VIT Practical Guidelines Assignment No.1 :N •TCP/IP Illustrated by Steven Vol.1,2 and 3 •Simple Client ServerC •Use of RAW SocketsC •Building of ICMP Packets April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 41
  42. 42. VIT Assignment No.2 :N Sniffer ( Study Ethereal First)C Download Packet DriverC Install it Use the driver services Map the data April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 42
  43. 43. VIT Assignment No.3 :N FirewallC Download Packet DriverC Install it Use the driver services Configure the ports Map the data April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 43
  44. 44. VIT Assignment No.4,5,6 :N Frame RelayC Study Frame Use OperationsC Use Java , JavaScript, JSP Simulate Protocol Operations April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 44
  45. 45. VIT Assignment No.7 :N CompressionC Plenty books are availableC April 23, 2012 M.E. CSE-IT/NCC 45

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