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Ansi spark

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  • 1. PREPARED BY AKSHAY JANI (116380307521) 1
  • 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT WE ARE IMMENSLY GREATFUL TO OUR LECTURER AND PROJECT GUIDE, MR.HIREN V MER, FOR HER INVALUABLE GUIDANCE WHICH GAVE US A DEEP INSIGHT ON THE SUBJECT. WITH HER KEEN INTEREST AND CONSTANT MORAL BOOSTING, WE ARE ABLE TO IMPLEMENT THE PROJECT SATISFACTORILY. WE EXPRESS OUR VERY SINCERE THANKS TO COMPUTER ENGINEERING DEPT. FOR PROVIDING ADEQUATE FACILITIES TO COMPLETE OUR PROJECT. WE ARE AGAIN CORDIALLY THANKFUL TO OUR C&E DEPARTMENT STAFF, FRIENDS AND OTHER PEOPLE WHO HAVE DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY HELPED US IN COMPLETION OF THIS PROJECT. LAST BUT NOT THE LEAST, WE ARE ALSO THANKFUL TO OUR FAMILY MEMBERS WHO ENGOURAGED AND SUPPORTED US ROUND THE CLOCK FOR THIS PROJECT. Akshay Jani
  • 3. CERTIFICATE This is to certify that AKSHAY JANI Student of computer Engineering, bearing Enrollment No: 116380307521 have satisfactorily completed his/her Seminar work as a part of course curriculum in Diploma Engineering semester III having a report title “ THREE LEVEL ANSI SPARC ARCHITECTURE ”. MR.HIREN V MER Lecturer, computer Dept. PIETDS-2nd Shift, Limda. PARUL INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY COMPUTER ENGG. DEPARTMENT LIMDA, VAGHODIA, VADODARA
  • 4. The model provides the basis for understanding some of the functionality of a DBMS. In 1975 American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Standards Planning and Requirement Committee (SPARC) recognized the need for three level architecture.
  • 5. Three Level ANSI-SPARC Architecture-I Three level architecture consist of: 1) External Level 2) Conceptual Level 3) Internal Level
  • 6. External Level The users view of the database. This level describes that part of the database that is relevant to each user. The external level consists of a number of different external views of the database. Different views may have different representation of same data.
  • 7. External Level-II For example, one user may view dates in the form (day, month, year), while another may view dates as (year, month, day). Some views might include derived or calculated data. (Example DOB  Age)
  • 8. Conceptual Level The middle level in the three level architecture is the conceptual level. This level is “community view” of data , includes a description of all available data The conceptual level provides both the mapping and the desired independence between the external and internal levels.
  • 9. Conceptual Level (cont…) The conceptual level represents: 1. All entities, their attributes and their relationships. 2. The constraints on the data. 3. Security and integrity information.
  • 10. Conceptual Level (cont…) The conceptual level supports each external view, in that any data available to a user must be contained in or derivable from the conceptual level. However this level must not contain any storage- dependent details.
  • 11. External and conceptual layers
  • 12. Internal Level •The physical representation of the database on the computer. This level describes how the data is stored in the database. •It covers the data structure and file organizations used to store data on storage devices.
  • 13. Internal Level-I The internal level is concerned: Storage space allocation for data and indexes. Record descriptions for storage (with stored sizes for data items). Record placement. Data compression and data encryption techniques.
  • 14. •Representation of data at different levels of data base Architecture and at the physical level at bottom.
  • 15. Database Schemas The overall description of the database is called the database schema. The schema is specified during the database design process and is not expected to change frequently. There are three different types of schema in the database. These are defined according to three level of architecture.
  • 16. External Schema At the highest level we have multiple external schemas (also called subschemas) that correspond to different views of data.
  • 17. Conceptual Schema At the conceptual level we have conceptual schema, which describe all the entities, attributes and relationships together with integrity constraints.
  • 18. Internal Schema At lowest level we have internal schema which is the complete description of internal model. Containing the definition of stored record, the methods of representation, the data fields and indexes or hashing scheme. There is only one conceptual schema and one internal schema per database.
  • 19. Mappings The DBMS is responsible for mapping between these three types of schema. It must also check schemas for consistency. Each external schema is derivable from the conceptual schema and it must use the information in the conceptual schema to map between each external schema and the internal schema
  • 20. Mappings-I The conceptual schema related to the internal schema through a conceptual/internal mapping. External schema is related to the conceptual schema by the external/conceptual mapping. Physical level is managed by OS under direction of DBMS. Stored Record Interface B/w Int. & Physical Level, provided by OS to DBMS
  • 21. Data Independence A major objective for three-level architecture is to provide data independence. Which means that upper levels are unaffected by changes to lower levels. Two kinds of data independence: (1)Logical Data Independence (2)Physical Data Independence
  • 22. Logical Data Independence Logical data independence refers to the immunity (protection) of the external schemas to changes in the conceptual schema. Changes to the conceptual schema such as the addition or removal of new entities, attributes or relationships should be possible without having to change existing external schemas or having rewrite the application programs.
  • 23. Physical Data Independence Physical data independence refers to the immunity of the conceptual schema to changes in the internal schema. Changes to the internal schema such as using different file organizations or storage structures, using different storage devices, modifying indexes or hashing algorithms should be possible without having to change the conceptual or external schema.
  • 24. Appendix We are specially thanks to……… MR.HIREN V MER Lecturer In computer dept, Piet(ds) 2nd shift. MR.BHARAT V CHAWDA Author of DBMS book
  • 25. THANK YOU….. 25

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