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  • 1. Zero Waste Alliance Zero Waste Alliance The Ideal “Sustainable”Product Green Chemistry: Pollution Prevention by Design • Consumable - compostable, biodegradable • Stays in Technical Loop - product of service, reusable, recyclable • Minimized hazard in product and manufacturing process. Hazard includes human health, safety and ecological harm - Green Chemistry Dr. Lauren Heine Zero Waste Alliance International Sustainable Development Foundation Portland, OR 1 2Zero Waste Alliance Zero Waste Alliance Societal Image of Chemistry Historical Approach to Environmental Problems • Chemistry was once viewed as a field of • Waste treatment, control, and disposal; pollutant innovation resulting in medical breakthroughs monitoring; hazardous waste site cleanup. and modern convenience. • Development of standards for emissions to air, releases to water, and disposal by land, as well as • Chemistry is now viewed by many as fouling the regulation of these standards. planet. • “Command and Control.” 3Zero Waste Alliance Zero Waste Alliance EPACT Growth in Environmental Laws FFCA CERFA CRAA “Command and Control” PPA AMFA PPVA 120 ARPAA AJA ASBCAA ESAA-AECA FFRAA AQA IEREA ANTPA GLCPA ABA CZARA Cost to Industry 110 FEAPRA WRDA IRA EDP NWPAA NAWCA OPA CODRA/NMSPAA RECA 100 FCRPA CAAA MMPAA GCRA GLFWRA 90 APA SWDA CERCLA CZMIA RCRAA WLDI WQA HMTUSA NEEA SDWAA • Industry spent $115 billion in 1992 on waste NWPA SARA 80 COWLDA FWLCA MPRSAA CAAA BLRA ERDDAA treatment, control, and disposal. ARPA EAWA CWA MPRSAA NOPPA 70 SMCRA PTSA • It was estimated at that time that it would cost as Number of Laws SWRCA UMTRCA SDWAA ESAA BLBA QGA 60 FWPCA MPRSA CZMA ESA TAPA HMTA NCPA TSCA FLPMA much as $700 billion to clean up existing NCA RCRA 50 FEPCA PWSA MMPA FRRRPA SOWA DPA NFMA CZMAA hazardous waste sites. NEPA 40 EQIA AQA FOIA WRPA FCMHSA CAA EPA EEA • These costs, and the costs associated with 30 AFCA OSHA 20 TA FHSA NFMUA WSRA EA FAWRAA NPAA regulatory compliance, are rising. FWCA AEPA FIFRA PAA NHPA RCFHSA BPA WLDA WA FWCAA 10 NBRA NPS MBCA FAWRA IA FWA RHA AA NLRA AEA YA WPA 0 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 5 1
  • 2. Zero Waste Alliance Zero Waste Alliance “Command and Control” Chemical Releases Cost to Industry 1994: 2.3 billion Surface pounds of ~ 300 Water (2.9%) Toxic Release • DuPont’s 1996 research budget: $1,000,000,000.00. Inventory (TRI) chemicals were Land reported as released (12.8%) • DuPont’s 1996 environmental compliance budget: Air (68.9%) to the environment $1,000,000,000.00. by TRI-reporting facilities. • Dupont’s 1996 chemical sales: $18,000,000,000.00 Today ~ 650 TRI (41percent of total sales). chemicals Underground Injection (15.4%) More than 75,000 in commerceZero Waste Alliance Zero Waste Alliance Pollution Prevention Act 1990 Green Chemistry • Pollution Prevention can be accomplished by several approaches: – Inventory controls. – Process controls. Green Chemistry is the design of – In-process recycling. chemical products and processes that – Housekeeping changes. reduce or eliminate the use and/or – Green Chemistry. generation of hazardous substances.Zero Waste Alliance Zero Waste Alliance Chemistry and Responsible Care™ Good, but Good Enough? Risk = Hazard x Exposure 11 12 2
  • 3. Zero Waste Alliance Zero Waste Alliance Chemistry and Responsible Care™ Chemistry and Responsible Care™ Good, but Good Enough? Good, but Good Enough? 13 14Zero Waste Alliance Zero Waste Alliance The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry Atom Economy MW of desired product Atom economy = 1. Prevention of waste Sum of MWs of all substances produced 2. Atom Economy 3. Less Hazardous Chemical Synthesis Diels-Alder Reaction 4. Designing Safer Chemicals O O 5. Safer solvents and auxiliaries + 100% Atom economy 6. Energy efficient 7. Renewable feedstocks 8. Reduce derivatives Wittig Reaction 9. Catalysis O + _ CH2 10. Design for degradation + Ph3P CH2 + Ph3P=O 11. Real time analysis for pollution prevention 12. Safety 35% Atom economy 15Zero Waste Alliance Zero Waste Alliance Pathways to Green Chemistry Traditional Synthesis of Ibuprofen Chemical Manufacturers O O CHCO2 C2H5 (CH3 CO)2O ClCH2 CO2 C 2H5 • Create new ways to make desired materials- AlCl3 I¯Bu NaOC 2H5 I¯Bu different feedstocks, different pathways CHO CH NOH H+ H2NOH H20 • Identify desired performance characteristics I¯Bu I¯Bu and create new materials C N CO 2H 60% Waste Ibuprofen ¯ I Bu (BASF and Celanese Corporation) 17 18 3
  • 4. Zero Waste Alliance Zero Waste Alliance Green Chemistry Alternative Synthesis of Alternative Feedstocks Ibuprofen Use of Biomass in the Synthesis of Animal Feed, Chemicals, and Fuels O (CH3 CO)2 O H2 Acidification Acetic Acid Propionic Acid HF + CH 3COOH catalyst Waste Butyric Acid Lime Fermentatio Biomas Concentration Treatment n s OH CO2H CO, Pd Acetone Thermal (Lime-Treated Biomass) MEK Conversion Diethyl Ketone 1% Waste Hydrogenatio Isopropanol Animal Feed Isobutanol Ibuprofen n Isopentanol (BASF and Celanese Corporation) (Mark T. Holtzapple, et al., Texas A&M adapted from U.S.EPA Green Chemistry Program) 19 20Zero Waste Alliance Zero Waste Alliance Benefits of Using Biomass Traditional Feedstock in the Synthesis of Adipic Acid • Renewable Feedstock O OH • Contributes no net CO2 to the atmosphere Ni-Al2O3 Co, O2 • Conserves fossil fuel leading to a secure + domestic supply 370-800 psi 120-140 psi benzene cyclohexane cyclohexanone cyclohexanol • Platform for making an array of chemical products from what is otherwise considered Cu, NH 4 VO3 , CO 2 H waste HO 2 C + N2 O HNO 3 adipic acid 21 22Zero Waste Alliance Zero Waste Alliance Alternative Feedstock in the Synthesis The Use of Phosgene in the of Adipic Acid Synthesis of Polycarbonates OH CO 2 H HO 2 C CH3 OH H2O/CH 2CI2 O E. coli E. coli COCI2 HO C OH + phosgene interfacial O CH3 polymerization OH OH CO 2 H OH OH OH bisphenol A D-glucose 3-dehydroshikimate cis, cis-muconic acid Pt, H2 CO 2 H HO 2 C + (n-1) NaCl 50 psi adipic acid (John W. Frost, et al., Michigan State) polycarbonate (Kyosuke Komiya, et al., Asahi Chemical) 23 24 4
  • 5. Zero Waste Alliance Zero Waste Alliance Diphenylcarbonate as an Pathways to Green Chemistry Alternative to Using Phosgene Non-Chemical Manufacturers CH3 O • Identify materials that are unsustainable and HO C Ph—O—C —O—Ph OH phase them out CH3 solid-state polymerization • Identify benign materials that already exist bisphenol A and select them • Work with vendors and manufacturers to develop new benign and environmentally appropriate materials. Competitive edge! polycarbonate (Kyosuke Komiya, et al., Asahi Chemical) 25 26Zero Waste Alliance Zero Waste Alliance Everything is Chemical…. Green Chemistry at IKEA- Changing Chemistries and Business Models • IKEA faced highly publicized Non-chemical manufacturing businesses incidents of formaldehyde off- gassing from glue in 1981 and from Looking toward sustainability lacquer on bookshelves in 1992 • In a 1992 report, IKEA states: Finding challenges based in chemistry “What we are actually measuring [at the cash register] is the rate at which we are transforming resources into waste.” Changing business models. 27 28Zero Waste Alliance Zero Waste Alliance US-OR-Beaverton- Green Chemistry at Nike- Dir. of Sustainable Product Chemistry “Big Audacious Goals” ! As our Director of Sustainable Product Chemistry, you’ll protect and enhance Nike’ s • Developed technology to grate waste from outsole molds Global Apparel products and brand image by developing a thorough understanding of materials, components, raw material manufacturing processes, and the application of into REGRIND for premium performance outsoles Sustainable Chemistry. You’ll serve as our internal expert for product chemical safety and work closely with toxicologists, vendors, chemical experts, and academia to • Substitution of water-based solvents in adhesives, primers, understand the toxicological and legislative risks associated with existing and new substances in apparel products. In this position, you’ll develop strategies and action degreasers, and mold release agents for petroleum-based plans for addressing the presence of priority substances and disseminate information solvents. Millions of dollars saved. to all regions and track existing and developing legislation and non-governmental organization issues as they apply to chemical substances in our products. You’ll also evaluate test procedures to determine applicability to product testing to ensure safe • Substituting for Nike ‘AIR’, which is really sulfur and environmentally responsible apparel products, search for Green Chemistry hexafluoride. One gram of SF6 has the global warming applications in the production of products, track advances in production of apparel products, and leverage Nike’s position as an environmentally responsible company. In potential of 23,900 g of CO2 (~24,000 times) addition, you’ll proactively investigate potential substance problems, work to minimize the chances of "substance surprises," and manage the Nike "approved" list of test laboratories and test methods used for product testing. 29 30 5
  • 6. Zero Waste Alliance Zero Waste Alliance Green Chemistry at Patagonia- Green Chemistry at 3M Committed to the Core! • 3M is phasing out Scotchgard products, which contain perfluorooctanyl sulfonate (PFOS). Studies have not • PET from recycled 2-liter soda bottles are demonstrated any hazards to human health from the used as the base material for Synchilla®, compound. a signature Patagonia fleece • PFOS is persistent in nature and has been found at levels • Eliminated chlorine bleach in fabric of 10 to 100 parts per billion (PPB) in blood banks from several countries, 3M workers have levels of 2 parts per • Reduced formaldehyde use million. • Elimination of azo dyestuffs • Affected product lines account for $320 million annually and at the time of the phase-out, there were no immediate • Elimination of PVC in luggage fabrics, plastic substitutes for the compound. components and clothing labels • Organic Cotton-using a renewable feedstock in a more sustainable way 31 32Zero Waste Alliance Zero Waste Alliance Green Chemistry at Interface 1999 Presidential Green Chemistry Award - • Pandel, an Interface foam and backing Dow Agrosciences Sentricon™ manufacturer, has eliminated all lead, cadmium and barium stabilizers in their foam products • Innovative integrated pest management approach • Interface has begun to make carpet made from corn-based polylactic acid polymers • Monitors and delivers highly specific bait, in very small • Guilford of Maine, an Interface carpet maker, quantities - interferes with termite molting. reduced phosphorus levels in effluent water • Unmatched technical performance, environmental from 10 parts per million to trace amounts compatibility, and reduced human risk through product substitution • Just in time for an EPA ban on Dursban! • If you demand it, it will come…. 33 34Zero Waste Alliance Zero Waste Alliance Summary Parting thought... • Green Chemistry provides a technical solution to many environmental problems • Effective due to design stage efforts, starting at the “We do so much to prepare our children molecular level lets you design out the hazardous properties and design in environmentally appropriate for the future, but are we doing enough features. to prepare the future for our children?” • A systematic approach can ensure effective application. --Larry Chalfan • Why Green Chemistry? Because we can…. 36 6
  • 7. Zero Waste Alliance Zero Waste Alliance Contact: Green Chemistry Resources-Education • Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice, by Paul T. Anastas & John C. Warner Oxford University Press • The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry: http://www.acs.org/education/greenchem/principles.html Larry Chalfan Dr. Lauren Heine Executive Director Director, Green Chemistry and Engineering • UMASS Boston Green Chemistry: http://green.chem.umb.edu/ One World Trade Center One World Trade Center 121 S.W. Salmon St., Ste 210 • Green Chemistry at the University of Oregon: http://www.uoregon.edu/~hutchlab/greenchem/ 121 S.W. Salmon St., Ste 210 Portland, OR 97204 Portland, OR 97204 Tel: 503-279-9383 Tel: 503-279-9383 Fax: 503-279-9381 • ACS/EPA – Case Studies, Lab Modules: http://www.acs.org/education/greenchem/ Fax: 503-279-9381 lheine@zerowaste.org lchalfan@zerowaste.org www.zerowaste.org • Green Chemistry Institute: http://www.chemistry.org/greenchemistryinstitute/ or www.zerowaste.org chemistry.org/portal/Chemistry?PID=acsdisplay.html&DOC=greenchemistryinstituteind ex.html • Green Chemistry Network: http://www.chemsoc.org/networks/gcn/about.htm • University of Scranton, Green Chemistry Program: http://academic.scranton.edu/faculty/CANNM1/greenchemistry.html • Center for Green Manufacturing: http://bama.ua. edu/~cgm/ • Univ. of Illinois – Interdisciplinary Science and Techn. Program: http://www.scs.uiuc.edu/~shapleyp/ISTP/ISTP-top.html 37Zero Waste Alliance Zero Waste Alliance Green Chemistry & Engineering Resources Related ResourcesU.S. Enivironmental Protection Agency (EPA) • Environmental Science & Technology (journal subscription): http://pubs.acs.org/journals/esthag/ • Environmental Science and Technology Magazine (free online): – EPA Green Chemistry Page: http://www.epa.gov/greenchemistry/index.htm ttp://pubs.acs.org/journals/esthag/index_magazine.html • ToxFAQs (from Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry): – Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: http://www.epa.gov/greenchemistry/presgcc.htm http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaq.html • Right-to-Know Network: http://www.rtk.net/ – Design for the Environment Home Page: http://www.epa.gov/opptintr/dfe • Environmental Defense Environmental Scorecard: http://www.scorecard.org • Journal of Chemical Education: http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu/index.html – U.S. EPA Green Engineering - www.epa.gov/opptintr/greenengineering/ • The Journal of Green Chemistry: http://www.rsc.org/is/journals/current/green/greenpub.htm – Technology for a Sustainable Environment www.epa.gov/ncerqa/rfa/tse01.html • United Nations Environmental Programme - Division of Technology, Industry, & Economics: Case Studies of the Manufacture of Chemicals and Chemical Products – Hancock Memorial Scholarship - www.epa.gov/greenchemistry/educat.htm http://www.emcentre.com/unepweb/tec_case/chemical_24/house/casestudy.shtml • CleanEdge: The Clean-Tech Market Authority: http://www.cleanedge.comGreen Chemistry in Oregon • GreenBiz.com: The Resource Center on Business, the Environment and the Bottom Line: http://www.greenbiz.com – International Sustainable Development Foundation: http://www.isdf.org • The Alliance for Environmental Innovation: http://www.environmentaldefense.org/Alliance/ • Center for Waste Reduction Technologies - www.aiche.org/cwrt/ – Zero Waste Alliance: http://www.zerowaste.org – Green Chemistry at the University of Oregon: http://www.uoregon.edu/~hutchlab/greenchem/ 7