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  • 1. Organizational Behavior 1-
  • 2. Organizational Behavior
    • A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness.
    © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1-
  • 3.
    • It studies three determinants of behaviour in an organisation:
    • Individuals
    • Groups
    • Structure of the organisation
    • OB applies the knowledge gained about individuals, groups and the effect of structures on behaviour in order to make organizations work more effectively
  • 4. Why Study OB Understand Behavior Predict Behavior Influence Behavior Inherent need to understand and predict the world in which we live. Helps us understand behavior of ourselves Understand employees Pre requirements of employees Control over human problems Effective utilization of human resources
  • 5. Effective Versus Successful Managerial Activities (Luthans)
    • Traditional management
      • Decision making, planning, and controlling
    • Communication
      • Exchanging routine information and processing paperwork
    • Human resource management
      • Motivating, disciplining, managing conflict, staffing, and training
    • Networking
      • Socializing, politicking, and interacting with others
  • 6. Allocation of Activities by Time
    • Effective Versus Successful Managerial Activities (Luthans)
    • Traditional management: Decision making, planning, and controlling
    • Communication: Exchanging routine information and processing paperwork
    • Human resource management: Motivating, disciplining, managing conflict, staffing, and training
    • Networking: Socializing, politicking, and interacting with others
  • 7. E X H I B I T 1–4 Source: Drawing by Handelsman in The New Yorker , Copyright © 1986 by the New Yorker Magazine. Reprinted by permission.
  • 8. Four Contributing Disciplines
    • Psychology
    • The science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals.
      • Unit of Analysis:
        • Individual
      • Contributions to OB:
        • Learning, motivation, personality, emotions, perception
        • Training, leadership effectiveness, job satisfaction
        • Individual decision making, performance appraisal, attitude measurement
        • Employee selection, work design, and work stress
    © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1-
  • 9. Four Contributing Disciplines
    • Social Psychology
    • An area within psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one another.
      • Unit of Analysis:
        • Group
      • Contributions to OB:
        • Behavioral change
        • Attitude change
        • Communication
        • Group processes
        • Group decision making
    © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1-
  • 10. Four Contributing Disciplines
    • Unit of Analysis:
      • Organizational System
    • Contributions to OB:
      • Group dynamics
      • Work teams
      • Communication
      • Power
      • Conflict
      • Intergroup behavior
      • Group
      • Formal organization theory
      • Organizational technology
      • Organizational change
      • Organizational culture
    • Sociology
    • The study of people in relation to their fellow human beings.
    © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1-
  • 11. Four Contributing Disciplines
    • Unit of Analysis:
      • -- Organizational System
    • Contributions to OB:
      • Organizational culture
      • Organizational environment
      • -- Group
      • Comparative values
      • Comparative attitudes
      • Cross-cultural analysis
    • Anthropology
    • The study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities.
    © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1-
  • 12. Evolution of OB
    • The development in behavioral thought can be presented under various stages:
    • Industrial Revolution:
    • Scientific Management: The interest in the behavioral aspects of management was recognized.
    • Frederick W. Taylor who inaugurated the interest in people’s behavior at work in U.S. in the early 1900s
  • 13.
    • Human Relation Movement - Under the human relation approach, workers wee distinguished from non-human factors such as capital, machine, building etc. Workers are recognized as ‘social human being’.
    • Hawthorne Studies-1924(Elton Mayo)
    • Place: Hawthorne Plant of Western Electric Company, Chicago
  • 14.
    • The team conducted four separate experimental and behavioral studies, these were:
    • Illumination Experiments(1924-27) to find out the effect of illumination on worker productivity.
    • Relay Assembly Test Room Experiments(1927-28) to find out the effects of changes in number of work hours and related working conditions on worker productivity.
  • 15.
    • Experiments in Interviewing Workers(1928-30) to find out workers attitudes and sentiments toward work, and
    • Bank Wiring Room Experiments(1931-32)
    • to find out social system of an organization.
  • 16.
    • An individual’s capacity to perform various tasks in a job.
    • It is a current assessment of what one can do.
    • An individual's over all abilities are essentially made up of two sets of factors:
    • Intellectual and
    • Physical
  • 17. Ability, Intellect, and Intelligence Ability An individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. Intellectual Ability The capacity to do mental activities.
  • 18. Inductive: Proceeding from particular facts to a general conclusion Deductive:Involving inferences from general principles
  • 19. Physical Abilities Physical Abilities The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics.
  • 20. Nine Physical Abilities
    • Other Factors
    • Body coordination
    • Balance
    • Stamina
    • Strength Factors
    • Dynamic strength
    • Trunk strength
    • Static strength
    • Explosive strength
    • Flexibility Factors
    • Extent flexibility
    • Dynamic flexibility
    E X H I B I T 2–2 Source: Adapted from HRMagazine published by the Society for Human Resource Management, Alexandria, VA.
  • 21.  
  • 22. The Ability- Job Fit Ability-Job Fit Employee’s Abilities Job’s Ability Requirements
  • 23.
    • The ability-job fit
    • jobs make differing demands on people
    • employee performance is enhanced when there is high ability-job fit
    • poor ability-job fit, employees will likely to fail
  • 24. Biographical Characteristics
    • Age
    • Gender
    • Race
    • Social Group
    • Tenure
    • Religion
    • Personal characteristics that are objective and easily obtained from personnel records.
  • 25.
    • Age
    • effect of age on turnover:
    • - older you get, less likely to quit
    • reasons:
    • - fewer job opportunities
    • - higher benefits
    • effect of age on absenteeism:
    • - older employees, lower rates on unavoidable absence
  • 26.
    • Gender
    • - no consistent male-female differences in problem- solving ability, analytical skills, competitive drive, motivation, sociability, or learning ability
    • - women are more willing to conform with authority
    • - men are more aggressive and more likely to have expectations of success
    • - women with pre-school children prefer part-time work, flexible work schedules, and telecommuting to accommodate family responsibilities
    • - issue on absenteeism, no significant difference
  • 27.
    • Race
    • - some scholars argue that it is not productive to discuss race for:
    • 1. policy reason (divisive issue or can cause disagreement)
    • 2. biological reason (large percentage are a mixture of races)
    • 3. genetic & anthropological reason (anthropologists & evolutionary scientists reject concept of distinct racial categories)
    • - Department of Education classifies individuals according to five racial categories: African American , Native American (American Indian/Alaskan Native), Asian/Pacific Islander , Hispanic , and White
    • - racial differences in cognitive ability tests continues to be hotly debated.
  • 28.
    • Tenure
    • - most recent evidence demonstrates a positive relationship between seniority and job productivity.
    • - tenure (work experience) appears to be a good predictor of employee productivity
    • - in terms of both frequency of absence and total days lost at work, tenure is the single most important explanatory variable.
    • - potent (strong) variable in explaining turnover
    • - longer a person in a job, less likely to quit
    • - past behavior is the best predictor of future behavior
    • - tenure and job satisfaction are positively related
    • - stable predictor of job satisfaction than chronological age
  • 29.
    • effect of age on productivity:
    • - unrelated
    • reason:
    • - some decay due to age, offset by gains due to experience
    • effect of age on satisfaction:
    • - tends to increase among professionals
    • - tends to decrease among nonprofessionals during middle age and rises in later years
  • 30. Attitudes Attitudes Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events. Affective Component The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude. Cognitive component The opinion or belief segment of an attitude. Behavioral Component An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something.
  • 31. Types of job-related attitudes
    • Job Satisfaction A collection of positive and/or negative feelings that an individual holds toward his or her job. Job satisfaction has five dimensions of the job:
    • Pay
    • The work itself
    • Promotion opportunities
    • Supervision
    • Coworkers
  • 32.
    • Job Involvement Identifying with the job, actively participating in it, and considering performance important to self-worth.
    • The employee immerse themselves in their jobs, invest time and energy in them and consider work as a central part of their overall lives.
  • 33.
    • Organizational Commitment
    • Employees’ Loyalty to their organization.
    • Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, and wishing to maintain membership in the organization.
    • Usually stronger among longer-term employees and those who have relished personal success in the organization.
  • 34. Formation of Attitude
    • Broadly classified into two sources:
    • 1. Direct Experience
    • Attitude are formed on the basis of one’s past experience in the concerned object or person.
    • Attitudes derived from the direct experience are more powerful, stronger, durable and are difficult to change that are formed through indirect experience.
  • 35.
    • 2. Social Learning:
    • The process of deriving attitudes from family, peer groups, religious organizations and culture is called social learning.
    • In social learning, an individual acquires attitudes from his/her environment in an indirect manner.
    • Individual acquire much of their attitudes by merely observing their models whom they admire and respect.
    • An individual’s association with others also shapes one’s attitude about him/her.