Driverless cars based on automatic control system By Avaneesh shuklaTT-ME , roll no.-12 Mgm’s college of engineering & technology, noida
introduction Driver error is the most common cause of traffic accidents India contributes 6 % of the world's road accident deaths Cell phones, in-car entertainment systems, more traffic and more complicated road systems making it more frequent By this improving technology our car will do the concentrating for us.
Agenda What an automatic control system is? What is a driverless vehicle Types of driverless vehicles based on different-2- technologies *drones(signal controlled) *automated highway system *driverless cars based on automatic control system
What is a driverless car (robot cars)? *It is a vehicle that can drive itself from one point to another without Assistance from a driver; in other words, with an autopilot system
In order to drive a car, a system would need to: Sensors Navigation Motion planning(traffic) Actuation(operates the mechanics of vehicle)
Sensors Sensors employed in driverless cars are called mobileye N.V Mobileye offers a wide range of driver safety solutions combining artificial vision image processing, multiple technological applications and information technology Wheel speed sensors Steering-angle sensors Rotational-speed sensor
How will the car detect the traffic lights ? A sensor “actinometer “ is used to detect the intensity of radiation Light of different colors will radiate different -2-intensity of radiation Which will be detected by the sensor If the detected intensity is of red color or yellow color The controller will send a command to stop the vehicle The command will be followed by robot(to convert the computer command into mechanical input)
Technologies making a system fully autonomous Anti-lock brakes(ABS) Electronic stability control (ESC) Cruise control Self Parking Automated Guided Vehicle Systems
Anti-lock brakes(ABS) While braking hard without anti-lock brakes, the wheels can lock up, sending the car into an out-of-control skid. and the driver has to pump the brake pedal to keep the wheels from locking up With anti-lock brakes, the system does the pumping for the driver - and does it better than the driver. The system can read the wheels and knows when they are about to lock and react faster
Autonomous Cruise control Autonomous cruise control is an optional cruise control system appearing on some more upscale vehicles. These systems use either a radar or laser setup allowing the vehicle to slow when approaching another vehicle and accelerate again to the preset speed when traffic allows It also maintain a set distance between it and the car in front of it Cruise control keeps the car at a constant speed
Automated Guided Vehicle Systems UsesFROG (Free Ranging On Grid) technology FROG vehicles are equipped with a computer that contains a map of the area
Navigation The ability to plot the rout from where the vehicle is to where the user wants to be has been available for several years the more sophisticated system also receives radio updates on road blockages, and adapt accordingly
Motion planning is a term used in robotics for the process of detailing a task into discrete motions. It should execute this task while avoiding objects like other cars.
Control of vehicle As automotive technology matures, more and more functions of the underlying engine, gearbox etc. are no longer directly controlled by the driver by mechanical means. It is controlled via a computer, which receives instructions from the driver as inputs and delivers the desired effect by means of electronic throttle control. Therefore, the technology for a computer to control all aspects of a vehicle is well understood.
DARPA Urban Challenge 2007 It is a prize competition for driverless vehicles, funded by the(Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency), the most prominent research organization of the United States Department of Defense.
The purpose of DARPA Urban Challenge 2007 Saving lives on the battlefield (by sending unmanned vehicles). Minimize the probability of accidents in cities.
Tartan racing teamthe $2 million winner of DARPA urban challenge 2007 The course involved a 96 km to be completed in less than 6 hours Rules included obeying all traffic regulations while negotiating with other traffic and obstacles and merging into traffic.
Advantages managing traffic flow to increase road capacity. relieving vehicle occupants from driving and navigating chores, so allowing them to concentrate on other tasks or to rest during their journeys. to avoid accidents increasing roadway capacity by reducing the distances between cars The current location of vehicle can be determined using global positioning system(G.P.S)
Disadvantages If the vehicle is using internet which is have less security then From the hackers point of view in some cases the vehicle can be switched off on the road(in rare cases) Hackers can change the rout which is plotted in the system(in rare cases) In case of failure of main sensor and backup sensors the vehicle can create a chance of accident
References http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Driverless_car http://www.darpa.mil/our work Electrical machines and automatic control by J.b.gupta http://autocontrols.com.au/ http://www.howstuffworks.com/cruise-control