Persuasion, Coherence, Sentences,       Design, Graphics, and     Recommendation Reports      ENG 3302 Business and Techni...
Table of Contents    Topic                         Slide Number/s    Communicating Persuasively    3 to 15    Writing Cohe...
Communicating PersuasivelyChapter 8. Communicating Persuasively   © 2012 byBedford/St. Martins
Consider your audience’s             four broader goals:• security• recognition• professional growth• connectedness     Ch...
Work within eight constraints:• ethical• legal• political• informational• personnel• financial• time• format and tone     ...
Follow six steps to       craft a persuasive argument:• Identify the elements of a persuasive  argument.• Use the right ki...
Understand the three elements      of a persuasive argument:• The claim—the idea you are communicating.• The evidence—the ...
Use the right kinds of evidence:• “commonsense” arguments• numerical data• examples• expert testimony     Chapter 8. Commu...
Consider three ways of meeting possible     objections to your argument:• Show that the opposing argument is based on  ill...
Understand the role of culture in persuasion:  • Know what each culture regards as a    persuasive argument.  • Know how e...
Avoid ten common logical fallacies:• ad hominem argument, or argument against  the speaker• argument from ignorance• appea...
Avoid ten common logical fallacies (cont.):• either-or argument• ad populum argument, or bandwagon  argument• hasty genera...
Demonstrate four characteristics    when creating a professional persona:•   cooperativeness•   moderation•   fair-mindedn...
An example of using words and images      to create a persuasive argumentCaption: “A young boy works 12-hour days packing ...
An example of using an image to convey technical evidence Source: Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, 2008 <www.iihs.o...
Writing Coherent Documents© 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
Consider seven questions whenrevising your document for coherence:• Have you left out anything in turning your  outline in...
Consider seven questions when revising your document for coherence (cont.):• Do you come across as reliable, honest, and  ...
Follow four guidelines            when revising headings:• Avoid long noun strings.• Be informative.• Use a grammatical fo...
Turning paragraphs into lists          presents four advantages:•   It forces you to look at the big picture.•   It forces...
Study documents from other   cultures to answer four questions:• How does the writer make the information  accessible?• Ho...
There are two kinds of paragraphs:• A body paragraph is a group of sentences (or  sometimes a single sentence) that is  co...
Most paragraphs contain two elements:• The topic sentence summarizes or forecasts  the main point of the paragraph.• The s...
Avoid burying bad news in paragraphs:• The most emphatic location is the topic  sentence.• The second most emphatic locati...
Supporting information      usually fulfills one of five roles:• It defines a key term or idea included in the topic  sent...
Follow three guidelines     when dividing long paragraphs:• Break the discussion at a logical place.• Make the topic sente...
Use three techniques           to emphasize coherence:• Add transitional words and phrases.• Repeat key words.• Use demons...
Use transitional words and phrases:  Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents   © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins   28
Use two techniques        to create a coherent design:• Use headers and footers to enhance  coherence.• Use typefaces to e...
Headers and footers are        coherence devices.                                                       Source: U.S. Depar...
Writing Effective Sentences© 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
Use these seven techniques   for structuring effective sentences:• Use lists.• Emphasize new and important information.• C...
Use these five guidelines           for creating effective lists:• Set off each listed item with a number, a  letter, or a...
Use parallel structure:• Use the same grammatical form for coordinate  elements in a sentence.  – all clauses either activ...
Use modifiers effectively:• Distinguish between restrictive and  nonrestrictive modifiers.• Avoid misplaced modifiers.• Av...
Choose the right words and phrases:•   Select an appropriate level of formality.•   Be clear and specific.•   Be concise.•...
Select an appropriate level of formality:There are three levels of formality:• informal• moderately formal• highly formalU...
Informal writing can cause two problems:• It tends to be imprecise.• It can be embarrassing.     Chapter 10. Writing Effec...
Use these seven techniques    for writing clearly and specifically:• Use the active and passive voice appropriately.• Be s...
Use the active and        passive voice appropriately:Use the active voice unless• the agent is clear from the context• th...
Use these three techniques          for writing specifically:• Use precise words.• Provide adequate detail.• Avoid ambigui...
Avoid unnecessary jargon for four reasons:•    It can be imprecise.•    It can be confusing.•    It is often seen as conde...
Be concise:• Avoid obvious statements.• Avoid filler.• Avoid unnecessary prepositional phrases.• Avoid wordy phrases.• Avo...
Follow these six guidelines        for avoiding sexist language:• Replace the male-gender words with non-gender-  specific...
Follow these five guidelines   for using the people-first approach:• Refer to the person first, the disability second.• Do...
Use these seven techniques         in preparing text for translation:•   Use short sentences.•   Use the active voice.•   ...
Designing Documents© 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
Document and Web design has five goals:• to make a good impression on readers• to help readers understand the structure an...
There are four principles of design:•   proximity•   alignment•   repetition•   contrast     Chapter 11. Designing Documen...
Proximity organizes this image:                                                           Source: U.S. Department of State...
Alignment organizes this image:                           Source: Carnegie Science Center, n.d.Chapter 11. Designing Docum...
Repetition organizes this image:                              Source: Myers, 2007, p. 362.Chapter 11. Designing Documents ...
Contrast clarifies this image:                Source: Lambert Coffin, 2010 <www.lambertcoffin.com/index.php?sid=2>.Chapter...
To plan a design, take these two steps:• Analyze your audience and purpose.• Determine your resources.     Chapter 11. Des...
For multicultural readers,     consider four cultural preferences:•   paper size•   typeface preferences•   color preferen...
Determine your resources:• Time. What is your schedule?• Money. Can you afford professional  designers, print shops, and W...
Consider these four elements           when designing documents:•   size (page size and page count)•   paper•   bindings• ...
Select one of four               common types of binding:•   loose-leaf binders•   ring or spiral binders•   saddle bindin...
Consider using six typical accessing aids:•   icons•   color•   dividers and tabs•   cross-reference tables•   headers and...
Understand how learning        theory relates to page design:• chunking• queuing• filtering   Chapter 11. Designing Docume...
Use two elements           to create your page layout:• page grids• white space   Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web ...
Margins have four purposes:• to limit the amount of information on the page,  making the document easier to read and use• ...
A document bound like a book         has these margins:Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites   © 2012 by Bedford/S...
A multicolumn design              offers three advantages:• Text is easier to read because the lines are  shorter.• Column...
Typography includes seven topics:•   typefaces•   type families•   case•   type size•   line length•   line spacing•   jus...
Different typefaces            make different impressions:This paragraph is typed in Monotype Corsiva typeface. You are un...
Two main categories of typefaces    are serif and sans serif:    N N    serif                   sans serifChapter 11. Desi...
A type family includes many variations:Some of the members of the Helvetica family:    Helvetica    Helvetica Bold    Helv...
Case affects readability:Lowercase letters are easier to read:  Individual variations are greater in lowercase words  THAN...
Different functions             call for different type sizes:footnotes            8- or 9-point typebody text            ...
Use line spacing carefully             when designing headings:SummaryIn this example, the writer has skipped a line betwe...
Use other design features              for clarity and emphasis:•   rules•   boxes•   screens•   marginal glosses•   pull ...
These six principles will help you    design effective Web sites and pages:•   Create informative headers and footers.•   ...
Follow these five guidelines for    making your site easy to navigate:• Include a site map or index.• Use a table of conte...
This is a typical site map:       Source: National Institutes of Health, 2010 <www.genome.gov/sitemap.cfm>.Chapter 11. Des...
This is a typical table of contents:            Source: U.S. Copyright Office, 2010 <www.copyright.gov/help/faq>.Chapter 1...
Include extra features               your readers might need:•   an FAQ•   a search page or engine•   resource links•   a ...
Consider these three types of disabilities:• vision impairment• hearing impairment• mobility impairment   Chapter 11. Desi...
Follow these three suggestionswhen designing for multicultural audiences: • Use common words and short sentences and   par...
Follow these four guidelines          for designing a simple site:• Use simple backgrounds.• Use conservative color combin...
Follow these three suggestions        to make text easy to read:• Keep the text short.• Chunk information.• Make the text ...
Follow these three suggestions      to write clear, informative links:• Structure your sentences as if there were no  link...
This is an effective page design:                     Source: Gorzalka, 2011 <http://clearideaz.com>.Chapter 11. Designing...
This is an effective page design:                    Source: Tumblr, 2011 <www.tumblr.com/about>.Chapter 11. Designing Doc...
Creating GraphicsChapter 8. Communicating Persuasively   © 2012 byBedford/St. Martins
Graphics serve five functions:• They can catch readers’ attention and interest.• They can help writers communicate informa...
Graphics offer benefits           that words alone cannot:• Graphics are indispensable in demonstrating logical  and numer...
An effective graphic has five characteristics:  • It serves a purpose.  • It is simple and uncluttered.  • It presents a m...
Follow these six suggestions         to create honest graphics:• Cite your source and obtain permission.• Include all rele...
Follow these five guidelines    for integrating graphics and text:• Place the graphic in an appropriate location.• Introdu...
The process of creating        graphics includes four steps:•   planning•   producing•   revising•   citing        Chapter...
As you plan graphics,                consider the following:•   audience•   purpose of the graphic and the document•   kin...
When producing graphics, choose    one of the following four approaches:•   use existing graphics•   modify existing graph...
Use color effectively:• Don’t overdo it.• Use color to emphasize particular items.• Use color to create patterns.• Use con...
Use color to establish patterns:                       Source: Myers, 2010, p. 72. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics          ...
Use color to create effective contrast:The text is hard to read because of insufficientcontrast.Effective contrast makes t...
Choose the category of technical    information you want to communicate:•   numerical information•   logical relationships...
Five kinds of graphics help       illustrate numerical information:•   tables•   bar graphs•   pictographs•   line graphs•...
Two kinds of graphics help      illustrate logical relationships:• diagrams• organization charts       Chapter 12. Creatin...
Three kinds of graphics help illustrate process descriptions and instructions:• checklists• flowcharts• logic trees       ...
Four kinds of graphics help illustrate visual        and spatial characteristics:•   photographs•   screen shots•   line d...
A typical table has these parts:Table numberTable titleColumn headColumn subheadsStubRowData cellSource statementFootnotes...
Follow these nine guidelines       for creating effective tables:• Indicate the units of measure.• In the stub (the left-h...
Follow these nine guidelines     for creating effective tables (cont.):•   Don’t make the table wider than it needs to be....
Horizontal and vertical    bar graphs look like this:Chapter 12. Creating Graphics   © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins   105
Follow these six guidelines    for creating effective bar graphs:• Make the proportions fair.• If possible, begin the quan...
This is an effective bar graph:Chapter 12. Creating Graphics   © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins   107
The basic bar graph has five variations:•   grouped bar graph•   subdivided bar graph•   100-percent bar graph•   deviatio...
This is an effective pictograph: Chapter 12. Creating Graphics   © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins   109
This pictograph is misleading:Chapter 12. Creating Graphics   © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins   110
Follow these three guidelines    for creating effective line graphs:• If possible, begin the quantity scale at zero.• Use ...
This is an effective line graph: Chapter 12. Creating Graphics   © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins   112
Follow these eight guidelines     for creating effective pie charts:• Restrict the number of slices to six or seven.• Begi...
Follow these eight guidelines for creating effective pie charts (cont.):• To emphasize one slice, use a bright,  contrasti...
How effective is this graphic?                                                 Source: Defense Intelligence Agency,       ...
Use these four techniques to show motion:       Chapter 12. Creating Graphics   © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins   116
Follow these five guidelines for presenting photographs effectively:• Eliminate extraneous background clutter that  can di...
Line drawings offer three     advantages over photographs:• Line drawings can focus readers’ attention on  desired informa...
Line drawings offer a uniqueadvantage over other graphics: Chapter 12. Creating Graphics   © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins  ...
The basic line drawing has three variations:       Chapter 12. Creating Graphics   © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins   120
Follow these six guidelines for creatingeffective graphics for multicultural readers:• Be aware that reading patterns diff...
Writing Recommendation Reports© 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
Recommendation reports     address four kinds of questions:• What should we do about Problem X?• Should we do Function X?•...
Feasibility reports    answer three kinds of questions:• questions of possibility• questions of economic wisdom• questions...
Use a problem-solving methodwhen preparing a recommendation report: • Identify the problem or opportunity. • Establish cri...
Use logic boxes to plot a series of options:    Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports   © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins...
Use a matrix to                     compare and contrast options:Criteria and Weight                                      ...
Explain your decision matrix:• Explain why you chose each criterion—or didn’t  choose a criterion readers might have expec...
You can present your    conclusions in one of three ways:• Rank all the options.• Classify all the options in two categori...
Most recommendation reports        have three major sections:• the body of the report• the front matter• the back matter  ...
A typical recommendation report          has five body elements:•   introduction•   methods•   results•   conclusions•   r...
An introduction typically                answers nine questions:•   What is the subject of the report?•   What is the purp...
An introduction typically       answers nine questions (cont.):•   What are the most significant findings?•   What are you...
Address the following four questions      when writing the body of your report:•   Methods. What did you do?•   Results. W...
Consider these four factors    when writing your recommendations:•   content•   tone•   form•   location      Chapter 19. ...
A typical recommendation reportcontains seven elements in the front matter: •   letter of transmittal •   cover •   title ...
Understand the difference betweena descriptive and an informative abstract:• A descriptive abstract describes the kinds of...
Follow these five guidelines  when writing an executive summary:• Use specific evidence in describing the  background.• Be...
A typical recommendation reportincludes three elements in the back matter: • glossary and list of symbols • references • a...
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  1. 1. Persuasion, Coherence, Sentences, Design, Graphics, and Recommendation Reports ENG 3302 Business and Technical Report Writing© 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  2. 2. Table of Contents Topic Slide Number/s Communicating Persuasively 3 to 15 Writing Coherent Documents 16 to 30 Writing Effective Sentences 31 to 46 Designing Documents 47 to 84 Creating Graphics 85 to 121 Recommendation Reports 122 to 139© 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  3. 3. Communicating PersuasivelyChapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 byBedford/St. Martins
  4. 4. Consider your audience’s four broader goals:• security• recognition• professional growth• connectedness Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 4
  5. 5. Work within eight constraints:• ethical• legal• political• informational• personnel• financial• time• format and tone Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 5
  6. 6. Follow six steps to craft a persuasive argument:• Identify the elements of a persuasive argument.• Use the right kinds of evidence.• Consider opposing viewpoints.• Appeal to emotions responsibly.• Decide where to present the claim.• Understand the role of culture in persuasion. Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 6
  7. 7. Understand the three elements of a persuasive argument:• The claim—the idea you are communicating.• The evidence—the facts and judgments that support your claim.• The reasoning—the logic that you use to derive the claim from the evidence. Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 7
  8. 8. Use the right kinds of evidence:• “commonsense” arguments• numerical data• examples• expert testimony Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 8
  9. 9. Consider three ways of meeting possible objections to your argument:• Show that the opposing argument is based on illogical reasoning or on inaccurate or incomplete facts.• Show that the opposing argument is valid but less powerful than your own.• Show how the two arguments can be reconciled. Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 9
  10. 10. Understand the role of culture in persuasion: • Know what each culture regards as a persuasive argument. • Know how each culture structures a persuasive argument. Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 10
  11. 11. Avoid ten common logical fallacies:• ad hominem argument, or argument against the speaker• argument from ignorance• appeal to pity• argument from authority• circular argument, or begging the question Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 11
  12. 12. Avoid ten common logical fallacies (cont.):• either-or argument• ad populum argument, or bandwagon argument• hasty generalization, or inadequate sampling• post hoc reasoning• oversimplifying Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 12
  13. 13. Demonstrate four characteristics when creating a professional persona:• cooperativeness• moderation• fair-mindedness• modesty Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 13
  14. 14. An example of using words and images to create a persuasive argumentCaption: “A young boy works 12-hour days packing mud bricks in Liberia.” Source: U.S. Department of State, 2009 <www.state.gov/documents/organization/123360.pdf>. Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 14
  15. 15. An example of using an image to convey technical evidence Source: Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, 2008 <www.iihs.org/ratings/rating.aspx?id5867>.Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 15
  16. 16. Writing Coherent Documents© 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  17. 17. Consider seven questions whenrevising your document for coherence:• Have you left out anything in turning your outline into a draft?• Have you included all the elements your readers expect to see?• Have you organized the document logically?• Is the document persuasive? Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 17
  18. 18. Consider seven questions when revising your document for coherence (cont.):• Do you come across as reliable, honest, and helpful?• Have you presented all the elements consistently?• Is the emphasis appropriate throughout the document? Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 18
  19. 19. Follow four guidelines when revising headings:• Avoid long noun strings.• Be informative.• Use a grammatical form appropriate to your audience.• Avoid back-to-back headings. Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 19
  20. 20. Turning paragraphs into lists presents four advantages:• It forces you to look at the big picture.• It forces you to examine the sequence.• It forces you to create a helpful lead-in.• It forces you to tighten and clarify your prose. Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 20
  21. 21. Study documents from other cultures to answer four questions:• How does the writer make the information accessible?• How does the writer show the relationship among types of information?• How does the writer communicate the organization of the document as a whole?• How does the writer make transitions from one subject to another? Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 21
  22. 22. There are two kinds of paragraphs:• A body paragraph is a group of sentences (or sometimes a single sentence) that is complete and self-sufficient and that contributes to a larger discussion.• A transitional paragraph helps readers move from one major point to another. Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 22
  23. 23. Most paragraphs contain two elements:• The topic sentence summarizes or forecasts the main point of the paragraph.• The supporting information makes the topic sentence clear and convincing. Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 23
  24. 24. Avoid burying bad news in paragraphs:• The most emphatic location is the topic sentence.• The second most emphatic location is the end of the paragraph.• The least emphatic location is the middle of the paragraph. Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 24
  25. 25. Supporting information usually fulfills one of five roles:• It defines a key term or idea included in the topic sentence.• It provides examples or illustrations of the situation described in the topic sentence.• It identifies causes: factors that led to the situation.• It defines effects: implications of the situation.• It supports the claim made in the topic sentence. Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 25
  26. 26. Follow three guidelines when dividing long paragraphs:• Break the discussion at a logical place.• Make the topic sentence a separate paragraph and break up the supporting information.• Use a list. Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 26
  27. 27. Use three techniques to emphasize coherence:• Add transitional words and phrases.• Repeat key words.• Use demonstrative pronouns followed by nouns. Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 27
  28. 28. Use transitional words and phrases: Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 28
  29. 29. Use two techniques to create a coherent design:• Use headers and footers to enhance coherence.• Use typefaces to enhance coherence. Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 29
  30. 30. Headers and footers are coherence devices. Source: U.S. Department of State, 2007 <www.usaid.gov/policy/coordination/strat plan_fy07-12.pdf>.Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 30
  31. 31. Writing Effective Sentences© 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  32. 32. Use these seven techniques for structuring effective sentences:• Use lists.• Emphasize new and important information.• Choose an appropriate sentence length.• Focus on the “real” subject.• Focus on the “real” verb.• Use parallel structure.• Use modifiers effectively. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 32
  33. 33. Use these five guidelines for creating effective lists:• Set off each listed item with a number, a letter, or a symbol (usually a bullet).• Break up long lists.• Present the items in a parallel structure.• Structure and punctuate the lead-in correctly.• Punctuate the list correctly. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 33
  34. 34. Use parallel structure:• Use the same grammatical form for coordinate elements in a sentence. – all clauses either active or passive – all verbs either indicative or imperative – all nouns preceded by the same article• Parallel structure creates a recognizable pattern and makes a sentence easier to follow. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 34
  35. 35. Use modifiers effectively:• Distinguish between restrictive and nonrestrictive modifiers.• Avoid misplaced modifiers.• Avoid dangling modifiers. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 35
  36. 36. Choose the right words and phrases:• Select an appropriate level of formality.• Be clear and specific.• Be concise.• Use inoffensive language. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 36
  37. 37. Select an appropriate level of formality:There are three levels of formality:• informal• moderately formal• highly formalUse a level and tone appropriate for your• audience• subject• purpose Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 37
  38. 38. Informal writing can cause two problems:• It tends to be imprecise.• It can be embarrassing. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 38
  39. 39. Use these seven techniques for writing clearly and specifically:• Use the active and passive voice appropriately.• Be specific.• Avoid unnecessary jargon.• Use positive constructions.• Avoid long noun strings.• Avoid clichés.• Avoid euphemisms. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 39
  40. 40. Use the active and passive voice appropriately:Use the active voice unless• the agent is clear from the context• the agent is unknown• the agent is less important than the action• a reference to the agent is embarrassing, dangerous, or in some other way inappropriate Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 40
  41. 41. Use these three techniques for writing specifically:• Use precise words.• Provide adequate detail.• Avoid ambiguity. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 41
  42. 42. Avoid unnecessary jargon for four reasons:• It can be imprecise.• It can be confusing.• It is often seen as condescending.• It is often intimidating. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 42
  43. 43. Be concise:• Avoid obvious statements.• Avoid filler.• Avoid unnecessary prepositional phrases.• Avoid wordy phrases.• Avoid fancy words. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 43
  44. 44. Follow these six guidelines for avoiding sexist language:• Replace the male-gender words with non-gender- specific words.• Switch to a different form of the verb.• Switch to the plural.• Switch to he or she, he/she, s/he, or his or her.• Address the reader directly.• Alternate he and she. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 44
  45. 45. Follow these five guidelines for using the people-first approach:• Refer to the person first, the disability second.• Don’t confuse handicap with disability.• Don’t refer to victimization.• Don’t refer to a person as “wheelchair bound” or “confined to a wheelchair.”• Don’t refer to people with disabilities as abnormal. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 45
  46. 46. Use these seven techniques in preparing text for translation:• Use short sentences.• Use the active voice.• Use simple words.• Include a glossary.• Use words that have only one meaning.• Use pronouns carefully.• Avoid jokes, puns, and culture-bound references. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 46
  47. 47. Designing Documents© 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  48. 48. Document and Web design has five goals:• to make a good impression on readers• to help readers understand the structure and hierarchy of the information• to help readers find the information they need• to help readers understand the information• to help readers remember the information Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 48
  49. 49. There are four principles of design:• proximity• alignment• repetition• contrast Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 49
  50. 50. Proximity organizes this image: Source: U.S. Department of State, 2011 <http://future.state.gov>.Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 50
  51. 51. Alignment organizes this image: Source: Carnegie Science Center, n.d.Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 51
  52. 52. Repetition organizes this image: Source: Myers, 2007, p. 362.Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 52
  53. 53. Contrast clarifies this image: Source: Lambert Coffin, 2010 <www.lambertcoffin.com/index.php?sid=2>.Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 53
  54. 54. To plan a design, take these two steps:• Analyze your audience and purpose.• Determine your resources. Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 54
  55. 55. For multicultural readers, consider four cultural preferences:• paper size• typeface preferences• color preferences• text direction Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 55
  56. 56. Determine your resources:• Time. What is your schedule?• Money. Can you afford professional designers, print shops, and Web developers?• Equipment. Do you have graphics software, desktop-publishing programs, and a printer? Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 56
  57. 57. Consider these four elements when designing documents:• size (page size and page count)• paper• bindings• accessing aids Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 57
  58. 58. Select one of four common types of binding:• loose-leaf binders• ring or spiral binders• saddle binding• perfect binding Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 58
  59. 59. Consider using six typical accessing aids:• icons• color• dividers and tabs• cross-reference tables• headers and footers• page numbering Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 59
  60. 60. Understand how learning theory relates to page design:• chunking• queuing• filtering Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 60
  61. 61. Use two elements to create your page layout:• page grids• white space Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 61
  62. 62. Margins have four purposes:• to limit the amount of information on the page, making the document easier to read and use• to provide space for binding and allow readers to hold the page without covering up the text• to provide a neat frame around the type• to provide space for marginal glosses Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 62
  63. 63. A document bound like a book has these margins:Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 63
  64. 64. A multicolumn design offers three advantages:• Text is easier to read because the lines are shorter.• Columns allow you to fit more information on the page.• Columns let you use the principle of repetition to create a visual pattern. Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 64
  65. 65. Typography includes seven topics:• typefaces• type families• case• type size• line length• line spacing• justification Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 65
  66. 66. Different typefaces make different impressions:This paragraph is typed in Monotype Corsiva typeface. You are unlikelyto see this style of font in a technical document because it is too ornateand too hard to read.This paragraph is Times Roman, an effective typeface for textin the body of technical documents.This paragraph is Tahoma, which has a modern, high-tech look. It is best suited for headings and titles intechnical documents. Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 66
  67. 67. Two main categories of typefaces are serif and sans serif: N N serif sans serifChapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 67
  68. 68. A type family includes many variations:Some of the members of the Helvetica family: Helvetica Helvetica Bold Helvetica Bold Italic Helvetica Narrow Helvetica Narrow Bold Helvetica Narrow Bold Italic Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 68
  69. 69. Case affects readability:Lowercase letters are easier to read: Individual variations are greater in lowercase words THAN THEY ARE IN UPPERCASE WORDS. Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 69
  70. 70. Different functions call for different type sizes:footnotes 8- or 9-point typebody text 10-, 11-, or 12-point typeheadings 2 to 4 points larger than body textindexes 2 points smaller than body texttitles 18 or 24 pointsslides 24- to 36-point type Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 70
  71. 71. Use line spacing carefully when designing headings:SummaryIn this example, the writer has skipped a line betweenthe heading and the text that follows it.SummaryIn this example, the writer has not skipped a line. Theheading stands out, but not as emphatically.Summary. This run-in style makes the heading standout the least. Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 71
  72. 72. Use other design features for clarity and emphasis:• rules• boxes• screens• marginal glosses• pull quotes Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 72
  73. 73. These six principles will help you design effective Web sites and pages:• Create informative headers and footers.• Help readers navigate the site.• Include extra features readers might need.• Help readers connect with others.• Design for readers with disabilities.• Design for multicultural readers. Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 73
  74. 74. Follow these five guidelines for making your site easy to navigate:• Include a site map or index.• Use a table of contents at the top of long pages.• Help readers get back to the top of long pages.• Include a link to the home page on every page.• Include textual navigational links at the bottom of the page. Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 74
  75. 75. This is a typical site map: Source: National Institutes of Health, 2010 <www.genome.gov/sitemap.cfm>.Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 75
  76. 76. This is a typical table of contents: Source: U.S. Copyright Office, 2010 <www.copyright.gov/help/faq>.Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 76
  77. 77. Include extra features your readers might need:• an FAQ• a search page or engine• resource links• a printable version of your site• a text-only version of your site Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 77
  78. 78. Consider these three types of disabilities:• vision impairment• hearing impairment• mobility impairment Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 78
  79. 79. Follow these three suggestionswhen designing for multicultural audiences: • Use common words and short sentences and paragraphs. • Avoid idioms, both verbal and visual, that might be confusing. • If a large percentage of your readers speak a language other than English, consider creating a version of your site in that language. Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 79
  80. 80. Follow these four guidelines for designing a simple site:• Use simple backgrounds.• Use conservative color combinations to increase text legibility.• Avoid decorative graphics.• Use thumbnail graphics. Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 80
  81. 81. Follow these three suggestions to make text easy to read:• Keep the text short.• Chunk information.• Make the text as simple as possible. Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 81
  82. 82. Follow these three suggestions to write clear, informative links:• Structure your sentences as if there were no links in your text.• Indicate what information the linked page contains.• Use standard colors for text links. Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 82
  83. 83. This is an effective page design: Source: Gorzalka, 2011 <http://clearideaz.com>.Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 83
  84. 84. This is an effective page design: Source: Tumblr, 2011 <www.tumblr.com/about>.Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 84
  85. 85. Creating GraphicsChapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 byBedford/St. Martins
  86. 86. Graphics serve five functions:• They can catch readers’ attention and interest.• They can help writers communicate information that is difficult to communicate with words.• They can help writers clarify and emphasize information.• They can help nonnative speakers of English understand information.• They can help writers communicate information to multiple audiences with different interests, aptitudes, and reading habits. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 86
  87. 87. Graphics offer benefits that words alone cannot:• Graphics are indispensable in demonstrating logical and numerical relationships.• Graphics can communicate spatial information more effectively than words alone.• Graphics can communicate steps in a process more effectively than words alone.• Graphics can save space.• Graphics can reduce the cost of documents intended for international readers. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 87
  88. 88. An effective graphic has five characteristics: • It serves a purpose. • It is simple and uncluttered. • It presents a manageable amount of information. • It meets readers’ format expectations. • It is clearly labeled. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 88
  89. 89. Follow these six suggestions to create honest graphics:• Cite your source and obtain permission.• Include all relevant data.• Begin the axes in your graphs at zero—or mark them clearly.• Do not use a table to hide a data point that would be obvious in a graph.• Show items as they really are.• Do not use color or shading to misrepresent an item’s importance. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 89
  90. 90. Follow these five guidelines for integrating graphics and text:• Place the graphic in an appropriate location.• Introduce the graphic in the text.• Explain the graphic in the text.• Make the graphic clearly visible.• Make the graphic accessible. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 90
  91. 91. The process of creating graphics includes four steps:• planning• producing• revising• citing Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 91
  92. 92. As you plan graphics, consider the following:• audience• purpose of the graphic and the document• kind of information you want to communicate• physical conditions in which readers will use the document• time• money• equipment• expertise Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 92
  93. 93. When producing graphics, choose one of the following four approaches:• use existing graphics• modify existing graphics• create graphics on a computer• have someone else create the graphics Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 93
  94. 94. Use color effectively:• Don’t overdo it.• Use color to emphasize particular items.• Use color to create patterns.• Use contrast effectively.• Take advantage of any symbolic meanings colors may already have.• Be aware that color can obscure or swallow up text. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 94
  95. 95. Use color to establish patterns: Source: Myers, 2010, p. 72. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 95
  96. 96. Use color to create effective contrast:The text is hard to read because of insufficientcontrast.Effective contrast makes the text easier to read. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 96
  97. 97. Choose the category of technical information you want to communicate:• numerical information• logical relationships• process descriptions and instructions• visual and spatial characteristics Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 97
  98. 98. Five kinds of graphics help illustrate numerical information:• tables• bar graphs• pictographs• line graphs• pie charts Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 98
  99. 99. Two kinds of graphics help illustrate logical relationships:• diagrams• organization charts Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 99
  100. 100. Three kinds of graphics help illustrate process descriptions and instructions:• checklists• flowcharts• logic trees Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 100
  101. 101. Four kinds of graphics help illustrate visual and spatial characteristics:• photographs• screen shots• line drawings• maps Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 101
  102. 102. A typical table has these parts:Table numberTable titleColumn headColumn subheadsStubRowData cellSource statementFootnotes Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 102
  103. 103. Follow these nine guidelines for creating effective tables:• Indicate the units of measure.• In the stub (the left-hand column), list the items being compared.• In the columns, arrange the data clearly and logically.• Do the math.• Use dot leaders if a column contains a “blank” spot: a place where there are no appropriate data. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 103
  104. 104. Follow these nine guidelines for creating effective tables (cont.):• Don’t make the table wider than it needs to be.• Minimize the use of rules.• Provide footnotes where necessary.• If you did not generate the information yourself, indicate your source. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 104
  105. 105. Horizontal and vertical bar graphs look like this:Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 105
  106. 106. Follow these six guidelines for creating effective bar graphs:• Make the proportions fair.• If possible, begin the quantity scale at zero.• Use tick marks (marks along the axis) to signal the amounts.• Arrange the bars in a logical sequence.• Place the title below the figure.• Indicate the source of your information if you did not generate it yourself. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 106
  107. 107. This is an effective bar graph:Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 107
  108. 108. The basic bar graph has five variations:• grouped bar graph• subdivided bar graph• 100-percent bar graph• deviation bar graph• stratum graph Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 108
  109. 109. This is an effective pictograph: Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 109
  110. 110. This pictograph is misleading:Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 110
  111. 111. Follow these three guidelines for creating effective line graphs:• If possible, begin the quantity scale at zero.• Use reasonable proportions for the vertical and horizontal axes.• Use grid lines—horizontal, vertical, or both— rather than tick marks when your readers need to read the quantities precisely. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 111
  112. 112. This is an effective line graph: Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 112
  113. 113. Follow these eight guidelines for creating effective pie charts:• Restrict the number of slices to six or seven.• Begin with the largest slice at the top and work clockwise in order of decreasing size.• Include a miscellaneous slice for very small quantities.• Label the slices (horizontally, not radially) inside the slice. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 113
  114. 114. Follow these eight guidelines for creating effective pie charts (cont.):• To emphasize one slice, use a bright, contrasting color or separate the slice from the pie.• Check to see that your software follows the appropriate guidelines for pie charts.• Don’t overdo fill patterns.• Check that your percentages add up to 100. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 114
  115. 115. How effective is this graphic? Source: Defense Intelligence Agency, 2003 <www.dia.mil/thisisdia/ DIA_Workforce_of_the_Future.pdf>.Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 115
  116. 116. Use these four techniques to show motion: Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 116
  117. 117. Follow these five guidelines for presenting photographs effectively:• Eliminate extraneous background clutter that can distract readers.• Do not electronically manipulate the photograph.• Help readers understand the perspective.• If appropriate, include a common object to give readers a sense of scale.• If appropriate, label components or important features. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 117
  118. 118. Line drawings offer three advantages over photographs:• Line drawings can focus readers’ attention on desired information better than a photograph can.• Line drawings can highlight information that might be obscured by bad lighting or a bad angle in a photograph• Line drawings are sometimes easier for readers to understand than photographs are. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 118
  119. 119. Line drawings offer a uniqueadvantage over other graphics: Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 119
  120. 120. The basic line drawing has three variations: Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 120
  121. 121. Follow these six guidelines for creatingeffective graphics for multicultural readers:• Be aware that reading patterns differ.• Be aware of varying cultural attitudes toward giving instruction.• Deemphasize trivial details.• Avoid culture-specific language, symbols, and references.• Portray people very carefully.• Be particularly careful in portraying hand gestures. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 121
  122. 122. Writing Recommendation Reports© 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  123. 123. Recommendation reports address four kinds of questions:• What should we do about Problem X?• Should we do Function X?• Should we use Technology A or Technology B to do Function X?• We currently use Method A to do Function X. Should we be using Method B? Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 123
  124. 124. Feasibility reports answer three kinds of questions:• questions of possibility• questions of economic wisdom• questions of perception Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 124
  125. 125. Use a problem-solving methodwhen preparing a recommendation report: • Identify the problem or opportunity. • Establish criteria for responding to the problem or opportunity. • Determine the options. • Study each option according to the criteria. • Draw conclusions about each option. • Formulate recommendations based on the conclusions. Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 125
  126. 126. Use logic boxes to plot a series of options: Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 126
  127. 127. Use a matrix to compare and contrast options:Criteria and Weight Options Ricoh Xerox SharpCriterion Weight Rating Score(1) Rating Score(1) Rating Score(1)Pages/min. 1 9 9 6 6 3 3Duplex 3 1 3 3 9 10 30Color 4 10 40 1 4 10 40Total Score 52 19 73(1) Score = Weight x Rating Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 127
  128. 128. Explain your decision matrix:• Explain why you chose each criterion—or didn’t choose a criterion readers might have expected.• Explain why you assigned a particular weight to each criterion.• Explain why you assigned a particular rating to each option. Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 6
  129. 129. You can present your conclusions in one of three ways:• Rank all the options.• Classify all the options in two categories: acceptable and unacceptable.• Present a compound conclusion. Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 129
  130. 130. Most recommendation reports have three major sections:• the body of the report• the front matter• the back matter Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 130
  131. 131. A typical recommendation report has five body elements:• introduction• methods• results• conclusions• recommendations Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 131
  132. 132. An introduction typically answers nine questions:• What is the subject of the report?• What is the purpose of the report?• What is the background of the report?• What are your sources of information?• What is the scope of the report? Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 132
  133. 133. An introduction typically answers nine questions (cont.):• What are the most significant findings?• What are your recommendations?• What is the organization of the report?• What key terms are you using in the report? Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 133
  134. 134. Address the following four questions when writing the body of your report:• Methods. What did you do?• Results. What did you see?• Conclusions. What does it mean?• Recommendations. What should we do? Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 134
  135. 135. Consider these four factors when writing your recommendations:• content• tone• form• location Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 135
  136. 136. A typical recommendation reportcontains seven elements in the front matter: • letter of transmittal • cover • title page • abstract • table of contents • list of illustrations • executive summary Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 136
  137. 137. Understand the difference betweena descriptive and an informative abstract:• A descriptive abstract describes the kinds of information contained in the report.• An informative abstract presents the major findings. Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 137
  138. 138. Follow these five guidelines when writing an executive summary:• Use specific evidence in describing the background.• Be specific in describing the research.• Describe the methods briefly.• Describe the findings according to your readers’ needs.• Ask an outside reader to review your draft. Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 138
  139. 139. A typical recommendation reportincludes three elements in the back matter: • glossary and list of symbols • references • appendixes Chapter 19. Writing Recommendation Reports © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 139

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