Proposals

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Proposals

  1. 1. Audiences, Research, Organization, Persuasion, Proposals ENG 3302Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose ©2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  2. 2. Table of Contents SlidesAnalyzing Audience 3Research 16Organizing Info 39Communicating Persuasively 54Proposals 67 Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  3. 3. Analyzing Your Audience and PurposeChapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose ©2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  4. 4. Determine four important characteristics of your audience:• Who are your readers?• Why is your audience reading your document?• What are your readers’ attitudes and expectations?• How will your readers use your document? Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 4
  5. 5. Consider six factors about your most important readers:• the reader’s education• the reader’s professional experience• the reader’s job responsibility• the reader’s personal characteristics• the reader’s personal preferences• the reader’s cultural characteristics Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 5
  6. 6. Classify your readers into three categories: • a primary audience of people who will use your document in carrying out their jobs • a secondary audience of people who need to stay aware of developments in the organization but who will not directly act on or respond to your document • a tertiary audience of people who might take an interest in the subject of the document Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 6
  7. 7. Your readers have attitudes and expectations:• attitudes toward you• attitudes toward the subject• expectations about the document Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 7
  8. 8. Why and how will your readers use your document?• Why is the reader reading your document?• How will the reader read your document?• What is the reader’s reading skill level?• What is the physical environment in which the reader will read your document? Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 8
  9. 9. Learn about your audience:• Determine what you already know about your audience.• Interview people.• Read about your audience online.• Search social media for documents your audience has written. Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 9
  10. 10. Understand seven cultural variables that lie “on the surface”:• political• economic• social• religious• educational• technological• linguistic Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 10
  11. 11. Understand six cultural variables that lie “beneath the surface”:• focus on individuals or groups• distance between business life and private life• distance between ranks• nature of truth• need to spell out details• attitudes toward uncertainty Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 11
  12. 12. Consider four points aboutcultural variables “beneath the surface”:• Each variable represents a spectrum of attitudes.• The six variables do not line up in a clear pattern.• Different organizations within the same culture can vary greatly.• An organization’s cultural attitudes are fluid, not static. Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 12
  13. 13. Use these eight strategies when writing for readers from other cultures:• Limit your vocabulary.• Keep sentences short.• Define abbreviations and acronyms in a glossary.• Avoid jargon unless you know your readers are familiar with it. Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 13
  14. 14. Use these eight strategies when writing for readers from other cultures (cont.):• Avoid idioms and slang.• Use the active voice whenever possible.• Be careful with graphics.• Be sure someone from the target culture reviews the document. Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  15. 15. Determine your purpose:Ask yourself:• What do I want this document to accomplish?• What do I want readers to know or believe?• What do I want readers to do? Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 15
  16. 16. Researching Your SubjectChapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose ©2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  17. 17. Understand the differences between academic and workplace research:• In academic research, your goal is to find information that will help you answer a scholarly question.• In workplace research, your goal is to find information that will help you answer a practical question, usually one that involves the organization for which you work. Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 17
  18. 18. The research process consists of 12 steps: • Analyze your audience. • Analyze your purpose. • Analyze your subject. • Visualize the deliverable. • Work out a schedule and a budget. • Determine what information will need to be part of that deliverable. Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 18
  19. 19. The research process consists of 12 steps (cont.):• Determine what information you still need to acquire.• Create questions you need to answer in your deliverable.• Conduct secondary research.• Conduct primary research.• Evaluate your information.• Do more research. Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 19
  20. 20. Choose appropriate research methods:• What types of research media might you use?• What types of research tools might you use?• What types of primary research might you conduct? Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 20
  21. 21. Follow three guidelines when researching a topic:• Be persistent.• Record your data carefully.• Triangulate your research methods. Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 21
  22. 22. Know the four types of information media: • print • online databases • Web sites • social media Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 22
  23. 23. Know how to use six basic research tools:• online catalogs• reference works• periodical indexes• newspaper indexes• abstract services• government information Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 23
  24. 24. Understand these five forms of social media: • discussion boards • wikis • blogs • tagged content • RSS feeds Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 24
  25. 25. Look for information that is . . .• accurate• unbiased• comprehensive• appropriately technical• current• clear Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 25
  26. 26. When evaluating print and online sources, examine these five factors:• authorship• publisher• knowledge of the literature• accuracy and verifiability of the information• timeliness Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 26
  27. 27. Understand the seven techniques of primary research:• observations and demonstrations• inspections• experiments• field research• interviews• inquiries• questionnaires Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 27
  28. 28. Conducting an experiment consists of four phases:• establishing a hypothesis• testing the hypothesis• analyzing the data• reporting the data Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 28
  29. 29. Field research is vulnerable to two common problems:• the effect of the experiment on the behavior you are studying• bias in the recording and analysis of the data Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 29
  30. 30. Consider three factors when choosing a person to interview:• What questions do you want to answer?• Who could provide the information you need?• Is the person willing to be interviewed? Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 30
  31. 31. Prepare for the interview:• Do your homework.• Prepare good questions.• Check your equipment. Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 31
  32. 32. Begin the interview:• Arrive on time.• Thank the respondent.• State the subject and purpose of the interview.• If you want to record the interview, ask permission. Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 32
  33. 33. Conduct the interview:• Take notes.• Start with prepared questions.• Be prepared to ask follow-up questions.• Be prepared to get the interview back on track. Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 33
  34. 34. Conclude the interview:• Thank the respondent.• Ask for a follow-up interview.• Ask for permission to quote the respondent. Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 34
  35. 35. After the interview, do two tasks:• Write down the important information while the interview is fresh in your mind.• Send a brief thank-you note. Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 35
  36. 36. Questionnaires are vulnerable to three problems:• Some of the questions will misfire.• You won’t obtain as many responses as you want.• You cannot be sure the respondents are representative. Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 36
  37. 37. Using questionnaires effectively calls for four steps:• Ask effective questions.• Test the questionnaire.• Administer the questionnaire.• Present questionnaire data in your document. Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 37
  38. 38. Understand the six common types of questions:• multiple choice• Likert scale• semantic differentials• ranking• short answer• short essay Chapter 6. Researching Your Subject © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 38
  39. 39. Organizing InfoChapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose ©2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  40. 40. Understand three principles for organizing technical information:• Analyze your audience and purpose.• Use conventional patterns of organization.• Display your organizational pattern prominently in the document. Chapter 7. Organizing Your Information © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 40
  41. 41. Ask four questions when you study documents from other cultures:• Does the text follow expected organizational patterns?• Do the introductions and conclusions present the kind of information you would expect?• Does the text appear to be organized linearly?• Does the text use headings? If so, does it use more than one level? Chapter 7. Organizing Your Information © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 41
  42. 42. Display your organizational pattern prominently:• Create a detailed table of contents.• Use headings liberally.• Use topic sentences at the beginnings of your paragraphs. Chapter 7. Organizing Your Information © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 42
  43. 43. Understand eight typical patterns of organization:• chronological• spatial• general to specific• more important to less important• comparison and contrast• classification and partition• problem-methods-solution• cause and effect Chapter 7. Organizing Your Information © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 43
  44. 44. Follow these three guidelines fororganizing information chronologically:• Provide signposts.• Consider using graphics to complement the text.• Analyze events where appropriate. Chapter 7. Organizing Your Information © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 44
  45. 45. Follow these three guidelines for organizing information spatially:• Provide signposts.• Consider using graphics to complement the text.• Analyze events where appropriate. Chapter 7. Organizing Your Information © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 45
  46. 46. An example ofinformation organized spatially Source: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2010 <www.metmuseum. org/toah/world- regions/#/09/World- Map>.Chapter 7. Organizing Your Information © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 46
  47. 47. Follow these two guidelines for organizing information from general to specific: • Provide signposts. • Consider using graphics to complement the text. Chapter 7. Organizing Your Information © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 47
  48. 48. Follow three guidelines for organizing information from more important to less important: • Provide signposts. • Explain why one point is more important than another. • Consider using graphics to complement the text. Chapter 7. Organizing Your Information © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 48
  49. 49. Follow these four guidelines for organizing information by comparison and contrast: • Establish criteria for the comparison and contrast. • Evaluate each item according to the criteria you have established. • Organize the discussion. • Consider using graphics to complement the text. Chapter 7. Organizing Your Information © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 49
  50. 50. Follow these six guidelines for organizing information by classification or partition:• Choose a basis of classification or partition that fits your audience and purpose.• Use only one basis of classification or partition at a time.• Avoid overlap.• Be inclusive.• Arrange the categories in a logical sequence.• Consider using graphics to complement the text. Chapter 7. Organizing Your Information © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 50
  51. 51. An example of information organized by partition Source: Canon, 2010 <www.usa- canon.com/cusa/cons umer/products/camera s/digital_cameras/pow ershot_sx210_is#Box Content>.Chapter 7. Organizing Your Information © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 51
  52. 52. Follow these five guidelines for organizinginformation by problem-methods-solution: • In describing the problem, be clear and specific. • In describing your methods, help your readers understand what you did and why you did it that way. • In describing the solution, don’t overstate. • Choose a logical sequence. • Consider using graphics to complement the text. Chapter 7. Organizing Your Information © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 52
  53. 53. Follow these four guidelines fororganizing information by cause and effect: • Explain your reasoning. • Avoid overstating your argument. • Avoid logical fallacies. • Consider using graphics to complement the text. Chapter 7. Organizing Your Information © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 53
  54. 54. Communicating PersuasivelyChapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose ©2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  55. 55. Consider your audience’s four broader goals:• security• recognition• professional growth• connectedness Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 55
  56. 56. Work within eight constraints:• ethical• legal• political• informational• personnel• financial• time• format and tone Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 56
  57. 57. Follow six steps to craft a persuasive argument:• Identify the elements of a persuasive argument.• Use the right kinds of evidence.• Consider opposing viewpoints.• Appeal to emotions responsibly.• Decide where to present the claim.• Understand the role of culture in persuasion. Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 57
  58. 58. Understand the three elements of a persuasive argument:• The claim—the idea you are communicating.• The evidence—the facts and judgments that support your claim.• The reasoning—the logic that you use to derive the claim from the evidence. Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 58
  59. 59. Use the right kinds of evidence:• “commonsense” arguments• numerical data• examples• expert testimony Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 59
  60. 60. Consider three ways of meeting possible objections to your argument:• Show that the opposing argument is based on illogical reasoning or on inaccurate or incomplete facts.• Show that the opposing argument is valid but less powerful than your own.• Show how the two arguments can be reconciled. Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 60
  61. 61. Understand the role of culture in persuasion: • Know what each culture regards as a persuasive argument. • Know how each culture structures a persuasive argument. Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 61
  62. 62. Avoid ten common logical fallacies:• ad hominem argument, or argument against the speaker• argument from ignorance• appeal to pity• argument from authority• circular argument, or begging the question Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 62
  63. 63. Avoid ten common logical fallacies (cont.):• either-or argument• ad populum argument, or bandwagon argument• hasty generalization, or inadequate sampling• post hoc reasoning• oversimplifying Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 63
  64. 64. Demonstrate four characteristics when creating a professional persona:• cooperativeness• moderation• fair-mindedness• modesty Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 64
  65. 65. An example of using words and images to create a persuasive argumentCaption: “A young boy works 12-hour days packing mud bricks in Liberia.” Source: U.S. Department of State, 2009 <www.state.gov/documents/organization/123360.pdf>. Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 65
  66. 66. An example of using an image to convey technical evidence Source: Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, 2008 <www.iihs.org/ratings/rating.aspx?id5867>.Chapter 8. Communicating Persuasively © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 66
  67. 67. Writing ProposalsChapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose ©2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  68. 68. Writing a proposal requires seven steps:• Analyze your audience.• Analyze your purpose.• Gather information about your subject.• Choose the appropriate type of proposal.• Draft the proposal.• Format the proposal.• Revise, edit, proofread, and submit the proposal. Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 68
  69. 69. The logistics of proposalsChapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 69
  70. 70. Solicited and unsolicited proposals respond to different needs:• Solicited proposals are sent in response to an information for bid (IFB) or a request for proposal (RFP).• Unsolicited proposals are submitted by a supplier who believes that the prospective customer has a need for goods or services. Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 70
  71. 71. Proposals lead to two kinds of deliverables: • research • goods and services Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 71
  72. 72. A successful proposal is a persuasive argument:• Show that you understand your readers’ needs.• Show that you have decided what you plan to do and that you are able to do it.• Show that you are a professional and that you are committed to fulfilling your promises. Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 72
  73. 73. Follow these six suggestions when writing international proposals:• Understand that what makes an argument persuasive can differ from one culture to another.• Budget enough time for translating.• Use simple graphics, with captions.• Write short sentences, using common vocabulary.• Use local conventions regarding punctuation, spelling, and mechanics.• Ask if the prospective customer will do a read- through. Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 73
  74. 74. Follow these four guidelines to demonstrate your professionalism:• Describe your credentials and work history.• Provide your work schedule.• Describe your quality-control measures.• Include your budget. Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 74
  75. 75. Avoid these four common dishonest practices:• saying that certain qualified people will participate in the project, even though they will not• saying that the project will be finished by a certain date, even though it will not• saying that the deliverable will have certain characteristics, even though it will not• saying that the project will be completed under budget, even though it will not Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 75
  76. 76. There are three reasons to write honest proposals:• to avoid serious legal trouble stemming from breach-of-contract suits• to avoid acquiring a bad reputation, thus ruining your business• to do the right thing Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 76
  77. 77. To follow through on a proposal,you need three categories of resources:• personnel• facilities• equipment Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 77
  78. 78. A typical proposal includes six sections:• summary• introduction• proposed program• qualifications and experience• budget• appendixes Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 78
  79. 79. An introduction answers seven questions:•What is the problem or opportunity?•What is the purpose of the proposal?•What is the background of the problem or opportunity?•What are your sources of information?•What is the scope of the proposal?•What is the organization of the proposal?•What key terms will you use in the proposal? Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 79
  80. 80. Task schedules are presented in one of three formats:• table• bar chart or Gantt chart• network diagram Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 80
  81. 81. An example of a task schedule as a table Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 81
  82. 82. An example of a task schedule as a bar chartChapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 82
  83. 83. An example of a task schedule as a network diagramA network diagram provides more useful information than either atable or a bar chart. Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 83
  84. 84. There are several techniques for evaluating completed work:• quantitative evaluations• qualitative evaluations• formative evaluations• summative evaluations Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 84

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