Designing Documents, WritingCorrespondence, Writing Job Materials                       ENG 3302Chapter 11. Designing Docu...
Table of ContentsTopic                                     SlidesDocument Design                           3-39Writing Cor...
Document and Web design has five goals:• to make a good impression on readers• to help readers understand the structure an...
There are four principles of design:•   proximity•   alignment•   repetition•   contrast     Chapter 11. Designing Documen...
Proximity organizes this image:                                                           Source: U.S. Department of State...
Alignment organizes this image:                           Source: Carnegie Science Center, n.d.Chapter 11. Designing Docum...
Repetition organizes this image:                              Source: Myers, 2007, p. 362.Chapter 11. Designing Documents ...
Contrast clarifies this image:                Source: Lambert Coffin, 2010 <www.lambertcoffin.com/index.php?sid=2>.Chapter...
To plan a design, take these two steps:• Analyze your audience and purpose.• Determine your resources.     Chapter 11. Des...
For multicultural readers,     consider four cultural preferences:•   paper size•   typeface preferences•   color preferen...
Determine your resources:• Time. What is your schedule?• Money. Can you afford professional  designers, print shops, and W...
Consider these four elements           when designing documents:•   size (page size and page count)•   paper•   bindings• ...
Select one of four               common types of binding:•   loose-leaf binders•   ring or spiral binders•   saddle bindin...
Consider using six typical accessing aids:•   icons•   color•   dividers and tabs•   cross-reference tables•   headers and...
Understand how learning        theory relates to page design:• chunking• queuing• filtering   Chapter 11. Designing Docume...
Use two elements           to create your page layout:• page grids• white space   Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web ...
Margins have four purposes:• to limit the amount of information on the page,  making the document easier to read and use• ...
A document bound like a book         has these margins:Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites   © 2012 by Bedford/S...
A multicolumn design              offers three advantages:• Text is easier to read because the lines are  shorter.• Column...
Typography includes seven topics:•   typefaces•   type families•   case•   type size•   line length•   line spacing•   jus...
Different typefaces            make different impressions:This paragraph is typed in Monotype Corsiva typeface. You are un...
Two main categories of typefaces    are serif and sans serif:    N N    serif                   sans serifChapter 11. Desi...
A type family includes many variations:Some of the members of the Helvetica family:    Helvetica    Helvetica Bold    Helv...
Case affects readability:Lowercase letters are easier to read:  Individual variations are greater in lowercase words  THAN...
Different functions             call for different type sizes:footnotes            8- or 9-point typebody text            ...
Use line spacing carefully             when designing headings:SummaryIn this example, the writer has skipped a line betwe...
Use other design features              for clarity and emphasis:•   rules•   boxes•   screens•   marginal glosses•   pull ...
These six principles will help you    design effective Web sites and pages:•   Create informative headers and footers.•   ...
Follow these five guidelines for    making your site easy to navigate:• Include a site map or index.• Use a table of conte...
This is a typical site map:       Source: National Institutes of Health, 2010 <www.genome.gov/sitemap.cfm>.Chapter 11. Des...
This is a typical table of contents:            Source: U.S. Copyright Office, 2010 <www.copyright.gov/help/faq>.Chapter 1...
Include extra features               your readers might need:•   an FAQ•   a search page or engine•   resource links•   a ...
Consider these three types of disabilities:• vision impairment• hearing impairment• mobility impairment   Chapter 11. Desi...
Follow these three suggestionswhen designing for multicultural audiences: • Use common words and short sentences and   par...
Follow these four guidelines          for designing a simple site:• Use simple backgrounds.• Use conservative color combin...
Follow these three suggestions        to make text easy to read:• Keep the text short.• Chunk information.• Make the text ...
Follow these three suggestions      to write clear, informative links:• Structure your sentences as if there were no  link...
This is an effective page design:                     Source: Gorzalka, 2011 <http://clearideaz.com>.Chapter 11. Designing...
This is an effective page design:                    Source: Tumblr, 2011 <www.tumblr.com/about>.Chapter 11. Designing Doc...
Writing CorrespondenceChapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites   ©2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
The process of writing    correspondence includes eight steps:• Analyze your audience.• Analyze your purpose.• Gather info...
Select the appropriate application:• Letters are the most formal and most  appropriate for communicating with people  outs...
Use these five principles             to present yourself effectively:•   Use the appropriate level of formality.•   Commu...
Most letters include six elements:• heading• inside address• salutation• body• complimentary close• signature   Chapter 14...
Some letters include additional elements:• attention line• subject line• header for second and subsequent pages• enclosure...
Most letters use one of two formats:• modified block• full block   Chapter 14. Writing Correspondence              © 2012 ...
Four types of letters are common:• inquiry• response to inquiry• claim• adjustment  Chapter 14. Writing Correspondence    ...
Use this strategy when                writing an inquiry letter:• Explain who you are and why you are writing.• Make your ...
Use this strategy when          responding to an inquiry letter:• Answer the questions if you can.• If you cannot answer t...
Use this strategy               when writing a claim letter:• Use a professional tone.• Clearly identify the product or se...
Use this strategy when writing a bad-news adjustment letter:• Meet the customer on neutral ground.• Summarize the facts as...
Use these five elements                to organize most memos:•   a specific subject line•   a clear statement of purpose•...
Follow these eight netiquette          guidelines when writing e-mail:•   Stick to business.•   Don’t waste bandwidth.•   ...
Follow these eight netiquette guidelines when writing e-mail (cont.):• Make your message easy on the eyes.• Don’t forward ...
Remember three things                  when writing microblogs:• You are creating an archived communication  that reflects...
Consider three factors when        writing to intercultural readers:• the cultural practices of your readers• the language...
Writing Job MaterialsChapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites   ©2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
The process for preparing job-application    materials includes seven steps:• Plan the job search.• Decide how to look for...
In planning a job search,              carry out these four tasks:•   Do a self-inventory.•   Learn about the employers.• ...
You can look for a job eight ways:• through a college or university placement office• through a professional placement bur...
Ask these four questions      before posting to a job board:• Who has access to your résumé?• How will you know if an empl...
Assume that employers will search theInternet while screening job applicants:• Periodically check Internet content about  ...
There are three reasons            to write your own résumé:• You know yourself better than anyone else  does.• Employment...
An attractive résumé               has four characteristics:• generous margins• clear type• balanced appearance• clear org...
The résumé must meet three standards:• It must provide clear, specific information,  without generalizations or self-congr...
A chronological résumé has six elements: • identifying information • objectives or summary of qualifications • education •...
Follow these three suggestionswhen drafting a statement of objectives:• State only the goals or duties explicitly  mention...
Include these five elements            in the education section:• the degree• the institution• the location of the institu...
Follow these four guidelines when elaborating on your education:• List your grade-point average.• Compile a list of course...
Present these details     about your employment history:• skills• equipment• money• documents• personnel• clients    Chapt...
Include information about          your interests and activities:• participation in community-service  organizations• hobb...
Follow these three suggestions       when providing references:• Decide whether and how you want to present  the reference...
Some résumés         contain additional information:•   computer skills•   military experience•   language ability•   will...
A skills résumé includes seven sections:• identifying information• objective or summary of qualifications• skills• educati...
Electronic résumés can take four forms:• a formatted résumé attached to an e-mail  message• a text résumé• a scannable rés...
Follow these three guidelines      when preparing a text résumé:• Use ASCII text only.• Left-align the information.• Send ...
Follow these seven guidelines when preparing a scannable résumé:• Use a good-quality laser printer.• Use white paper.• Do ...
Follow two principles when      drafting a job-application letter:• Selectivity. Select two or three points of  greatest i...
The introductory paragraph              has four functions:• It identifies your source of information.• It identifies the ...
The concluding paragraph             includes three elements:• a reference to your résumé• a polite but confident request ...
Follow these six guidelines   when preparing for a job interview:• Study job interviews.• Study the organization to which ...
Consider these seven     questions before a job interview:• When should you arrive for the interview?• What should you wea...
Write one of these four follow-up  letters or e-mails after the interview:• letter of appreciation after an interview• let...
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  1. 1. Designing Documents, WritingCorrespondence, Writing Job Materials ENG 3302Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites ©2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  2. 2. Table of ContentsTopic SlidesDocument Design 3-39Writing Correspondence 40-56Writing Job Materials 57-83 Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  3. 3. Document and Web design has five goals:• to make a good impression on readers• to help readers understand the structure and hierarchy of the information• to help readers find the information they need• to help readers understand the information• to help readers remember the information Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 3
  4. 4. There are four principles of design:• proximity• alignment• repetition• contrast Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 4
  5. 5. Proximity organizes this image: Source: U.S. Department of State, 2011 <http://future.state.gov>.Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 5
  6. 6. Alignment organizes this image: Source: Carnegie Science Center, n.d.Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 6
  7. 7. Repetition organizes this image: Source: Myers, 2007, p. 362.Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 7
  8. 8. Contrast clarifies this image: Source: Lambert Coffin, 2010 <www.lambertcoffin.com/index.php?sid=2>.Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 8
  9. 9. To plan a design, take these two steps:• Analyze your audience and purpose.• Determine your resources. Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 9
  10. 10. For multicultural readers, consider four cultural preferences:• paper size• typeface preferences• color preferences• text direction Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 10
  11. 11. Determine your resources:• Time. What is your schedule?• Money. Can you afford professional designers, print shops, and Web developers?• Equipment. Do you have graphics software, desktop-publishing programs, and a printer? Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 11
  12. 12. Consider these four elements when designing documents:• size (page size and page count)• paper• bindings• accessing aids Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 12
  13. 13. Select one of four common types of binding:• loose-leaf binders• ring or spiral binders• saddle binding• perfect binding Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 13
  14. 14. Consider using six typical accessing aids:• icons• color• dividers and tabs• cross-reference tables• headers and footers• page numbering Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 14
  15. 15. Understand how learning theory relates to page design:• chunking• queuing• filtering Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 15
  16. 16. Use two elements to create your page layout:• page grids• white space Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 16
  17. 17. Margins have four purposes:• to limit the amount of information on the page, making the document easier to read and use• to provide space for binding and allow readers to hold the page without covering up the text• to provide a neat frame around the type• to provide space for marginal glosses Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 17
  18. 18. A document bound like a book has these margins:Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 18
  19. 19. A multicolumn design offers three advantages:• Text is easier to read because the lines are shorter.• Columns allow you to fit more information on the page.• Columns let you use the principle of repetition to create a visual pattern. Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 19
  20. 20. Typography includes seven topics:• typefaces• type families• case• type size• line length• line spacing• justification Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 20
  21. 21. Different typefaces make different impressions:This paragraph is typed in Monotype Corsiva typeface. You are unlikelyto see this style of font in a technical document because it is too ornateand too hard to read.This paragraph is Times Roman, an effective typeface for textin the body of technical documents.This paragraph is Tahoma, which has a modern, high-tech look. It is best suited for headings and titles intechnical documents. Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 21
  22. 22. Two main categories of typefaces are serif and sans serif: N N serif sans serifChapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 22
  23. 23. A type family includes many variations:Some of the members of the Helvetica family: Helvetica Helvetica Bold Helvetica Bold Italic Helvetica Narrow Helvetica Narrow Bold Helvetica Narrow Bold Italic Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 23
  24. 24. Case affects readability:Lowercase letters are easier to read: Individual variations are greater in lowercase words THAN THEY ARE IN UPPERCASE WORDS. Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 24
  25. 25. Different functions call for different type sizes:footnotes 8- or 9-point typebody text 10-, 11-, or 12-point typeheadings 2 to 4 points larger than body textindexes 2 points smaller than body texttitles 18 or 24 pointsslides 24- to 36-point type Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 25
  26. 26. Use line spacing carefully when designing headings:SummaryIn this example, the writer has skipped a line betweenthe heading and the text that follows it.SummaryIn this example, the writer has not skipped a line. Theheading stands out, but not as emphatically.Summary. This run-in style makes the heading standout the least. Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 26
  27. 27. Use other design features for clarity and emphasis:• rules• boxes• screens• marginal glosses• pull quotes Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 27
  28. 28. These six principles will help you design effective Web sites and pages:• Create informative headers and footers.• Help readers navigate the site.• Include extra features readers might need.• Help readers connect with others.• Design for readers with disabilities.• Design for multicultural readers. Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 28
  29. 29. Follow these five guidelines for making your site easy to navigate:• Include a site map or index.• Use a table of contents at the top of long pages.• Help readers get back to the top of long pages.• Include a link to the home page on every page.• Include textual navigational links at the bottom of the page. Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 29
  30. 30. This is a typical site map: Source: National Institutes of Health, 2010 <www.genome.gov/sitemap.cfm>.Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 30
  31. 31. This is a typical table of contents: Source: U.S. Copyright Office, 2010 <www.copyright.gov/help/faq>.Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 31
  32. 32. Include extra features your readers might need:• an FAQ• a search page or engine• resource links• a printable version of your site• a text-only version of your site Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 32
  33. 33. Consider these three types of disabilities:• vision impairment• hearing impairment• mobility impairment Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 33
  34. 34. Follow these three suggestionswhen designing for multicultural audiences: • Use common words and short sentences and paragraphs. • Avoid idioms, both verbal and visual, that might be confusing. • If a large percentage of your readers speak a language other than English, consider creating a version of your site in that language. Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 34
  35. 35. Follow these four guidelines for designing a simple site:• Use simple backgrounds.• Use conservative color combinations to increase text legibility.• Avoid decorative graphics.• Use thumbnail graphics. Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 35
  36. 36. Follow these three suggestions to make text easy to read:• Keep the text short.• Chunk information.• Make the text as simple as possible. Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 36
  37. 37. Follow these three suggestions to write clear, informative links:• Structure your sentences as if there were no links in your text.• Indicate what information the linked page contains.• Use standard colors for text links. Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 37
  38. 38. This is an effective page design: Source: Gorzalka, 2011 <http://clearideaz.com>.Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 38
  39. 39. This is an effective page design: Source: Tumblr, 2011 <www.tumblr.com/about>.Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 39
  40. 40. Writing CorrespondenceChapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites ©2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  41. 41. The process of writing correspondence includes eight steps:• Analyze your audience.• Analyze your purpose.• Gather information about your subject.• Choose a type of correspondence.• Draft the correspondence.• Format the correspondence.• Revise, edit, and proofread the correspondence.• Send the correspondence. Chapter 14. Writing Correspondence © 2012 by Bedford/St. 41 Martins
  42. 42. Select the appropriate application:• Letters are the most formal and most appropriate for communicating with people outside your organization.• Memos are moderately formal and appropriate for people in your organization.• E-mail is best for quick, relatively informal communication.• Microblog posts (Twitter tweets, Facebook status updates) can be useful for informal questions or statements addressed to a group. Chapter 14. Writing Correspondence © 2012 by Bedford/St. 42 Martins
  43. 43. Use these five principles to present yourself effectively:• Use the appropriate level of formality.• Communicate correctly.• Project the “you attitude.”• Avoid correspondence clichés.• Communicate honestly. Chapter 14. Writing Correspondence © 2012 by Bedford/St. 43 Martins
  44. 44. Most letters include six elements:• heading• inside address• salutation• body• complimentary close• signature Chapter 14. Writing Correspondence © 2012 by Bedford/St. 44 Martins
  45. 45. Some letters include additional elements:• attention line• subject line• header for second and subsequent pages• enclosure line• copy line Chapter 14. Writing Correspondence © 2012 by Bedford/St. 45 Martins
  46. 46. Most letters use one of two formats:• modified block• full block Chapter 14. Writing Correspondence © 2012 by Bedford/St. 46 Martins
  47. 47. Four types of letters are common:• inquiry• response to inquiry• claim• adjustment Chapter 14. Writing Correspondence © 2012 by Bedford/St. 47 Martins
  48. 48. Use this strategy when writing an inquiry letter:• Explain who you are and why you are writing.• Make your questions precise and clear.• Indicate your schedule.• Politely request a response.• Offer something in return.• Always write a thank-you note to the person who has responded to your inquiry letter. Chapter 14. Writing Correspondence © 2012 by Bedford/St. 48 Martins
  49. 49. Use this strategy when responding to an inquiry letter:• Answer the questions if you can.• If you cannot answer the questions, explain the reasons and offer to assist with other requests.• Include additional information, if appropriate. Chapter 14. Writing Correspondence © 2012 by Bedford/St. 49 Martins
  50. 50. Use this strategy when writing a claim letter:• Use a professional tone.• Clearly identify the product or service you are writing about.• Explain the problem and include persuasive details.• Propose a solution. Chapter 14. Writing Correspondence © 2012 by Bedford/St. 50 Martins
  51. 51. Use this strategy when writing a bad-news adjustment letter:• Meet the customer on neutral ground.• Summarize the facts as you see them.• Explain why you are unable to fulfill the request.• Create goodwill. Chapter 14. Writing Correspondence © 2012 by Bedford/St. 51 Martins
  52. 52. Use these five elements to organize most memos:• a specific subject line• a clear statement of purpose• a brief summary• informative headings• a prominent recommendation Chapter 14. Writing Correspondence © 2012 by Bedford/St. 52 Martins
  53. 53. Follow these eight netiquette guidelines when writing e-mail:• Stick to business.• Don’t waste bandwidth.• Use appropriate formality.• Write correctly.• Don’t flame. Chapter 14. Writing Correspondence © 2012 by Bedford/St. 53 Martins
  54. 54. Follow these eight netiquette guidelines when writing e-mail (cont.):• Make your message easy on the eyes.• Don’t forward a message to an online discussion forum without the writer’s permission.• Don’t send a message unless you have something to say. Chapter 14. Writing Correspondence © 2012 by Bedford/St. 54 Martins
  55. 55. Remember three things when writing microblogs:• You are creating an archived communication that reflects on you and your organization.• Anything you write is subject to the same laws and regulations that pertain to all other kinds of documents.• The best way to understand your responsibilities is to study your organization’s guidelines. Chapter 14. Writing Correspondence © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 15
  56. 56. Consider three factors when writing to intercultural readers:• the cultural practices of your readers• the language use and tone preferred by your readers• the application choice and use preferred by your readers Chapter 14. Writing Correspondence © 2012 by Bedford/St. 56 Martins
  57. 57. Writing Job MaterialsChapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites ©2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  58. 58. The process for preparing job-application materials includes seven steps:• Plan the job search.• Decide how to look for a position.• Learn as much as you can about the organizations to which you will apply.• Draft the résumé and application letter.• Revise, edit, and proofread the résumé and letter.• Prepare for job interviews.• Write appropriate follow-up letters. Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 58
  59. 59. In planning a job search, carry out these four tasks:• Do a self-inventory.• Learn about the employers.• Prepare a résumé and job-application letter.• Prepare a portfolio. Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 59
  60. 60. You can look for a job eight ways:• through a college or university placement office• through a professional placement bureau• through a published job ad• through an organizations Web site• through a job board on the Internet• through your connections on social media• through personal connections• through an unsolicited letter to an organization Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 60
  61. 61. Ask these four questions before posting to a job board:• Who has access to your résumé?• How will you know if an employer requests your résumé?• Can your current employer see your résumé?• Can you update your résumé at no cost? Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 61
  62. 62. Assume that employers will search theInternet while screening job applicants:• Periodically check Internet content about yourself.• Use accounts on social-media sites to make a good first impression.• Create a profile tailored to the type of job you seek.• Project a professional persona.• Follow through with what you say you will do.• Help others make career connections. Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 62
  63. 63. There are three reasons to write your own résumé:• You know yourself better than anyone else does.• Employment officers know the style of the local agencies.• If you write your own résumé, you will be more likely to adapt it to different situations. Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 63
  64. 64. An attractive résumé has four characteristics:• generous margins• clear type• balanced appearance• clear organization Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 64
  65. 65. The résumé must meet three standards:• It must provide clear, specific information, without generalizations or self-congratulation.• It must be free of errors.• It must be honest. Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 65
  66. 66. A chronological résumé has six elements: • identifying information • objectives or summary of qualifications • education • employment history • interests and activities • references Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 66
  67. 67. Follow these three suggestionswhen drafting a statement of objectives:• State only the goals or duties explicitly mentioned, or clearly implied, in the job advertisement.• Focus on the reader’s needs, not on your goals.• Be specific. Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 67
  68. 68. Include these five elements in the education section:• the degree• the institution• the location of the institution• the date of graduation• information about other schools you attended Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 68
  69. 69. Follow these four guidelines when elaborating on your education:• List your grade-point average.• Compile a list of courses.• Describe a special accomplishment.• List honors and awards you received. Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 69
  70. 70. Present these details about your employment history:• skills• equipment• money• documents• personnel• clients Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 70
  71. 71. Include information about your interests and activities:• participation in community-service organizations• hobbies related to your career• sports, especially those that might be socially useful in your professional career• university-sanctioned activities Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 71
  72. 72. Follow these three suggestions when providing references:• Decide whether and how you want to present the references.• Choose your references carefully.• Give the potential reference an opportunity to decline gracefully. Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 72
  73. 73. Some résumés contain additional information:• computer skills• military experience• language ability• willingness to relocate Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 73
  74. 74. A skills résumé includes seven sections:• identifying information• objective or summary of qualifications• skills• education• employment history• interests and activities• references Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 74
  75. 75. Electronic résumés can take four forms:• a formatted résumé attached to an e-mail message• a text résumé• a scannable résumé—one that will be scanned into an organizations database• a Web-based résumé Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 75
  76. 76. Follow these three guidelines when preparing a text résumé:• Use ASCII text only.• Left-align the information.• Send yourself a test version of the résumé. Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 76
  77. 77. Follow these seven guidelines when preparing a scannable résumé:• Use a good-quality laser printer.• Use white paper.• Do not fold the résumé.• Use a simple sans-serif typeface.• Use a single-column format.• Use wide margins.• Use the space bar instead of the tab key. Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 77
  78. 78. Follow two principles when drafting a job-application letter:• Selectivity. Select two or three points of greatest interest to the potential employer.• Development. Develop those points into paragraphs emphasizing results. Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 78
  79. 79. The introductory paragraph has four functions:• It identifies your source of information.• It identifies the position you are interested in.• It states that you wish to be considered for the position.• It forecasts the rest of the letter. Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 79
  80. 80. The concluding paragraph includes three elements:• a reference to your résumé• a polite but confident request for an interview• your phone number and e-mail address Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 80
  81. 81. Follow these six guidelines when preparing for a job interview:• Study job interviews.• Study the organization to which you applied.• Think about what you can offer the organization.• Study lists of common interview questions.• Compile a list of questions you wish to ask.• Rehearse the interview. Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 81
  82. 82. Consider these seven questions before a job interview:• When should you arrive for the interview?• What should you wear?• How do interviewers interpret your body language?• What questions are you likely to be asked?• How long should your answers be?• How do you know when the interviewer wishes to end the interview?• How can you get the interviewer’s contact information to write a follow-up letter? Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 82
  83. 83. Write one of these four follow-up letters or e-mails after the interview:• letter of appreciation after an interview• letter accepting a job offer• letter rejecting a job offer• letter acknowledging a rejection Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 83

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