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  • 1. Designing Documents, WritingCorrespondence, Writing Job Materials ENG 3302Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites ©2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  • 2. Table of ContentsTopic SlidesDocument Design 3-39Writing Correspondence 40-56Writing Job Materials 57-83 Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  • 3. Document and Web design has five goals:• to make a good impression on readers• to help readers understand the structure and hierarchy of the information• to help readers find the information they need• to help readers understand the information• to help readers remember the information Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 3
  • 4. There are four principles of design:• proximity• alignment• repetition• contrast Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 4
  • 5. Proximity organizes this image: Source: U.S. Department of State, 2011 <http://future.state.gov>.Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 5
  • 6. Alignment organizes this image: Source: Carnegie Science Center, n.d.Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 6
  • 7. Repetition organizes this image: Source: Myers, 2007, p. 362.Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 7
  • 8. Contrast clarifies this image: Source: Lambert Coffin, 2010 <www.lambertcoffin.com/index.php?sid=2>.Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 8
  • 9. To plan a design, take these two steps:• Analyze your audience and purpose.• Determine your resources. Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 9
  • 10. For multicultural readers, consider four cultural preferences:• paper size• typeface preferences• color preferences• text direction Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 10
  • 11. Determine your resources:• Time. What is your schedule?• Money. Can you afford professional designers, print shops, and Web developers?• Equipment. Do you have graphics software, desktop-publishing programs, and a printer? Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 11
  • 12. Consider these four elements when designing documents:• size (page size and page count)• paper• bindings• accessing aids Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 12
  • 13. Select one of four common types of binding:• loose-leaf binders• ring or spiral binders• saddle binding• perfect binding Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 13
  • 14. Consider using six typical accessing aids:• icons• color• dividers and tabs• cross-reference tables• headers and footers• page numbering Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 14
  • 15. Understand how learning theory relates to page design:• chunking• queuing• filtering Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 15
  • 16. Use two elements to create your page layout:• page grids• white space Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 16
  • 17. Margins have four purposes:• to limit the amount of information on the page, making the document easier to read and use• to provide space for binding and allow readers to hold the page without covering up the text• to provide a neat frame around the type• to provide space for marginal glosses Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 17
  • 18. A document bound like a book has these margins:Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 18
  • 19. A multicolumn design offers three advantages:• Text is easier to read because the lines are shorter.• Columns allow you to fit more information on the page.• Columns let you use the principle of repetition to create a visual pattern. Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 19
  • 20. Typography includes seven topics:• typefaces• type families• case• type size• line length• line spacing• justification Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 20
  • 21. Different typefaces make different impressions:This paragraph is typed in Monotype Corsiva typeface. You are unlikelyto see this style of font in a technical document because it is too ornateand too hard to read.This paragraph is Times Roman, an effective typeface for textin the body of technical documents.This paragraph is Tahoma, which has a modern, high-tech look. It is best suited for headings and titles intechnical documents. Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 21
  • 22. Two main categories of typefaces are serif and sans serif: N N serif sans serifChapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 22
  • 23. A type family includes many variations:Some of the members of the Helvetica family: Helvetica Helvetica Bold Helvetica Bold Italic Helvetica Narrow Helvetica Narrow Bold Helvetica Narrow Bold Italic Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 23
  • 24. Case affects readability:Lowercase letters are easier to read: Individual variations are greater in lowercase words THAN THEY ARE IN UPPERCASE WORDS. Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 24
  • 25. Different functions call for different type sizes:footnotes 8- or 9-point typebody text 10-, 11-, or 12-point typeheadings 2 to 4 points larger than body textindexes 2 points smaller than body texttitles 18 or 24 pointsslides 24- to 36-point type Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 25
  • 26. Use line spacing carefully when designing headings:SummaryIn this example, the writer has skipped a line betweenthe heading and the text that follows it.SummaryIn this example, the writer has not skipped a line. Theheading stands out, but not as emphatically.Summary. This run-in style makes the heading standout the least. Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 26
  • 27. Use other design features for clarity and emphasis:• rules• boxes• screens• marginal glosses• pull quotes Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 27
  • 28. These six principles will help you design effective Web sites and pages:• Create informative headers and footers.• Help readers navigate the site.• Include extra features readers might need.• Help readers connect with others.• Design for readers with disabilities.• Design for multicultural readers. Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 28
  • 29. Follow these five guidelines for making your site easy to navigate:• Include a site map or index.• Use a table of contents at the top of long pages.• Help readers get back to the top of long pages.• Include a link to the home page on every page.• Include textual navigational links at the bottom of the page. Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 29
  • 30. This is a typical site map: Source: National Institutes of Health, 2010 <www.genome.gov/sitemap.cfm>.Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 30
  • 31. This is a typical table of contents: Source: U.S. Copyright Office, 2010 <www.copyright.gov/help/faq>.Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 31
  • 32. Include extra features your readers might need:• an FAQ• a search page or engine• resource links• a printable version of your site• a text-only version of your site Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 32
  • 33. Consider these three types of disabilities:• vision impairment• hearing impairment• mobility impairment Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 33
  • 34. Follow these three suggestionswhen designing for multicultural audiences: • Use common words and short sentences and paragraphs. • Avoid idioms, both verbal and visual, that might be confusing. • If a large percentage of your readers speak a language other than English, consider creating a version of your site in that language. Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 34
  • 35. Follow these four guidelines for designing a simple site:• Use simple backgrounds.• Use conservative color combinations to increase text legibility.• Avoid decorative graphics.• Use thumbnail graphics. Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 35
  • 36. Follow these three suggestions to make text easy to read:• Keep the text short.• Chunk information.• Make the text as simple as possible. Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 36
  • 37. Follow these three suggestions to write clear, informative links:• Structure your sentences as if there were no links in your text.• Indicate what information the linked page contains.• Use standard colors for text links. Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 37
  • 38. This is an effective page design: Source: Gorzalka, 2011 <http://clearideaz.com>.Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 38
  • 39. This is an effective page design: Source: Tumblr, 2011 <www.tumblr.com/about>.Chapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 39
  • 40. Writing CorrespondenceChapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites ©2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  • 41. The process of writing correspondence includes eight steps:• Analyze your audience.• Analyze your purpose.• Gather information about your subject.• Choose a type of correspondence.• Draft the correspondence.• Format the correspondence.• Revise, edit, and proofread the correspondence.• Send the correspondence. Chapter 14. Writing Correspondence © 2012 by Bedford/St. 41 Martins
  • 42. Select the appropriate application:• Letters are the most formal and most appropriate for communicating with people outside your organization.• Memos are moderately formal and appropriate for people in your organization.• E-mail is best for quick, relatively informal communication.• Microblog posts (Twitter tweets, Facebook status updates) can be useful for informal questions or statements addressed to a group. Chapter 14. Writing Correspondence © 2012 by Bedford/St. 42 Martins
  • 43. Use these five principles to present yourself effectively:• Use the appropriate level of formality.• Communicate correctly.• Project the “you attitude.”• Avoid correspondence clichés.• Communicate honestly. Chapter 14. Writing Correspondence © 2012 by Bedford/St. 43 Martins
  • 44. Most letters include six elements:• heading• inside address• salutation• body• complimentary close• signature Chapter 14. Writing Correspondence © 2012 by Bedford/St. 44 Martins
  • 45. Some letters include additional elements:• attention line• subject line• header for second and subsequent pages• enclosure line• copy line Chapter 14. Writing Correspondence © 2012 by Bedford/St. 45 Martins
  • 46. Most letters use one of two formats:• modified block• full block Chapter 14. Writing Correspondence © 2012 by Bedford/St. 46 Martins
  • 47. Four types of letters are common:• inquiry• response to inquiry• claim• adjustment Chapter 14. Writing Correspondence © 2012 by Bedford/St. 47 Martins
  • 48. Use this strategy when writing an inquiry letter:• Explain who you are and why you are writing.• Make your questions precise and clear.• Indicate your schedule.• Politely request a response.• Offer something in return.• Always write a thank-you note to the person who has responded to your inquiry letter. Chapter 14. Writing Correspondence © 2012 by Bedford/St. 48 Martins
  • 49. Use this strategy when responding to an inquiry letter:• Answer the questions if you can.• If you cannot answer the questions, explain the reasons and offer to assist with other requests.• Include additional information, if appropriate. Chapter 14. Writing Correspondence © 2012 by Bedford/St. 49 Martins
  • 50. Use this strategy when writing a claim letter:• Use a professional tone.• Clearly identify the product or service you are writing about.• Explain the problem and include persuasive details.• Propose a solution. Chapter 14. Writing Correspondence © 2012 by Bedford/St. 50 Martins
  • 51. Use this strategy when writing a bad-news adjustment letter:• Meet the customer on neutral ground.• Summarize the facts as you see them.• Explain why you are unable to fulfill the request.• Create goodwill. Chapter 14. Writing Correspondence © 2012 by Bedford/St. 51 Martins
  • 52. Use these five elements to organize most memos:• a specific subject line• a clear statement of purpose• a brief summary• informative headings• a prominent recommendation Chapter 14. Writing Correspondence © 2012 by Bedford/St. 52 Martins
  • 53. Follow these eight netiquette guidelines when writing e-mail:• Stick to business.• Don’t waste bandwidth.• Use appropriate formality.• Write correctly.• Don’t flame. Chapter 14. Writing Correspondence © 2012 by Bedford/St. 53 Martins
  • 54. Follow these eight netiquette guidelines when writing e-mail (cont.):• Make your message easy on the eyes.• Don’t forward a message to an online discussion forum without the writer’s permission.• Don’t send a message unless you have something to say. Chapter 14. Writing Correspondence © 2012 by Bedford/St. 54 Martins
  • 55. Remember three things when writing microblogs:• You are creating an archived communication that reflects on you and your organization.• Anything you write is subject to the same laws and regulations that pertain to all other kinds of documents.• The best way to understand your responsibilities is to study your organization’s guidelines. Chapter 14. Writing Correspondence © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 15
  • 56. Consider three factors when writing to intercultural readers:• the cultural practices of your readers• the language use and tone preferred by your readers• the application choice and use preferred by your readers Chapter 14. Writing Correspondence © 2012 by Bedford/St. 56 Martins
  • 57. Writing Job MaterialsChapter 11. Designing Documents and Web Sites ©2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  • 58. The process for preparing job-application materials includes seven steps:• Plan the job search.• Decide how to look for a position.• Learn as much as you can about the organizations to which you will apply.• Draft the résumé and application letter.• Revise, edit, and proofread the résumé and letter.• Prepare for job interviews.• Write appropriate follow-up letters. Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 58
  • 59. In planning a job search, carry out these four tasks:• Do a self-inventory.• Learn about the employers.• Prepare a résumé and job-application letter.• Prepare a portfolio. Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 59
  • 60. You can look for a job eight ways:• through a college or university placement office• through a professional placement bureau• through a published job ad• through an organizations Web site• through a job board on the Internet• through your connections on social media• through personal connections• through an unsolicited letter to an organization Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 60
  • 61. Ask these four questions before posting to a job board:• Who has access to your résumé?• How will you know if an employer requests your résumé?• Can your current employer see your résumé?• Can you update your résumé at no cost? Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 61
  • 62. Assume that employers will search theInternet while screening job applicants:• Periodically check Internet content about yourself.• Use accounts on social-media sites to make a good first impression.• Create a profile tailored to the type of job you seek.• Project a professional persona.• Follow through with what you say you will do.• Help others make career connections. Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 62
  • 63. There are three reasons to write your own résumé:• You know yourself better than anyone else does.• Employment officers know the style of the local agencies.• If you write your own résumé, you will be more likely to adapt it to different situations. Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 63
  • 64. An attractive résumé has four characteristics:• generous margins• clear type• balanced appearance• clear organization Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 64
  • 65. The résumé must meet three standards:• It must provide clear, specific information, without generalizations or self-congratulation.• It must be free of errors.• It must be honest. Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 65
  • 66. A chronological résumé has six elements: • identifying information • objectives or summary of qualifications • education • employment history • interests and activities • references Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 66
  • 67. Follow these three suggestionswhen drafting a statement of objectives:• State only the goals or duties explicitly mentioned, or clearly implied, in the job advertisement.• Focus on the reader’s needs, not on your goals.• Be specific. Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 67
  • 68. Include these five elements in the education section:• the degree• the institution• the location of the institution• the date of graduation• information about other schools you attended Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 68
  • 69. Follow these four guidelines when elaborating on your education:• List your grade-point average.• Compile a list of courses.• Describe a special accomplishment.• List honors and awards you received. Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 69
  • 70. Present these details about your employment history:• skills• equipment• money• documents• personnel• clients Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 70
  • 71. Include information about your interests and activities:• participation in community-service organizations• hobbies related to your career• sports, especially those that might be socially useful in your professional career• university-sanctioned activities Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 71
  • 72. Follow these three suggestions when providing references:• Decide whether and how you want to present the references.• Choose your references carefully.• Give the potential reference an opportunity to decline gracefully. Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 72
  • 73. Some résumés contain additional information:• computer skills• military experience• language ability• willingness to relocate Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 73
  • 74. A skills résumé includes seven sections:• identifying information• objective or summary of qualifications• skills• education• employment history• interests and activities• references Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 74
  • 75. Electronic résumés can take four forms:• a formatted résumé attached to an e-mail message• a text résumé• a scannable résumé—one that will be scanned into an organizations database• a Web-based résumé Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 75
  • 76. Follow these three guidelines when preparing a text résumé:• Use ASCII text only.• Left-align the information.• Send yourself a test version of the résumé. Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 76
  • 77. Follow these seven guidelines when preparing a scannable résumé:• Use a good-quality laser printer.• Use white paper.• Do not fold the résumé.• Use a simple sans-serif typeface.• Use a single-column format.• Use wide margins.• Use the space bar instead of the tab key. Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 77
  • 78. Follow two principles when drafting a job-application letter:• Selectivity. Select two or three points of greatest interest to the potential employer.• Development. Develop those points into paragraphs emphasizing results. Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 78
  • 79. The introductory paragraph has four functions:• It identifies your source of information.• It identifies the position you are interested in.• It states that you wish to be considered for the position.• It forecasts the rest of the letter. Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 79
  • 80. The concluding paragraph includes three elements:• a reference to your résumé• a polite but confident request for an interview• your phone number and e-mail address Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 80
  • 81. Follow these six guidelines when preparing for a job interview:• Study job interviews.• Study the organization to which you applied.• Think about what you can offer the organization.• Study lists of common interview questions.• Compile a list of questions you wish to ask.• Rehearse the interview. Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 81
  • 82. Consider these seven questions before a job interview:• When should you arrive for the interview?• What should you wear?• How do interviewers interpret your body language?• What questions are you likely to be asked?• How long should your answers be?• How do you know when the interviewer wishes to end the interview?• How can you get the interviewer’s contact information to write a follow-up letter? Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 82
  • 83. Write one of these four follow-up letters or e-mails after the interview:• letter of appreciation after an interview• letter accepting a job offer• letter rejecting a job offer• letter acknowledging a rejection Chapter 15. Writing Job-Application Materials © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 83