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Discourse Analysis
Discourse Analysis
Discourse Analysis
Discourse Analysis
Discourse Analysis
Discourse Analysis
Discourse Analysis
Discourse Analysis
Discourse Analysis
Discourse Analysis
Discourse Analysis
Discourse Analysis
Discourse Analysis
Discourse Analysis
Discourse Analysis
Discourse Analysis
Discourse Analysis
Discourse Analysis
Discourse Analysis
Discourse Analysis
Discourse Analysis
Discourse Analysis
Discourse Analysis
Discourse Analysis
Discourse Analysis
Discourse Analysis
Discourse Analysis
Discourse Analysis
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Discourse Analysis

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  1. Photography and Discourse Analysis ENG 3327Composing: Document Design for Print and Digital Media, 1/e © 2011 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.Riley & MackiewiczVisual All rights reserved.
  2. Agenda ■ Preview VC reading ■ Preview VM readingRiley & Mackiewicz, Visual Composing: Document Design © 2011 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.for Print and Digital Media All rights reserved.
  3. Chapter 9 Selecting and Integrating PhotographyComposing: Document Design for Print and Digital Media, 1/e © 2011 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.Riley & MackiewiczVisual All rights reserved.
  4. After completing Chapter 9, you should be able to do the following: ■ Understand the ways in which photography and text can work together ■ Use commonly available resources for locating stock photography ■ Work with a photographer to plan custom photography ■ Integrate photography into a document’s layoutRiley & Mackiewicz, Visual Composing: Document Design © 2011 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.for Print and Digital Media All rights reserved.
  5. A cropped photo removes peripheral elements and focuses on one portion of the image, which may be enlarged. uncropped cropped and enlarged Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image_editing#Cropping_an_imageRiley & Mackiewicz, Visual Composing: Document Design © 2011 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.for Print and Digital Media All rights reserved.
  6. A redundant relationship is one where image and text repeat or paraphrase one another. For example, the text following this image might describe different types of http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Diodes.jpg diodes.Riley & Mackiewicz, Visual Composing: Document Design © 2011 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.for Print and Digital Media All rights reserved.
  7. In a visual-verbal complementar y relationship, the stor y text might narrate an event, and the photograph could convey the par ticipants’ emotion.Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Crowd_of_Dutch_civilians_celebrating_the_liberation_of_Utrecht_by_the_Canadian_Army_.jpg Riley & Mackiewicz, Visual Composing: Document Design © 2011 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. for Print and Digital Media All rights reserved.
  8. In a supplementar y relationship, either text or image is dominant. This image could add visual interest to text about road grading in military staging areas and thus supplement the text. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Militarygrader.jpgRiley & Mackiewicz, Visual Composing: Document Design © 2011 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.for Print and & Mackiewicz, Visual Composing; © Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights rights reserved. Riley Digital Media All reserved
  9. A juxtapositional relationship is one in which the text and image are at odds with each other. The makings of your healthy breakfast include phosphoric acid and potassium benzoate. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Beakers.jpgRiley & Mackiewicz, Visual Composing: Document Design © 2011 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.for Print and Digital Media All rights reserved.
  10. In a stage-setting relationship, either text or image serves as an advance organizer for the other. This image could forecast text about sediment deposition.Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Redwall,_Temple_Butte_and_Muav_formations_in_Grand_Canyon.jpg Riley & Mackiewicz, Visual Composing: Document Design © 2011 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. for Print and Digital Media All rights reserved.
  11. Here is an example of a photo release form. (UHD Form) In exchange for consideration received, I hereby give permission to                                      to use my name and photographic likeness in all forms and media for advertising, trade, and any other lawful purposes. Print Name:                                     Signature:                                     Date:                                     If Model is under 18: I,                                     , am the parent/legal guardian of the individual named above, I have read this release and approve of its terms. Print Name:                                     Signature:                                     Date:                                    Riley & Mackiewicz, Visual Composing: Document Design © 2011 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.for Print and Digital Media All rights reserved.
  12. Follow these guidelines for captions and tags. ■ Be accurate, especially when you identify people. ■ Double-check the spelling of names and make sure that name forms are consistent between the main text and the caption. ■ Include directional information if there is more than one person in the picture— e.g., “CEO Steve Jobs (left) presents the Research Award to Shawna Dooner.”Riley & Mackiewicz, Visual Composing: Document Design © 2011 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.for Print and Digital Media All rights reserved.
  13. Chapter 10 Editing PhotographyComposing: Document Design for Print and Digital Media, 1/e © 2011 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.Riley & MackiewiczVisual All rights reserved.
  14. After completing Chapter 10, you should be able to do the following: ■ Understand  the differences between film and digital photography ■ Use appropriate technical vocabulary ■ Understand file formats for digital photography and their uses ■ Understand principles of color as they relate to the use of photography ■ Edit photographs to modify file size, image size, and visual featuresRiley & Mackiewicz, Visual Composing: Document Design © 2011 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.for Print and Digital Media All rights reserved.
  15. Resolution can be thought of as the ability of an image to represent what we actually see with our eyes. ■ Dots per inch (DPI) describes the output generated by a printer or similar device. The higher the DPI count of your printer, the better the document quality. ■ Pixels per inch (PPI) describes the display on a computer monitor. The greater the number of pixels displayed in one inch, the higher the image or display quality.Riley & Mackiewicz, Visual Composing: Document Design © 2011 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.for Print and Digital Media All rights reserved.
  16. The standard minimum resolution for professionally produced print documents is 300 DPI. This 0.25-inch square example (enlarged) from an ink-jet printer contains about 150 DPI. This example comes from a draft-quality document. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:PrinterDots.jpgRiley & Mackiewicz, Visual Composing: Document Design © 2011 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.for Print and Digital Media All rights reserved.
  17. A standard resolution for Web or screen-based images is 72 PPI. (150 for treatment purposes. ) 314 PPI 72 PPIRiley & Mackiewicz, Visual Composing: Document Design © 2011 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.for Print and Digital Media All rights reserved.
  18. One common task related to working with digital images is cropping.Riley & Mackiewicz, Visual Composing: Document Design © 2011 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.for Print and Digital Media All rights reserved.
  19. Another common task is resizing images.Riley & Mackiewicz, Visual Composing: Document Design © 2011 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.for Print and Digital Media All rights reserved.
  20. Another common task is adjusting color, brightness, and contrast .Riley & Mackiewicz, Visual Composing: Document Design © 2011 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.for Print and Digital Media All rights reserved.
  21. A large image might use 30,000,000 bytes (30MB) to store the necessary information, while a small image might use 100,000 bytes (100KB). resized image = 36.5 KBoriginal image = 2.33 MB Riley & Mackiewicz, Visual Composing: Document Design © 2011 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. for Print and Digital Media All rights reserved.
  22. When optimizing (compressing) a digital image for print or Web, you will have to choose a file format to save the image. ■ TIFF is the most commonly used file format for print documents. ■ GIF files use a type of compression with up to 256 colors. (simple color schemes ) ■ PNG is nonproprietary; its use is advocated by the open-source community.   ■ JPEG offers five levels of compression and, unlike GIF, can render millions of colors.Riley & Mackiewicz, Visual Composing: Document Design © 2011 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.for Print and Digital Media All rights reserved.
  23. Visual Methodologies: Discourse AnalysisComposing: Document Design for Print and Digital Media, 1/e © 2011 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.Riley & MackiewiczVisual All rights reserved.
  24. Terms ■ Discourse: Messages that structure the way a thing is thought about and the way we act based on that thinking. ■ Discursive formation: The way meanings are connected together in discourse. ■ Regimes to truth: The grounds on which truth is claimed. The most powerful discourses depend on the assumption that their messages are true. ■ Power/knowledge: Power produces knowledge, b/c discourses that “win” the exchange of ideas must pass themselves off as true and knowledge.Riley & Mackiewicz, Visual Composing: Document Design © 2011 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.for Print and Digital Media All rights reserved.
  25. Steps ■ Find sources. ■ Look at your sources with fresh eyes. ■ Immerse yourself in your sources. ■ Identify key themes in your sources. ■ Examine their effects of truth. ■ Pay attention to their complexity and contradictions. ■ Look for the invisible as well as the visible. paying attention to details.Riley & Mackiewicz, Visual Composing: Document Design © 2011 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.for Print and Digital Media All rights reserved.
  26. Main Simliarity to Semiotics Semiotics Discourse Analysis Visual images have social Discourse analysis traces conditions and social effects the production of social The transfer of signifieds is difference through discursive understood as structured claims to truth. It uses the through codes, and codes in notion of discourse to turn give on to wider address the rhetorical structures of meaning. These organization and social wider structures can be production of visual, written described as dominant and spoken materials codes, ideologies, mythologies or referent systems.Riley & Mackiewicz, Visual Composing: Document Design © 2011 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.for Print and Digital Media All rights reserved.
  27. Main Differences with Semiotics Semiotics Discourse Analysis The image reflects or The image creates social difference perpetuates social difference through claims to truth. through relying on commonly used / understood signs. The image points to myths, The image produces injustice and ideologies. works to disenfranchise the marginalized. The preferred reading you tell in your The reading you tell in your analysis analysis is shared by most all. (The is, itself, potentially an ideology or analysis is not necessarily reflexive.) regime to truth. (The analysis must be reflexive.) A few images A more large archive of images (to discuss other sites where social difference is manufactured), but not necessarily as many as content analysis.Riley & Mackiewicz, Visual Composing: Document Design © 2011 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.for Print and Digital Media All rights reserved.
  28. Considerations When Writing ■ Use detailed textual or visual evidence to support your analysis. ■ Use textual or visual details to support your analysis. ■ The coherence the study gives to the discourse examined. ■ The coherence of the analysis itself. ■ The coherence of the study in relation to previous related research. ■ The examination of cases that run counter to the discursive norm established by the analysis, in order to affirm the disruption caused by such deviations.Riley & Mackiewicz, Visual Composing: Document Design © 2011 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.for Print and Digital Media All rights reserved.

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