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Dennis and Defleur Ch. 11 and 12
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  • In the mid 1800s, the industrial revolution helped bring about trends in merchandising and the development of branded products. Prior to that time, most products were not nationally distributed, but local. BT Babbitt was a soap manufacturer who was the first to sell a pre-formed bar of soap in a paper wrap. At first no one purchased, then he offered a premium – for every 25 wrappers, you received a free gift. It worked.
  • The advertising industry is a multi-billion dollar business that continues to grow year in and year out. According to the constancy hypothesis, the amount of advertising revenue stays constant – it just gets shifted. In other words, media must split the advertising revenues as more media enter the picture.
  • The processes of a full service agency includes that the account management team build and maintain relationships with clients; the creative department uses strategies to develop creative “ads” – from print to broadcast to web; media selection occurs with media buyers and media planners making decisions on which advertising media to use for the campaign; the research department analyzes information to help make creative and media decisions; account managers and the creative teams typically make presentations to clients; finally, the agency’s business offices make use different techniques for billing and bringing in revenue.
  • The complicated billing system of advertising agencies and years of clients wondering what they were getting charged for led to opportunities for new types of firms or advertising networks. Many of these agencies started as interactive agencies specializing in search engine marketing techniques. As these agencies grew confident with their abilities in digital media and they provided their services in a cost efficient manner, they started making an impact on the business of full service agencies.
  • The new media technologies that are effecting advertising, especially the Internet, are creating unique issues. There is an infinite number of websites that causes fragmentation. Along with this, there are endless streams of ads and other types of clutter. New technologies such as the DVR is challenging the traditional way of advertising and giving viewers the opportunity to skip commercials. New types of media consumers are entering the media marketplace – these digital natives do not know a time without the Internet and its instant gratification. Also there are distinct changes in the use of media – it’s not just about exposure but the experience with media.
  • This question is designed to lead students to think about their attitude and opinion about advertising. In particular, is advertising good or bad for societ?
  • As a field, public relations has evolved into an industry that is designed to message different audiences on behalf of a myriad of organizations. Public relations practitioners strategize and create messages to target audiences by using traditional and new media. Some of the time, public relations is used for damage control. One of the best examples was the Tylenol scare in 1982. More recently, political campaigns, such as President Obama’s 2008 campaign showed how public relations could be used for damage control.
  • PR is generally characterized by public relations counselors or full-service agencies that focus on all aspects of public relations. Larger organizations sometimes have in-house public relations departments that handle the public relations for the organization. Specialized practitioners handle particular aspects such as policy consultants or political advisers. Technical consultants focus on one area such as graphics design or writing.
  • This question is designed talk about leading political public relations/political consultants (James Carville, Mary Matalin and others…)

Transcript

  • 1. This multi-media product and its content are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Any preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease or lending of the program Understanding Media in the Digital Age, 1/e Everette E. Dennis Melvin L. DeFleur Prepared by Todd Chambers, Ph.D. Texas Tech University Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 2. ADVERTISING: USING MEDIA IN THE MARKETPLACE Chapter 11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 3.   Advertising in America: A Brief History  The Industrial Revolution  Patent Medicines  1875, Lydia Pinkham’s Vegetable Compound  Boston Herald  The Development of Brands  standardized the product  worked well for advertisers  The Industrial Revolution  The Development of Brands  1851, B.T. Babbitt, soap wrapped in paper  offered premium Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 4. Advertising in America: A Brief History  The Industrial Revolution  Nationally Circulated General Magazines  late 1800s  better postal delivery, better transportation  magazines started to depend on advertising  followed lead of Penny Press Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 5. Advertising in America: A Brief History  The Industrial Revolution  Gendering of Consumer Culture  women become primary target audience  magazines and later other media Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 6. Advertising in America: A Brief History  The Industrial Revolution  Department Stores  consequence of world trade  Wanamaker’s in Philadelphia, 1880  Mail-Order stores such as Sears, Roebuck & Company Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 7. Advertising in America: A Brief History  Establishing the Advertising Agency  newspapers and magazines creating ad departments  need for separate “agency” to link retailers with media  1848, Volney Parker, 1st agency in Philadelphia Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 8. The Contemporary Advertising Industry  Late 1990s: $126 billion  2006: $265 billion  385,000 working in advertising industry  40,000 advertising agencies  Top agencies billing $9 billion Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 9. The Contemporary Advertising Industry  Advertising agencies  Media service organizations  Suppliers of supporting services  Advertising media  Professional Organizations  American Association of Advertising Agencies (Four As)  American Advertising Federation (ad professionals)  Association of National Advertisers (clients of agencies) Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 10. The Contemporary Advertising Industry  Types of Advertising Agencies  Full Service Agency 1. Planning 2. Creation and Execution 3. Coordination Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 11. The Contemporary Advertising Industry  Functions of a Full Service Agency 1. Account management 2. The creative department 3. Media selection 4. Research department 5. Internal control Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 12. The Contemporary Advertising Industry  Creative Boutiques  Specialist Agency  In-House Agency  Advertising Networks Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 13. The Contemporary Advertising Industry  Advertising Networks  started as “interactive agencies”  provide same services without complex agency billing  go directly to advertisers  Search Engine Marketing, Search Engine Optimization Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 14. The Contemporary Advertising Industry  Advertising Media  Newspapers (17.7%)  Broadcast television (17.5%)  Cable television (8.2%)  Direct Mail (19.8%)  Internet  1997: <$500 million  2008: $5.8 billion Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 15. Advertising as Persuasive Communication  Basic Strategies for Constructing Persuasive Messages  Psychodynamic Strategy  Emotional  Rational (reason)  Arouse feelings Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 16. Advertising as Persuasive Communication  Sociocultural Strategy  Culture dictates action  Cultural norms (offending the social norm)  Role definitions (mother’s duty)  Social ranking (using celebrity)  Social controls (rewards & punishments) Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 17. Cutting Through the Clutter: The Problem of Gaining Attention  Time and Attention  Competing for attention  Must understand target audience  Ad must break through the clutter  “You can tell the ideals of a nation by its advertisements”…Norman Douglas, 1917 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 18. Digital Advertising Challenges  Fragmentation  Clutter  Ad skipping  Endless changes  Audience economics Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 19. The Role of Advertising Research  Advertisers demanding accountability  Ratings services  Effectiveness  Studying the Effects of Advertising  Awareness of a brand  Comprehension of a product and what it will do for them  Conviction they should buy the product  Action – buy the product Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 20. The Role of Advertising Research  Consumer and Lifestyle Research  Needs, drives, motives related to a consumer purchase  Trends in American lifestyle, living patterns and buying behavior  Applied objectives Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 21. The Role of Advertising Research  Qualitative Research on Advertising  observation  content study  impact on commercialism Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 22. The Role of Advertising Research  Assessing Target Audiences in an Age of Market Segmentation  segment of population (age, income, gender)  switch from product-oriented to user-oriented Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 23. Criticism and Control of Advertising  Waste?  Contributes to monopoly?  Stimulates to competition? Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 24. Question to think about  What is your biggest criticism of advertising? Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 25. The Issue of Children and Advertising  50 years of research  younger the child, more attention paid to ads  trust in commercials declines with age  still don’t know enough Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 26. Sources of Control  Regulation by Government  FTC  FCC  Industry Codes of Ethics  Court Rulings  Consumer Groups Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 27. This multi-media product and its content are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Any preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease or lending of the program Understanding Media in the Digital Age, 1/e Everette E. Dennis Melvin L. DeFleur Prepared by Todd Chambers, Ph.D. Texas Tech University Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 28. PUBLIC RELATIONS: INFLUENCING BELIEFS, ATTITUDES, AND ACTIONS Chapter 12 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 29.   The Development of Public Relations  Birth of the Public Relations Agency  1st Public Relations Agency  3 Boston newspapermen  Publicity Bureau of Boston  AT&T, Harvard University  1911: Ivy Lee  Standard Oil Company  World War I  PR was a field Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 30. The Development of Public Relations  Defining Public Relations  Paid professional practitioners design and transmit messages, on behalf of a client, via a variety of media to relevant and targeted audiences in an attempt to influence their beliefs, attitudes, or even actions regarding some person, organization, policy, situation, or event. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 31. The Development of Public Relations  Defining Public Relations  Practitioners  Strategies  Messages  Clients  Media  damage control  Audiences  Influences Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 32. The Development of Public Relations  PR-Media Interplay  communications process  media are chief platforms for delivering messages  traditional media  new media: blogs, social media, e-mail Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 33. The Development of Public Relations  Public Relations v. Advertising  advertising: purchased slots for media space  public relations: unpaid time in media  deliberately manipulating messages to audiences Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 34. Public Relations Settings and Activities  The Industry  1970: 70,000 pr specialists  2004: 188,000 pr specialists  WPP  Omnicom  Interpublic  Publices Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 35. Public Relations Settings and Activities  The PR Industry  public relations agency  public relations department  specialized consultants  technical consultants  Major Practice Areas – Industry Sectors  consumer  industrial  health  technology  financial services  government  non-profit Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 36. Public Relations Settings and Activities  Major Practice Areas – Others  reputation management  content management  corporate social responsibility Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 37. Public Relations Settings and Activities  Typical Tasks and Work Assignments  Strategy  Planning  Writing  Editing  Media relations & placement  Special events  Speaking  Production  Research  Programming & consulting  Training & management Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 38. Public Relations Settings and Activities  Public Relations Campaigns 1. Fact-finding and feedback 2. Planning and programming 3. Action and communication 4. Evaluation  Source: Cutlip, Center & Broom Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 39. Public Relations Settings and Activities  Managing Elections  spin control  political advisers Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 40. Question to think about  Who do you know that is a nationally recognized political consultant? Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 41. Public Relations and the Media  Conflict with media  Competition for time and space Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 42. Public Relations and the Media  The Gatekeeping Process  Gatekeeping theory  use criteria to select what is newsworthy Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 43. Public Relations and the Media  Relationship of Mutual Dependency  pr practitioners need time and space  news organizations looking for content  Video News Release  Press Releases  News Conferences Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 44. Lobbying as Public Relations  1800s, Willard Hotel lobby  influence peddlers meeting politicians  Interpersonal communications  informal contacts  34,000 registered officially  best known agencies: Hill & Knowlton and Burton-Marstellar Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 45. Public Relations as an Emerging Profession  What is a profession? 1. Extensive body of knowledge 2. Use knowledge within a set of ethical norms 3. Practitioners monitor each other Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 46. Public Relations as an Emerging Profession  Public Relations Education  1923, Edward Bernays, New York University  1947, first degree program, Boston University  Public Relations Society of America (PRSA)  Public Relations Student Society of America (PRSSA) Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 47. Public Relations as an Emerging Profession  Public Relations Research  applied research  problems and practices in pr  proprietary research  Ethical Issues and Criticisms  image of public relations  PRSA  Accredited  Pass communication tests  Abide by code of ethics  Pass rigorous test Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • 48. The Future of the Field  Progress as a field and discipline  Reconsider role of public relations  New code of conduct for online communications  New tools for public relations professionals  New paradigms Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.