In the mid 1800s, the industrial revolution helped bring about trends in merchandising and the development of branded products. Prior to that time, most products were not nationally distributed, but local. BT Babbitt was a soap manufacturer who was the first to sell a pre-formed bar of soap in a paper wrap. At first no one purchased, then he offered a premium – for every 25 wrappers, you received a free gift. It worked.
The advertising industry is a multi-billion dollar business that continues to grow year in and year out. According to the constancy hypothesis, the amount of advertising revenue stays constant – it just gets shifted. In other words, media must split the advertising revenues as more media enter the picture.
The processes of a full service agency includes that the account management team build and maintain relationships with clients; the creative department uses strategies to develop creative “ads” – from print to broadcast to web; media selection occurs with media buyers and media planners making decisions on which advertising media to use for the campaign; the research department analyzes information to help make creative and media decisions; account managers and the creative teams typically make presentations to clients; finally, the agency’s business offices make use different techniques for billing and bringing in revenue.
The complicated billing system of advertising agencies and years of clients wondering what they were getting charged for led to opportunities for new types of firms or advertising networks. Many of these agencies started as interactive agencies specializing in search engine marketing techniques. As these agencies grew confident with their abilities in digital media and they provided their services in a cost efficient manner, they started making an impact on the business of full service agencies.
The new media technologies that are effecting advertising, especially the Internet, are creating unique issues. There is an infinite number of websites that causes fragmentation. Along with this, there are endless streams of ads and other types of clutter. New technologies such as the DVR is challenging the traditional way of advertising and giving viewers the opportunity to skip commercials. New types of media consumers are entering the media marketplace – these digital natives do not know a time without the Internet and its instant gratification. Also there are distinct changes in the use of media – it’s not just about exposure but the experience with media.
This question is designed to lead students to think about their attitude and opinion about advertising. In particular, is advertising good or bad for societ?
As a field, public relations has evolved into an industry that is designed to message different audiences on behalf of a myriad of organizations. Public relations practitioners strategize and create messages to target audiences by using traditional and new media. Some of the time, public relations is used for damage control. One of the best examples was the Tylenol scare in 1982. More recently, political campaigns, such as President Obama’s 2008 campaign showed how public relations could be used for damage control.
PR is generally characterized by public relations counselors or full-service agencies that focus on all aspects of public relations. Larger organizations sometimes have in-house public relations departments that handle the public relations for the organization. Specialized practitioners handle particular aspects such as policy consultants or political advisers. Technical consultants focus on one area such as graphics design or writing.
This question is designed talk about leading political public relations/political consultants (James Carville, Mary Matalin and others…)