Leadership: coping with change; management: coping with complexity
At its most basic level, language is a system of symbols that we have learned over time and have adapted for communication purposes. Unlike animals, which have communication systems, humans are able to learn and transmit shared belief systems, or culture, across generations.
Sender initiates message that expresses a specific set of meanings; sender encodes the meanings with specific words and gestures; message is transmitted in spoken or written form in signal of patterned information; receiver attends to and perceives the patterned information; receiver decodes information by constructing her or his own interpretations of the meanings of symbols. The original model did not include the effect or the receiver is influenced in some way. Noise can occur at any time. Noise results from any physical, psychological, social or cultural condition that reduces similarities between the intended meanings of the sender and the interpretations of the receiver.
As the Shannon & Weaver model developed, important concepts were added to this theory of communication. In particular, accuracy, or the level of correspondence between the sender’s meaning and the receiver’s perception, is important for effective communication. Another important element in the communication process is the ability for a sender and receiver exchange additional messages, either deliberately or not, to each other in the form of verbal or nonverbal cues. Feedback is important for the development of effective communication. Finally, a sender may take on the role of a receiver in order to improve communication effectiveness. In this role-taking situation, the sender attempts to visualize the effect of the communication to increase its accuracy.
Like the interpersonal communication process, the use of a media technology creates the ability of a sender to communicate information to a larger group of individuals, or a mass audience. As in the interpersonal process, communication requires encoding, transmission, receivers, decoding and influence.
Publishing includes books, magazines and newspapers. Film is primarily motion pictures. Electronic media includes radio, television, cable and DVDs.
For any type of mass medium, there is a loss of feedback and a limitation on effective role-taking. Despite the best abilities of producers of news, information and entertainment content, the inability of literally sitting in front of someone prevents or at least severely diminishes the ability of a mass media sender to receive the type of feedback that a face-to-face experience provides.
The media audience is typically defined as an aggregate audience because it is made of many distinct individuals. These audiences range from the lowest wage earner that is not targeted by advertiser to the wealthiest and most attractive individual that might be the most sought after member of the audience.
Until the Industrial Revolution in the 1800s, societies existed with a high dependence on agriculture – you lived on what you raised – vegetables and animals. As societies changed and technologies allowed manufacturing and the development of factories, the industrial revolution ushered in a century of change in social systems. With the advancement of communication technologies in the 1900s, society saw the arrival of an information age in the 1980s where more individuals became workers in the field of information. Thanks to the digital revolution, we exist in an information society where individuals have greater access to information.
: Canadian scholar Marshall McLuhan coined the phrase the global village. His idea was that individuals everywhere would share information. Today, this seems very simple; in the 1960s, it seemed virtually impossible. As the digital revolution advanced, technologies such as the Internet were introduced in the 1970s and 1980s during the early days. Military and educational institutions utilized the earlier versions of the Internet. Between 1994 and 1999, society embraced Internet and other digital technologies – to the point of saturation and over-valued stock prices created a dot-com bubble that burst around 1999. Since the development of smart phones, high-speed Internet technologies and other new digital media technologies, there has been a resurgence of digital media since around 2002.
Question is designed to help students think through innovator, early adopter, early majority, late majority and laggards in terms of the adoption curve
For someone who works in the media, the function of the mass media are: informing the audience through news and information; influencing the audience through editorials and commentaries; entertaining the audience by providing comedy, drama, fact and fiction; and, providing an economic market through advertising to foster valuable exchanges.
Media economist Robert Picard suggested that the impact of media on the global level is best considered in terms of “relative exportability.” Based primarily on revenues generated, there are few media products that are global in scale. In general, most newspapers and radio programming are localized and most of the revenue generated are local in nature. At the same time, movies, music and television products are truly global with far-reaching implications.