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ENG 6324 Slide Presentation Week 9
 

ENG 6324 Slide Presentation Week 9

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  • {"23":"There is a new age of ethical questions arising in the age of Web 2.0 – especially when corporations must respond to dilemmas instantaneously in the form of blogs, Twitter, Facebook and others. \n","12":"This question is designed talk about the different effects media might or might not have on children and/or adults. Use this as an opportunity to stimulate discussion about powerful effects.\n","7":"During the early days of media effects research, society was seen as unable to decipher and process information – rather, after watching a movie, reading a newspaper story or listening to a radio program, all audience members would be effected in a powerful way. However, after the War of the Worlds broadcast, a team of researchers found that the media wasn’t all that powerful and it depended on things such as amount of education and interpersonal communication.\n","31":"Most teenagers and young adults have different perceptions and definitions for ‘ethical’ behavior – this question could be used to talk about situational ethics.\n"}

ENG 6324 Slide Presentation Week 9 ENG 6324 Slide Presentation Week 9 Presentation Transcript

  • Understanding Media in the Digital Age, 1/e Everette E. Dennis Melvin L. DeFleur Prepared by Todd Chambers, Ph.D. Texas Tech University This multi-media product and its content are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Any preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease or lending of the program Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Chapter 14 MEDIA EFFECTS: THE PROCESSES AND INFLUENCES OF MASS COMMUNICATION Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  •   Early Views of Media Influences  de Tocqueville’s dead-level theory: everyone exposed to same flow of ideas, influenced in uniform manner  1900s: everyone believed newspapers had great power  Magic Bullet Theory  immediate, uniform, and powerful effects Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Media Effects Research Begins  A National Dilemma  examine media effects scientifically  systematic perspective Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Media Effects Research Begins  The Nature and Functions of Research  Experiments  Surveys  Content Analysis  Qualitative  Quantitative  The Nature and Functions of Research     Distinct Research Goals basic research applied research scholarly research  Research Moves Cutting Edge Forward Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Media Effects Research Begins  Early Support for the Magic Bullet Theory    The Payne Fund Considers Movies and Kids 1920s and 1930s significant and widespread effects on children  The Invasion from Mars    1938, War of the Worlds broadcast Orson Welles panic in the streets? Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Media Effects Research Begins  Inconsistencies in the Magic Bullet    critical ability amount of education interpersonal communication Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Beyond the Magic Bullet: Selective and Limited Effects  The Why We Fight Experiments         WWII Goals and Conduct of the Experiments Frank Capra why we fight; what the enemy had done; who were the allies; why victory Implications: Limited Effects! able to teach some new facts able to alter a few opinions little evidence for powerful effects Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Beyond the Magic Bullet: Selective and Limited Effects  Effects of Media in a Presidential Campaign    The People’s Choice Lazarsfeld, Berelson, Gaudet 1940 election  Media as a part of the web of influences   activation, reinforcement, conversion The Two-Step Flow  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved. opinion leaders
  • Audiences Use Media Content to Obtain Gratifications  Gratifications Found in Media Content       Herta Herzog, 1940s radio soap opera listeners identifying with characters obtaining emotional release wishful thinking obtaining advice Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Audiences Use Media Content to Obtain Gratifications  Children and Television  Patterns of Viewing   television is most attended to medium between 3 and 16, spend more time watching tv than going to school!  Gratifications Obtained from Watching Television   Fantasy, diversion, instruction, learning Basic Finding: Viewing Television Seemed to Pose Few Dangers Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Question to think about  In your opinion, does media have a limited or powerful effect on children? What about adults? Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Television and Youth Violence  The Report to the Surgeon General     late 1960s Congress funded study National Institute of Mental Health televised violence influence on children Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Television and Youth Violence  The Report to the Surgeon General  Network Television’s Violent Content   very frequent and very unrealistic Social Learning from Models of Behavior     Bandura’s “Bobo Doll” experiment observational learning direct imitation modeling theory: positive reinforcement increases reproduced activity repeatedly Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Television and Youth Violence  Television and Teenage Aggression    specific kinds of youths participate in specific types of behavior more likely to watch tv violence more likely to be aggressive  Overall: Viewing Violence on Television MAY Cause Aggression Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Television and Youth Violence  The Second Report to the Surgeon General    1982 Increased pace of research Confirming findings: Viewing of televised violence by children clearly does cause aggression among heavy viewers Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Long-Term Influences on Society and Culture  Accumulation Theory: The Adding Up of Minimal Effects     Armed Interventions  Smoking and Health Media must focus repeatedly on issue Media must be consistent in coverage about issue Media must corroborate each other on issue Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Long-Term Influences on Society and Culture  Social Expectations Theory: Learning Group Requirements  learning how to act as part of the ‘group’ through media portrayals  Social organizations: that pattern of general group norms, specialized roles, ranking positions, and the set of social controls used by the group to ensure reasonable conformity to its requirements. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Long-Term Influences on Society and Culture  Implications of Long-Term Theories     over time new technologies new audiences requires new theories, new methods Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Understanding Media in the Digital Age, 1/e Everette E. Dennis Melvin L. DeFleur Prepared by Todd Chambers, Ph.D. Texas Tech University This multi-media product and its content are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Any preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease or lending of the program Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Chapter 15 ETHICS: ASSESSING CONTENT AND BEHAVIOR OF THE MEDIA Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  •   Media-Wide Ethics Watch  Motion Pictures – distorting reality?  Book Publishers – cancel book contracts      based on plagiarism? Advertising – exploiting children? Internet Websites – fabrication of news items? Public Relations – representing dishonest clients? Television – sensationalizing issues? Music – sharing mp3 files? Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • New Technology Challenges  Social Media  Second Life  Virtual Worlds Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Dimensions of Ethics for the Media  Accuracy and Fairness  The Behavior of Reporters  Conflict of Interest  checkbook journalism Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Distinguishing Ethics and Law  Moral Codes v. Law   Chicago Sun-Times purchase of a bar to gather info about payoffs Richard Jewell case, Atlanta 1996 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Growing Concern over Media Ethics  Ethics     doing what is ‘right’ problem: different people decide what is ‘right’ tabloid television editorial cartoonists Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Growing Concern over Media Ethics  Special Privileges, Special Responsibilities   rights of news organizations responsibilities and duties of news organizations Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Growing Concern over Media Ethics  Beyond the First Amendment  social conscience of society  profit-making business Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Growing Concern over Media Ethics  The Long Struggle for Professionalism  Constant battle over the ‘hoax’ Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Growing Concern over Media Ethics  The Rise of Mixed Media Culture      Never ending news cycle Sources are gaining power over journalism There are no more gatekeepers Argument is overwhelming reporting The ‘blockbuster’ mentality Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Question to think about  Do you think it is proper to buy a CD, rip it to your hard drive, and then make copies for your own personal use on multiple devices and computers? Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Growing Concern over Media Ethics  Ethical Challenges to Mixed Media Culture    content of media behavior of media organizations effects on audiences Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Media Criticism and Media Ethics  A Double Standard    institutional individual content-related Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Media Criticism and Media Ethics  The Link to Individuals and Content  Janet Cooke and “Little Jimmy”  Washington Post Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  • Alternative Approaches to Ethics  Situational Ethics  The Continual Search  Credibility Studies and Market Research  Ethics, Technology and the Future Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.