Background Research• Half of the chromosomes that we inherit come from our mothers (maternal chromosomes).• Half of the chromosomes that we inherit come from our fathers (paternal chromosomes).• Chromosomal patterns determine our characteristics.• Many characteristics are inherited – Eye color, hair color, skin color, body
• Ridges form on the epidermis during weeks 10-24 of gestation. These will become fingerprints.• Fingerprint characteristics are unique to each individual.• Identical twins do not have identical fingerprints, but have common sizes and patterns.
• Fingerprints began to be used to identify people in the United States in 1902.• Fingerprints are still the primary method used to identify individuals for crimes, security, and basic identification.• Fingerprints do not change as a person ages. The size of the fingerprint can change.
• There are three basic patterns found in fingerprints: –Loops –Arches –Whorls• Fingerprints may have common patterns, but it is the other ridges and spaces on the finger that make the prints unique to each person.
Articles and PublicationsJanuary 24, 2005 Scientific American: Article by Glenn Langenburg discussed: – Dermatoglyphic (fingerprint) studies have found a strong correlation (link) between the inheritance of fingerprint patterns and the overall size, shape and spacing of the ridges. – Primary ridge patterns are inherited, but the individual identifying features are not inherited.
Research Steps:• Began research notebook: – Wrote background information about fingerprints in research notebook. – Taped pictures of FBI pictures and information in research notebook.• Obtained permission from subjects.• Printed off fingerprint cards (one for each subject)• Obtained fingerprints of test subjects using fingerprinting techniques from the FBI website.• Analyzed fingerprint patterns.• Identified common patterns.• Examined results for inherited traits.• Documented findings.• Made conclusion.
Obtaining PermissionDue to the fact that fingerprintpatterns are unique to eachindividual, I obtained permissionfrom each individual whoparticipated in this science fairproject. I also had to ensure thatthe names, ages, and locations of thetest subjects would be protected.
Obtaining Fingerprints1. Examined fingertips for cracks or scars.2. Had subject wash hands.3. Taped fingerprint identification sheet to counter top.4. Pressed subject’s fingers in ink.5. Stamped fingerprint on sheet in correct boxes for different fingers.6. Had subjects wash hands.
• I identified the fingerprint patterns for each finger for each person.• I used the FBI identification chart to help me identify the fingerprint patterns.• When I was finished identifying, I compared the results for similar and different characteristics.
Similarities Between Parents and Immediate Siblings:• Right thumb: my mother and two siblings had a whorl pattern.• Right thumb: my father and two siblings had a loop pattern.• Right index: my father and all siblings had an arch pattern.• Right middle: my mother and three siblings had an arch pattern.
• Right middle: my father and two siblings had a loop pattern.• Right ring: my mother and three other siblings had an arch pattern.• Right ring: my father and one sibling had a loop pattern.• Right little: my father and one sibling had a loop pattern.• Right little: both parents and all five siblings had an ulnar loop.
• Left thumb: my mother and four siblings had loop patterns.• Left index: my mother and two siblings had tented arch patterns.• Left index: my father and two siblings had tented arch patterns.• Left middle: my mother and three siblings had a tented arch pattern.• Left middle: my father and two siblings had a radial loop pattern.
• Left ring: my mother and one sibling had an arch pattern.• Left ring: my father and four siblings had a radial loop pattern.• Left little: both parents and all of the siblings had a radial loop pattern.
Similarities in parental siblings:• Right thumb: father and one of his siblings had loop patterns.• Right index: father and four of his siblings had arch patterns.• Right middle: father and two of his siblings had loop patterns.• Right ring: father and all four of his siblings had loop patterns.• Right little: father and all four of his siblings had loop patterns.
• Left thumb: father and three of his siblings had arch patterns.• Left index: father and all four of his siblings had arch patterns.• Left middle: father and one of his siblings had loop patterns.• Left ring: father and one of his siblings had loop patterns.• Left little: father and all four of his siblings had loop patterns.
Interpretation of Data: = significant correlationImmediate Family R Thumb R Index R Middle R Ring R Little L Thumb L Index L Middle L Ring L LittleInherited Paternal Traits 2 loop 5 arch 2 loop 5* loop 0 2 arch** 2 loop 4 loop 5***Inherited Maternal Traits 3 whorl 3 arch 4 loop 5* loop 4 loop 2 arch** 3 arch 1 arch 5***Independent Trait 1 arch 1 whorl 3 loopPaternal Siblings 2 u loop 5 arch 3 u loop 5 loop 5 loop 4 arch 5 arch 2 r loop 2 r loop 5 loop 3 arch 2 arch 1 r loop 3 t arch 3 t arch* Paternal & Maternal patterns included loop, however, 4 of the 5 subjects demonstrated ulnar loop similar to maternal.**Paternal & Maternal patterns included tented arch. 2 test subjects demonstrated tented arch, while 3 demonstrated radial loop.*** Paternal & Maternal trait had radial loop pattern on L Little finger.
Conclusions:Based on the results of thestudy, fingerprint patternsare genetically related.Families demonstrate manysimilar fingerprint patterns.
Bibliography:• This article gave information bout fingerprints being similar to parents. Langenburg, G. Scientific American January 24, 2005. Retrieved January 30, 2012 from http://www.scientificamerican.com/articl.cfm?id=are-ones- fingerprints-sim• The FBI website describes how to take fingerprints. FBI. (n.d.). Taking Legible Fingerprints. Federal Bureau of Investigations, Criminal Justice Information Services. Retrieved January 26, 2012 from http://www.fbi.gov/hq/cjisd/takingfps.html• This Australian police website describes fingerprints, how theyre formed, and their uses in forensics. Lennard, C. and Patterson, T. (2003). Dactyloscopy: The Science of Fingerprinting. New South Wales Police Service. Retrieved January 26, 2012 from http://www.policensw.com/info/fingerprints/indexfinger.html• This Wikipedia entry gives an overview of fingerprints and their history. Wikipedia contributors. (2006). Fingerprints. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 26, 2012 from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fingerprint&oldid=190845125
“Thank You’s”• My parents, brother, sisters, and aunts for providing me with fingerprints to study.• My parents for helping me with this power point presentation.