Organization in architecture humanities report final
ORGANIZATION IN ARCHITECTUREby: Mary Angelique C. Andrade BSA-II
Art in ancient Egypt continued strangelyunchanged through the various phases offoreign influence fromAssyria, Persia, Greece, and Rome.The close connection between religious ritesand architecture is everywhere manifested.Egyptian architecture persistently maintainedits traditions.
Egyptian monumental architecture- which is essentially a columnar and trabeated style is expressed mainly in pyramids and in temples:o impressive avenue of sphinxes§ Mythical monster (A sphinx (Greek: Σφίγξ /sphinx, Bœotian: Φίξ /Phix) is a mythical creature with, as a minimum, the body of a lion and the head of a human or a cat.)o possessed in their massive§ pylons , great courts, hypostyle halls, inner sanctuaries, and dim, secret rooms, a special character.
Pylon is the Greek term for a monumentalgateway of an Egyptian temple consists of twotapering towers, each surmounted by acornice, joined by a less elevated section whichenclosed the entrance between them.
MESOPOTAMIAN ARCHITECTUREThe distinguishing characteristic of a Mesopotamian Architecture is the ziggurat, or tower, built at successive levels, with ramps leading one platform to the next.Ziggurats (Akkadian ziqqurat, D-stem of zaqāru "to build on a raised area") were massive structures built in the ancient Mesopotamian valley and western Iranian plateau, having the form of a terraced step pyramid of successively receding stories or levels.In many respects, it is like a modern building with seatbacks.The ziggurat in Mesopotamia pointed north, south, east and west and the vertical walls of each story were closed, in the temple of Babylon, built by Nebuchadnezzar (6th century B.C.), the stones were colored white, black, blue, yellow, silver, and gold from bottom to top.
GREEK ARCHITECTUREIts most characteristic is found on its temple- a low building of post-and lintel construction. In this type of construction, two upright pieces or posts are surmounted by a horizontal piece, the lintel, long enough to reach from one to the other. (Ex. temple of Apollo at old Corinth )
There are three types of Greek architecture:1. Doric column- its column has no base; the bottom of the column rests on the top step. The freeze is divided into triglyphs and metopes.• Triglyph is an architectural term for the vertically channeled tablets of the Doric frieze, so called because of the angular channels in them, two perfect and one divided, the two chamfered angles or hemiglyphs being reckoned as one.* The rectangular recessed spaces between the triglyphs on a Doric frieze are called metopes
Triglyph centered over the last column in the Roman Doric order of the Theater of Marcellus
There are three types of Greek architecture:2. Ionic column- is taller and slender than Doric. It has a base, and the capital is ornamented with scrolls on each side and its frieze is continuous.
There are three types of Greek architecture:3. Corinthian column- with the base and shaft resembling the Ionic, tended to become slender. The distinctive feature is the capital, which is much deeper than the ionic
ROMAN ARCHITECTURE (1000 B.C. – A.D., 4000)The Romans adopted the Columnar and trabeated style of the Greeks and developed also the arch and vault from beginnings made by the Etruscans (the early inhabitants of west-central Italy).The combined use of column, beam, and arch is the keynote of the Roman style in earliest ages. Another characteristic of Roman architecture is the flat round dome that covers an entire building
ROMAN ARCHITECTURE (1000 B.C. – A.D., 4000)Example is Pantheon. The building is two tiers high to the springing of the hemispherical dome inside, but there is an extra tier on the outside, providing rigid and weighty haunches to prevent the dome from splitting outwards; and, as an extra precaution, a further series of steps of concrete rises two-thirds the height of a dome. For this reason, Roman domes are always saucer-shaped outside, though hemispherical within.
BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE (A.D. 200 - 1453)Byzantine takes its name from Byzantium latercalled Constantinople and now called Istanbul.Is characterized by a great central dome whichhad always been a traditional feature in the East.One of the characteristic features of Byzantinechurches was that the forms of the vaults anddomes were externally, undisguised by anytimbered roof; thus in the Byzantine style, theexterior closely corresponds with the interior.
The 11th-century monastery of Hosios Lukas in Greece is representative of the Byzantine art during the rule of the Macedonian dynasty.
Interior of the Hagia Sophia under renovation, showing many features of the grandest Byzantine architecture.
The apse of the church with cross at Hagia Irene. Nearly all the decorative surfaces of the church have been lost.
WESTERNARCHITECTURE IN THE MIDDLE AGES (A.D 400 - 1500)
WESTERN ARCHITECTURE IN THE MIDDLE AGES (A.D 400 - 1500)Western architecture passed through three stages of development during the middle ages. These are the Early Christian, Romanesque, and Gothic. These three styles developed one another: The Romanesque was an outgrowth of the early Christian, and the Gothic, of the Romanesque.The Western Styles follow the general type of the Roman Basilica, a long rectangular building divided by pillars into a central nave and aisles.o Nave is the central approach to the high altar, the main body of the church.
Late Gothic Fan vaulting (1608, restored 1860s) over the nave at Bath Abbey,Bath, England Suppression of the triforium offers a great expanse of clerestory windows.
Romanesque nave of the abbey church of Saint-Georges-de-Boscherville, Normandy, France has a triforium passage above the aisle vaulting
Sometimes, there is one aisle on each side of thenave; sometimes there are two. Often, the nave ishigher than the aisles, and, therefore, there is anopportunity for clerestory lightingo Clerestory is an architectural term thathistorically denoted an upper level of a Romanbasilica or of the nave of a Romanesque or Gothicchurch, the walls of which rise above the rooflines ofthe lower aisles and are pierced with windows. Inmodern usage, clerestory refers to any high windowsabove eye level. In either case, the purpose is to bringoutside light, fresh air, or both into the inner space.
The wallof the clerestory of the "Basilica" style Monreal cathedral are covered with mosaic
EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE (A.D. 400 - 700)The early Christian Basilica has grown in part from theRoman house where the earliest Christians met forworship, and in part from pagan basilicas.In the classic temples, the emphasis lay on the exterior; in theChristian Church, on the inside. A second form ofbuilding, known as the central type, was designed around acentral vertical axis instead of longitudinal.The long, internal lines of the basilica carried the eye of thevisitor from the door to the altar as their ritualistic climax ofthe structure.On the other hand, the circular or octagonal buildings focusedon the center. The interiors of early Christian churches wereoften decorated with mosaics.
• All Saints All Saints Church, Church, (14th century general view from bell tower), general northwest view from southwest
Abbey Church, interior: nave towards east San Vitale, general view
ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE(11th and 12th CENTURIES)
ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE(11th and 12th CENTURIES)ROMANESQUE:• Is an extension and development of the Early Christian Basilica.• Romanesque has very heavy walls with small window openings and a heavy stone arched or vaulted roof inside. In this respect, it resembles the Roman style- hence the name Romanesque (“Roman-ish”).• In the Romanesque Cathedral, several small windows were combined in a compound arch.• In the Romanesque church, the façade sometimes has one doorway, sometimes three.• They were relatively simple moldings, with or without carvings or conventional designs, figures animals or fruit.
ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE(11th and 12th CENTURIES)GOTHIC:• The arches appeared only as stone tracery. Eventually, the windows became so large that the walls ceased to have any function as walls; the roof was supported by the huge buttresses and the entire wall space was filled with stained-glass windows. The triforium space was regularly filled with small arches, and the rose window became large and important. The doorways became spacious.• The Gothic façade regularly had three doorways.• In Gothic, the human figure became the characteristic decoration, a recessed doorway being filled with rows or saints or kings.• Is known primarily for its cathedrals and churches.
La Sagrada FamiliaBasilica In Barcelona Spain St. Michaels Church, Hildesheim has similar characteristics to the church in the Plan of Saint Gall.
The façade of the cathedral of Lisbon. Interior of St. Michaels, Hildesheim, (1001-31) with alternating piers and columns and a C.13th painted wooden ceiling
Charlemagnes Palatine Chapel, Aachen, C. 9th, modelled on the octagonal Byzantine church of San Vitale in RavennaSouth transept of TournaiCathedral, Belgium, 12th century.
Facade of AngoulêmeCathedral, France. Santa Maria in Cosmedin, Rome (8th — early 12th century) has a basilical plan and reuses ancient Roman columns.
RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE(Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries)
RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE (Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries)• The cathedral or temple is no longer the typical building; secular architecture comes to the fore, as in Roman times.• It is not a slavish imitation, but rather a free use of the materials found in classic architecture.
Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502, by Bramante. This smalltemple marks the place where St Peter was put to death. Temple of Vesta, Rome, 205 AD. As the most important temple of Ancient Rome, it became the model for Bramantes Tempietto
The Dome of St Peters Basilica, Rome.SantAgostino, Rome, Giacomo di Pietrasanta, 1483
BAROQUE ARCHITECTURE (1600 - 1750)• It is characterized primarily as a period of elaborate sculptural ornamentation.• It had a profusion of carved decoration. Columns and entablatures were decorated with garlands of flowers and fruits, shells and waves.• Surfaces were frequently carved.• The churches no longer used the Gothic nave and aisles. They have often domes or corpulas.
Façade of the Churchof the Gesù, the firsttruly baroque façade Santa Susanna in Rome, Italy
Peter and Paul Cathedral in Saint Petersburg, Russia Saints Peter and Paul Church in Krakow, Poland
THE NINETEENTH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE• The nineteenth century is known as a period of eclecticism. Eclecticism in architecture implies freedom on the part of the architect or client to choose among the styles of the past that which seems to him most appropriate.• Modern eclectism was not only pure in style; it understood something of the flavor of the past as well as its forms.• At best, modern eclectism was marked by scholarship, taste, and sympathy for the forms of the past and remarkable ingenuity in adapting central heating, plumbing, and electric lighting to those forms.
19th century architecture at Freemantle, Perth.
MODERN ARCHITECTURE• Is an attempt to interpret man’s purpose through his building in a style free in relation to change and independent of fix symmetries.• New materials came to be utilized-prestressed steel in tension, high-pressure concrete, glass block, wood, metal, chromium, plastics, copper, cork, steel, gypsum lumber, real and artificial stone, and all varieties of synthetic and compressed materials, and the versatile plywood.• Strength is no longer synonymous with massiveness because the supporting function is created by a light, cage like skeleton of steel and reinforced concrete, which is faster and easier to build.
Contrasts in modern architecture, as shown by adjacent high-rises in Chicago, Illinois. IBM Plaza (right), by LudwigMies van der Rohe, is a later example of the clean rectilinear lines and glass of the International Style, whereas MarinaCity, (left), by his student Bertrand Goldberg, reflects a more sculptural Mid-Century Modern aesthetic. The Salk Institute complex in La Jolla, California, by architect Louis Kahn.
The Second Goetheanum, 1924-1928, in Basel, Switzerland, is an example of architectural Expressionism. The AEG Turbinenfabrik ("turbine factory"), 1909, designed by PeterBehrens, illustrating the combination of industry and design.
Greyhound Bus Station in Cleveland, Ohio, showing the Streamline Moderne aesthetic. The Bauhaus building atDessau, Germany, designed by Walter Gropius
PHILIPPINE ARCHITECTURE• The Philippines has shown knowledge and expertise in all the arts.• In this country, along Roxas Boulevard, the Ayala, and Escolta, one can seethat the architecture in the Philippines has come with the times.• Those architectures reflect not only the living proofs of the antiquity of architecture in the country but also trace back the influence of Europe on this particular art at a time.• One can note the predominance of native products used, as materials for edifices of apparently western architectural forms.
PHILIPPINE ARCHITECTURE• Salazar F., in her article “RP architecture captured in churches,” says that the most modern architects and writers doing analyses of Philippine says that most modern architects and writes doing analyses of Philippine churches marvel at the majestic structures which were designed and built during the Spanish regime.• The Filipinos’ spontaneous and inventive attitudes created a kind of architecture that was unique from Western architectural idioms.
The front entrance of Fuerza deSantiago towering 40 metres high San Augustin church Paoay, Ilocos Norte, July 2005
Emilio Aguinaldos house in Kawit, Cavite, renovations designed by Aguinaldo himself, the first President of the Philippines, in 1919.The interior of the San Agustín Church in Intramuros, with magnificent trompe loeil mural on its ceiling and walls
JAPANESE ARCHITECTURE• Like the Egyptians, the religious rites of the Japanese are merely traditional and the traits were reproduced in the architecture, both in tombs and temples.• A Juto (“longevity tower”) is a kind of mausoleum in ancient times erected during one’s lifetime to celebrate his own or another longevity – Hideyoshi Toyotomi built the Tensuiji Temple in the courtyard of Daitokuji Temple in Kyoto to pray for his mother while she was seriously ill. Grateful for her subsequent successful recovery, he constructed a Juto at Tensuiji in 1452.
Kinkaku-ji, Kyoto, originally built in 1397 (Muromachi period) The roof is the dominant feature of traditional Japanese architecture.
Main building of Tokyo National Museum, built in 1937Tenshu of Matsue Castle inMatsue, Shimane Prefecture Built in 1607
Osaka Prefectural Nakanoshima Library, Osaka, Magoichi Noguchi, built in 1904 Nakagin Capsule Tower, Tōkyō, built in 1972
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