Child and adolescent individual changes


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  • ByRohema G. Maguad
  • Erik Erikson 
  • Child and adolescent individual changes

    1. 1. Factors Affecting <br />Development<br />By:Rohema G. Maguad<br />
    2. 2. Summary<br />UNIVERSAL CHANGES<br />GROUP-SPECIFIC CHANGES<br />
    3. 3. INDIVIDUAL CHANGES<br />“Every individuals is unique”<br />We’re Born an ORIGINAL. Don’t die a COPY.<br />We’re the product of unique combination GENES.<br />=<br />+<br />BABY<br />MOM<br />DAD<br />
    4. 4. Genetic difference<br />Personalities<br />Skin color<br />Intelligence<br />Facial contours<br />
    5. 5. Individuals development according to child development theorist are the result of the timing of a development event.<br />
    6. 6. CRITICAL PERIOD<br />Individual is most sensitive to the presence or absence of some particular experience.<br />a limited time in which an event can occur, usually to result in some kind of transformation.<br />refers to the brain’s ability to CHANGE through­out life. The brain has the amazing ability to reorganize itself by form­ing new connections between brain cells .<br />Other studies have looked at children deprived of certain experiences due to illness (such as temporary blindness), or social isolation (such as feral children). Many of the studies investigating a critical period for language acquisition have focused on deaf children of hearing parents.<br />
    7. 7. Genie is the pseudonym for a feral child who spent nearly all of the first thirteen years of her life locked inside a bedroom strapped to a potty chair. She was a victim of one of the most severe cases of social isolation in American history. Genie was discovered by Los Angeles authorities on November 4, 1970.<br />Psychologists, linguists and other scientists exhibited great interest in the case due to its perceived ability to reveal insights into the development of language and linguistic critical periods.<br />Genie spent the next 12 years of her life locked in her bedroom. <br />
    8. 8. During the day, she was tied to a child’s potty chair in diapers; some nights, when she hadn’t been completely forgotten, she was bound in a sleeping bag and placed in an enclosed crib with a cover made of metal screening. Indications are that Genie’s father beat her with a large stick if she vocalized, and he barked and growled at her like a dog in order to keep her quiet. He also rarely allowed his wife and son to leave the house or even to speak, and he expressly forbade them to speak to Genie.<br />By the age of 13, Genie was almost entirely mute, commanding a vocabulary of about 20 words and a few short phrases (nearly all negative, such as “stop it” and “no more”). Genie had developed a characteristic “bunny walk”, in which she held her hands up in front, like paws. Although she was almost entirely silent, she constantly sniffed, spat, and clawed. <br />
    9. 9. SENSITIVE PERIOD<br />Stage at which a child may be particularly responsive to specific forms of experience or particularly influenced by their absence<br />Child between 6 to 12 months under care of a nanny in the absence of working mother.<br />
    10. 10. ATYPHICAL DEVELOPMENT<br />Kind of Individual Changes<br />Harmful to individual<br />Influenced by environment & Genes<br />Drug Addict<br />Alcoholic<br />Mentally- Retarted<br />
    11. 11. Theoretical Perspective on Development<br />2 functions:<br /><ul><li>Explain the knowledge about how children develop
    12. 12. Encourage further researches anchored on predictions about behaviour that can be tested and evaluated.</li></ul>Sigmund Freud<br />Erik Erikson <br />
    13. 13. Jean Piaget. <br />Albert Bandura<br />Information processing theory<br />Developmental psychologists who adopt the information-processing perspective account for mental development in terms of maturational changes in basic components of a child’s mind. The theory is based on the idea that humans process the information they receive, rather than merely responding to stimuli. <br />ADDICTION<br />
    14. 14. Contextual Perspective<br />The contextual perspective, as defined by Papalia, Olds, and Feldman (2004) is the view of development that sees "the individual, not as a separate entity interacting with the environment, but as an inseparable part of it“ Regardless of how hard we try to avoid the role our surroundings play on our and our children's development, we cannot.<br />RUNAWAY CHILD<br />Historical Approaches<br />The process of learning and understanding the background and growth of a chosen field of study or profession can offer insight into organizational culture, current trends, and future possibilities. The historical method of research applies to all fields of study because it encompasses their: origins, growth, theories, personalities, crisis, etc. <br />GRADUATION<br />
    15. 15. ETHOLOGICAL THEORY<br />The heart or essence of it is "defining each behaviour of interest in terms of the behaviours of the same organism surrounding it." This gives one a self-correcting mechanism in ones approach to understanding -- the most important contribution of classical ethnology. Add to it the basic knowledge we have of emotions and emotional development and you can have an outline of a meaningful perspective on learning and meaningful concept of "learning" <br />Human Societies and Culture<br />Ecological systems theory<br />is an approach to study of human development that consists of the 'scientific study of the progressive, mutual accommodation, throughout the life course, between an active, growing human being, and the changing properties of the immediate settings in which the developing person lives.<br />
    16. 16. Microsystems<br />Child is at center; includes the immediate social settings that involve the child. Activities and relationships with others in a person's immediate environment that affect development. each child has MULTIPLE Microsystems.<br />FAMILY<br />PEERS<br />SCHOOL<br />
    17. 17. Mesosystem<br />How the Microsystems relate; Linkages and interrelationships between two or more of a person's immediate social settings (or Microsystems) that affect development.<br />NEIGHBORHOOD<br />RELIGIOUS AFFILITIONS<br />WORKPLACE<br />
    18. 18. Exosystem<br />Social settings in which a person is not an active participant, but that affect the person's development indirectly.<br />MASS MEDIA<br />COMMUNITY<br />HEALTH AGENCIES<br />
    19. 19. Macrosystem<br />Doesn't include child but nonetheless affects the child. Societal and cultural values, laws, customs and resources.<br />LAW OF SOCIETY<br />VALUES<br />CULTURES<br />
    20. 20. Chronosystem<br />This involves the patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course, as well as socio-historical circumstances. The chronosystem’s affects on the minority child is also a big determiner in his future achievements.<br />
    21. 21. THANK YOU.<br />THANK YOU.<br />THANK YOU<br />.<br />THANK YOU<br />.<br />THANK YOU.<br />THANK YOU.<br />THANK YOU.<br />THANK YOU.<br />THANK YOU. <br />THANK YOU.<br />THANK YOU<br />.<br />THANK YOU<br />.<br />THANK YOU.<br />THANK YOU.<br />THANK YOU.<br />THANK YOU.<br />