Academic & School Libraries

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  • 1. Academic & School Libraries
  • 2. Academic: History
    • Early University Libraries:
      • Harvard in 1636 owned 5,000 volumes
      • Yale in in 1750 had 2,000 volumes
    • Why?
      • Publishing industry
      • Fiscal
      • Library’s roles
  • 3. History
    • 19 th Century: support teaching & research
    • Why the change?
      • Library’s role
      • Classical education vs. practical application
      • Teaching Methods emphasized research & independent study
      • Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862
  • 4. Professionalism
    • Systematic & professional library education
    • ALA founded in 1876
    • These led to trained professionals who took over the maintenance of the collection from the faculty.
  • 5. Staffing
    • College Administration
      • Library Director/Dean
        • Professional Librarians: Subject Specialists, Catalogers, Public Service Desks
          • Paraprofessionals: student workers, library assistants, clerks
      • In the best case scenarios, the Library Director reports directly to the President of the university.
  • 6. Staffing
    • Librarians are considered faculty
      • Tenure:
        • publish or perish
        • 2 nd Masters or PhD
        • Involved professionally
  • 7. Funding
    • University determines budget
    • Fundraising may or may not exist.
    • % devoted to materials is higher than public
      • Facility management is done by the university and not the library
      • Hidden costs (utilities, maintenance) are not in the budget
  • 8. Policies
    • Every Library has policies (formal or informal)
      • Written and adopted by the board
      • Posted or easily available
      • Collection Development, Privacy, Internet Use, Circulation, etc.
  • 9.  
  • 10. Trends & Issues
    • Preservation & Digitization
    • Online Collections & Remote access
      • Wifi Campus
    • Bibliographic Instruction (Computer Literacy)
    • Barnes & Noble atmosphere
  • 11.  
  • 12.  
  • 13.  
  • 14. School Libraries: History
    • 1835: New York State permitted tax dollars to be used for school libraries
    • 1852: 1 st compulsory school attendance law is passed
    • 1875: 20 more states had passed laws similar to New York
    • 1890s: begin to see growth in number of school libraries
  • 15. School Libraries: History
    • 1892: New York passed legislation to provide matching funds to purchase books
    • Why such slow growth?
    • Teaching method: rote memorization
  • 16. Professionalism
    • Public Libraries: services to children
    • ALA with NEA developed standards
      • Curriculum support
      • Emphasis centralization of collections
      • Library Instruction
  • 17. The Other Dewey
    • John Dewey theories impacted the growth of school libraries:
      • Child’s growth & development (not subject matter)
      • Experiential education
      • Explore subjects of interest to the individual
      • Social experiences that teach self-direction
  • 18. Staffing
    • Often one professional library
    • Reports to school principal
    • May have Coordinator for the whole school system (dual reporting role)
    • May be closely aligned with IT
    • Paraprofessionals and/or volunteers
  • 19. Funding
    • Precarious at best
    • Poor economic times: 0%
      • Relies upon school fairs and donations
    • Set by Board of Education
      • Community votes
  • 20. Policies
    • Very important to set intellectual freedom policies and procedures
    • What happens when a parent questions a book?
      • Stay on shelve while reviewed be committee
        • Has community members, teachers, and board
      • Ultimately goes to the Board of Education
  • 21. Issues
    • Intellectual Freedom
    • Internet and Social Networking
      • Nettracker
      • Rooms
    • Gives reading levels of websites
    • Computer Literacy