I feel that it is fair to make comparisons between Sweden and Southern Ontario as they share fairly similar climates, resource structures, geographies, population sizes… and yet Southern Ontario emits more than twice as much as per person (6.9 t/person CO 2 e in Sweden vs. 15.4 t/person CO 2 e in Ontario and 11.1 t/person CO 2 e in Qu ébec ). A lot of this is because of Sweden ’s power sector – which is roughly evenly split between hydro ( 43%) and nuclear (47%); of the remainder, biomass (5%), wind (0.7%) and waste (1.1%) provide much of the rest. Only 3% of electricity is provided by fossil fuels. It’s also worth mentioning that, according to the IEA, in 2006, Canada relied on fossil fuels for about 73% of its primary energy, while Sweden’s around half that, at 35%. No other OECD country is below 50% (France is closest at 52%). It should be noted that the majority of the population lives, unsurprisingly, in the southern part of the country, below the 60 th parallel (which runs just north of Uppsala). Sweden’s an energy-intensive economy; however, it has the lowest share of fossil fuels (35%) in its primary energy supply among IEA members. Growth between 1990 and 2008 was around 45% in terms of real GDP (almost zero growth in 2008). Compare that to the 11% reduction in GHGs. Note that 2009 figures should be extremely interesting – the Swedish economy contracted 5% that year – what will the result be in terms of GHGs?
I say milder in winter – right now, because of the really strong Arctic Oscillation that has been affecting Northern Europe, it is much colder than it was last year. I’m cautious to say that it is similar to Ontario and Quebec. It cannot and probably should not be compared to Western Canada, as there are different circumstances there. Perhaps this is a discussion best directed towards a provincial audience? Though there may be some relevance to B.C., as we’ll see later on.
Municipal taxes ranges between 28 and 35%, depending on the municipality, and is levied on the first SEK308,800 in income. NB – the first SEK17,000 is non taxable. Between SEK308,800 and SEK458,300 taxes are municipal plus state (20%); above this level, state taxes are 25%. Source: www.swedishbulletin.se/sb/articles/0403-expats-tax.shtml. Typically, the tax rate is 30%; 2/3 goes to the municipalities, while the other third goes to the counties (l än). Property tax revenues do not go to municipalities, they go to the state instead. Sales tax - Moms ( mervärdesskatt, formerly meromsättningskatt - 25%; 12% on groceries and hotels, 6% on domestic passenger transport, cultural services/events, and printed matter) Public education, health and dental care are not taxed (private education is taxed). In 2007, Canada’s tax revenue was 33.3% of GDP, while Sweden’s was 48.2% (second only to Denmark (48.9%) amongst OECD countries. Social housing is different from ‘affordable housing’. People are given subsidies for rent when they cannot afford it. There is likely better stewardship of residential buildings because of this.
The first district heating system installed in Sweden was used to heat the Sabbatsberg hospital in Stockholm in 1878. The first municipal district heating system was installed in Karlstad, about 300 km west of Stockholm, on the northern shore of Vänern (a large lake) in 1948. Further district heating systems were started at Norrköping and Malmö in 1951, Göteborg, Sundbyberg, and Stockholm in 1953, Linköping and Västerås in 1954, Örebro in 1956, and Borås in 1959. The district heating system in Karlskrona has only been around since 1990. It includes two heating plants, located at Gullberna Park (the one pictured here) and V äster Udd . The redundancy allows for one plant to The hot water generated there is distributed throughout Karlskrona using a 112 km network of piping. Water is pressurized and heated to 120 o C, but due to the pressure does not vapourize. This is mixed with some of the return water from the district heating system, and water leaves the plant for the district heating system at between 75 and 90 o C. It is then distributed in a closed loop using 600 mm diameter pipes (with 200 mm polyurethane foam (PUF) annular insulation) through the city. This heat is delivered from the district heating loop to BTH via a 60 mm pipe with 100 mm PUF insulation. Water distributed throughout the city returns to the plant at 60 o C. Affärsverken combusts about 500 m 3 of wood chips daily in winter (sourced from Blekinge and Småland, the two closest counties) to meet its heating demand, and wood chips and pellets provide over 80% of the energy consumed at the heating plant. On top of that, 4% of the energy input into the system is met through landfill gas, while the system has also been adapted for the use of bio-oils. 13% of energy input is from fossil fuels, to meet peak demand in winter. A new plant is being built at the Bubbetorp landfill just north of Karlskrona that will be a cogeneration plant. This should be operational by the end of 2010 or in early 2011. It should be able to provide 38 MW of heating and 12 MW of electricity; the current system only provides the heating.
BTH is connected to the Karlskrona district heating system. It used about 2170 MWh of heating in 2007. That’s about the same as 80 to 100 homes.
The district heating system needs to operate year round as it also provides hot water. However, it has much lower demands in the summer than in the winter. With the price of electricity in Sweden at around SEK1.7/kWh ($0.25/kWh), it’s cheaper to use absorption chillers, which work as reverse refrigerators, taking a reservoir of heat and using it to extract heat from a colder area. Coefficients of performance are lower (usually around 0.6-0.8; this system produced 40 MWh of cooling out of 84 MWh of heating, so its COP was around 0.48). However, the efficiency of the production and distribution of heat, and the low cost of the zero-carbon fuel (at least, from a taxation perspective – some might have a different perspective on the carbon generated from using waste biomass from forestry and pulp and paper) reduces cost compared to other forms of heating.
Even my unremarkable-looking home in Sweden has a notable feature - it has a ground-source heat pump. Before it was installed, the home was on electric heating. Ground source heat pumps tend to drop heating costs by about 2/3 – which matters when electricity prices hover around $0.25/kWh! And to save electricity, you’ll see the clothesline; there was one downstairs as well. Oh, and the landlord kept the place a little cool so heating bills stayed even lower. :P He lived downstairs, though, so he suffered through the same temperatures.
The hockey rink in Karlskrona had solar panels to provide some of its electricity.
This is the sign next to the solar panel – it says solar energy for sustainable development. Total delivered energy up to that day was about 25000 kWh. About 5 days after this picture was taken, I would meet my childhood hero outside of this arena.
Let’s move away from Karlskrona, because for all that you’ve seen so far, it’s not that far along compared to other cities. In 1996, V äxjö, a city 115 km northwest of Karlskrona, set a really ambitious target to reduce its GHG emissions per capita by 50% between 1993 and 2010. It had gotten as far as 32% by 2007. That is largely due to this largely biomass-fired congeneration facility, which provides heat for most of the city. Of the 800+ GWh of heat it generated in 2006, only about 40 GWh came from oil. In 2001, 2002 and 2005, it was as low as 20 GWh. 66 MW h + 38 MW e = 104 MW t Their reasons? The oil crisis in the 70’s, access to a local and reliable fuel supply, local job creation, income for local forest owners, sawmills and contractors, and tax income to the municipality.
Gudrun was a massive storm that hit Southern Sweden just over 5 years ago (on Jan. 8, 2005). It wasn’t really a hurricane – but it was an extremely powerful, hurricane-like storm with winds up to 160 km/h. It flattened huge sections of the forest in Southern Sweden. It took almost 5 years to process all of the trees knocked over and damaged by the storm (they finished them up in Dec. 2009). The trees were used both for heating and for the pulp and paper industries.
V äxjö University, (which, as of the beginning of 2010 is called Linnaeus University, after Carl von Linné, the taxonomist) is on the cutting edge of sustainability as well, given what the city is doing. The university and the city are leading in the use of wood for energy and for structural materials; for example at Limnologen.
These are 8 story tall buildings with wood/timber as their structural foundation. Each of the four buildings is 8 stories tall and hosts either 33 or 34 apartments. They’re also energy efficient; heating demand is only about 65 kWh/m 2 /year, compared to typical demands of new build of 100 kWh/m 2 /year, and of up to 200 kWh/m 2 /year for conventional buildings.
This is probably not the most interesting or representative picture of Sweden’s hydropower – I just happened to pass a dam while out on a bike ride and thought it was pretty.
Hammarby Sjöstad was first conceived in conjunction with Stockholm’s bid for the 2004 Summer Olympics. Even though the bid wasn’t successful, Stockholm went ahead with the development. Right now, Hammarby Sjöstad has a population of about 10,000. It’s only partially developed; it’s meant to have a population of 25,000. Stockholm is using it as a model for future developments – it wants to do better than it has at Hammarby Sjöstad. The image, which I’ve passed around, includes the flow of energy, materials and water. Wastewater is digested to provide fuel for fleets and for cooking. Organic waste is used to provide fuel for the heat and power plant.
It’s also where residents would go to get the bags for organic waste.
So people deposit the waste in each of the three chutes – one for organics (people would get bags at the Glashus Ett building), one for plastics and metals, and one for paper products. The waste is then sucked down the chutes to the waste management centre, once every hour, rotating between different waste streams.
The waste is sucked once every hour from one of the receptacle streams.
This is along Hammarby Allé, the main street in Hammarby Sjöstad. Which is also the street along which...
The trams run. The trams were integrated into the design of the neighbourhood, and run through the central part of the neighbourhood. Transit will be stretched out as the neighbourhood grows. This design has lead to 21% use of private vehicles for commuting, compared to 35% in other parts of Stockholm. It should be noted that this is just outside of Stockholm’s congestion tax area. Note - there are no major trucks on this road; they all take a separate service road about 100 m behind where I took this picture from.
At the Statoil station, there are both biogas and ethanol pumps. The biogas comes from wastewater.
Gasoline is subject to the carbon tax; ethanol is not.
Some of my classmates were really innovative in how they used the bicycle lanes.
Göteborg Nils Ericson terminal. Kind of an unspectacular picture, actually, but it was really easy to use the trains in Sweden. And this was a cheap trip – 320 km for about $23. Sometimes, it’s really nice to be a student.
This is V äxjö. I have a nicer picture of this place elsewhere... There are a lot of pedestrian streets, in spite of only being a town of 60,000. It’s a pain to drive in the city!
Västra Hamnen, which is only about 2 km from the centre of Malmö, Sweden’s second largest city, has been transformed from a previously empty harbor district into a model of a sustainable city. Today, “Västra Hamnen” (West Harbor) supplies all its own energy from local sources. Solar cells on the housetops and its own wind power plant supply electricity to the development on the shore of the Öresund — including the residents of the Turning Torso tower block, which is part of this district and Malmö’s new landmark. Groundwater from a reservoir 90 meters (nearly 300 feet) underground delivers cooling water in summer and heat in winter. The range of renewable energies is rounded off by hot water from solar collectors and biogas from organic waste. That means that most of the current 1,500 residents get by on an annual consumption of less than 105 kWh per square meter of living space (heat and electricity combined). By comparison, the average usage for Swedish households is around 240 kWh/m2.
I asked Adam about some of the things he’d seen that stuck out. I didn’t get to see this plant myself. Here’s some info: Sysav is permitted to use 550,000 tonnes of waste a year as fuel. The plant produces approximately 1,400,000 MWh of district heating a year, which roughly equates to the district heating of 70,000 small houses. The steam boilers produced around 250,000 MWh of electricity a year in total, some of which is used in the plant itself.
This is just southwest of Malmö.
This is the largest wind installation in Sweden. It was commissioned in June 2008, and has a peak capacity of 110 MW. The location averages wind speeds of 8 to 10 m/s.
There are a couple of things we learned about that I haven’t highlighted in this presentation – for example direct solar hydrogen (we had a presentation on it, and, while it’s far away, it could change the game when it comes to energy) and ocean power, among others.
Samsö is Denmark’s Renewable Energy Island. It’s half way between Jylland and Sj ælland and is connected to the national grid. It provides a surplus of power from wind both onshore and offshore (11 1 MW turbines onshore; 10 2.3 MW turbines offshore).
Here are the offshore turbines from the ferry to the mainland.
A lot of what I saw was outside of Sweden. Solar heat and wood chips in Nordby/Mårup - unique district heating plant, based on solar collectors and wood chips The district heating plant in Nordby/Mårup generates heat with 2500 m2 solar collectors and a 900 kW boiler fuelled with wood chips from island forests. Local citizens set up an initiative group to investigate whether or not a district heating scheme was an option for the two villages. The group recommended a project run by the local utility, NRGi, as they had the necessary experience from the district heating plant in Tranebjerg and other plants on the mainland. The Nordby/Mårup plant is commercially owned and operated like the plant in Tranebjerg by NRGi. It was finished in April 2002. Price: 20.4 million Danish crowns (about $4.1 million US). There are 178 consumers including several high-volume customers. Homeowners with oil furnaces were the primary target group. They could join the project for a membership fee of 100 Danish crowns if they signed up before June, 1999. If you waited and signed up after this date, you had to pay 100% of the costs, about 40.000 Danish crowns ($8.000 US). This procedure is widely used in Denmark when establishing new district heating systems. It’s very important to have a large majority signed up before the plant and distribution pipeline is built. This offer you couldn’t refuse did the trick. 78% of the homeowners with oil furnaces in Nordby and 83% in Mårup signed up and the planning process could begin. The woodchips are primarily delivered from the Brattingsborg estate on the south of the island.
One of the favorite cases presented by industrial ecologists is the story of the spontaneous but slow evolution of the &quot;industrial symbiosis&quot; at Kalundborg, Denmark. This web of materials and energy exchanges among companies (and with the community) has developed over the last 20 years in a small industrial zone on the coast, 75 miles west of Copenhagen. Originally, the motivation behind most of the exchanges was to reduce costs by seeking income-producing uses for &quot;waste&quot; products. Gradually, the managers and town residents realized they were generating environmental benefits as well, through their transactions. (A student team working on an Earth Day project in the early 90s mapped the network of by-product exchanges with yarn and showed it to the plant managers!) The Kalundborg system comprises five core partners: Asn æ s Power Station, Denmark's largest power station, coal-fired, 1,500 megawatts capacity; Statoil Refinery, Denmark's largest, with a capacity of 3.2 million tons/yr (increasing to 4.8 million tons/yr); Gyproc, a plasterboard factory, making 14 million square meters of gypsum wallboard annually (roughly enough to build all the houses in 6 towns the size of Kalundborg); Novo Nordisk, an international biotechnological company, with annual sales over $2 billion. The plant at Kalundborg is their largest, and produces pharmaceuticals (including 40% of the world's supply of insulin) and industrial enzymes; and The City of Kalundborg supplies district heating to the 20,000 residents, as well as water to the homes and industries. Over the last two decades, these partners spontaneously developed a series of bilateral exchanges which also include a number of other companies. There was no initial planning of the overall network; it just evolved as a collection of one-to-one deals that made economic sense for the pairs of participants in each. The symbiosis started when Gyproc located its facility in Kalundborg to take advantage of the fuel gas available from Statoil. Today, Gyproc is still the only company to have located there to take advantage of an available supply.
These are the offshore wind turbines in Copenhagen, which I first saw in 2005 when I visited my friend Dinh, who had moved there to work for Nokia. I had no idea really of what was going on in Denmark at that point, other than that they had a lot of wind power. This is the Middlegrunden Offshore Wind Farm ( Vindmøllelaug). It’s a 40 MW wind farm just off of Copenhagen Harbour (20 2 MW turbines).
My friend Sara and I decided to go for a bit of a bike ride in Copenhagen. There are few cities that are easier and more designed for bicycling. One of the best days during my time in Europe, and shortly after this picture, we got caught in a bike jam along the main street near City Hall!
This picture is inside the geothermal power plant closest to Reykjavik, the Nesjavellir power plant. It provides the heat for the city (pop. 180,000).
When this is the kind of landscape you’re dealing with, geothermal makes more sense. This is at the Nesjavellir Power Plant, about 27 km east of Reykjavik. It provides the heating for the Greater Reykjavik area, as well as 120 MW of electrical power. It was commissioned in 1990. The station produces approximately 120 MW of electrical power, and delivers around 1,800 litres of hot water per second, equal to 300 MW t , servicing the hot water needs of the Greater Reykjavík Area.
During the summer of 2009, I was in the Netherlands for just over a week. I knew I’d crossed over the Dutch border into Germany when I saw this. In Neidersachsen.
On my way out of Germany, four days later – in Schleswig-Holstein.
Not to be outdone by Stockholm, Hamburg is reclaiming its old harbour area and developing it into Hafen City, which will be a transit-serviced area, as of next year. It’s Europe’s largest inner city redevelopment. This won the city the title of European Green Capital 2011. It will include a district heating system. The energy concept uses a combination of the existing, well proven district heating system and decentralised, local heat distribution units. The fuel will be mainly coal, along with household and trade waste, natural gas, and very small quantities of light heating oil. To further reduce carbon dioxide emissions, the existing district heating plant will be equipped with a steam turbine and a fuel cell as pilot plant. In addition, two new combined heat and power plants will be built, one in the Überseequartier and one at the cruise terminal. Initially, these units will be powered by LPG engines which can be replaced by fuel cells in the future, when the technology has sufficiently matured. Buildings which are mainly for residential use will be equipped with solar thermal panels to provide a central hot water supply. An total solar collector area of 1,800 m² is envisaged.
This is what HafenCity looks like from beside the water.
I hadn ’t realized that Turkey’s also done a lot of wind power development, which, when you’re along the west coast of the country, makes sense. Wind capacity has jumped from 20 MW in 2005 to 433 MW in 2008. It looks like it has jumped again to 1000 MW by the end of 2009.
Solar water heaters are very common on cottages and summer homes. However, they are not as common in primary homes.
Turkey is also a big user of horse power. This picture is in Troy.
This is the First Light solar power plant, about 7 km from my parents’ home in Napanee. It has a peak capacity of 9.1 MW, and has over 126,000 solar cells on 36 ha. It was the biggest one when it went online in October of last year... Now it’s been trumped by the one in Arnprior!
Volvo Trucks is also trying to do some very good things – we got to see some of their test sites.
Adrian Mohareb presentation on Swedish energy technology
Sweden and low-carbon technologies and policies Adrian Mohareb To MSLS 2010, Karlskrona 16 March 2010
A bit about Sweden <ul><li>Area of 450,000 km 2 (more than 3x the size of Southern Ontario) </li></ul><ul><li>Population of 9.2 million (c.f. S. Ontario – 12.1 million) </li></ul><ul><li>Emissions of 64.0 Mt CO 2 e in 2008 (down 11% from 1990 levels) </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon tax instituted in 1991 – now equal to approximately $150/tonne </li></ul>
What does that mean? How is Sweden relevant to Canada? <ul><li>Sweden is very similar in many ways to Ontario and Quebec </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Few energy resources, save hydroelectricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Half of power demand met by nuclear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar climate and geography (a bit milder in winter, a bit cooler in summer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent wood and mineral resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar population densities </li></ul></ul>
Differences between Sweden and Canada – taxes! (and public services) <ul><li>Sweden is different in some key ways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon tax! SEK1010/tonne of CO 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Income taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First to municipalities and counties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Then to national government; equalization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales tax and property taxes to national government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No social housing </li></ul></ul>
Biomass District Heating Karlskrona – 120 km of piping
Blekinge Tekniska H ogskola <ul><li>Connected to Karlskrona’s District Heating System </li></ul>
Absorption Chillers at BTH <ul><li>Using district heat... to cool in summer! </li></ul>
Wind power in Sweden <ul><li>A little behind– only 1,067 MW so far as of 2008, compared to 3,160 in Denmark </li></ul>
Wind power in Sweden <ul><li>Lillgrund wind farm – 48 turbines x 2.3 MW </li></ul>
Conclusions <ul><li>Sweden has made a commitment to low-carbon fuels, especially biomass </li></ul><ul><li>This commitment is manifested through a carbon tax that drives green energy </li></ul><ul><li>Sweden has many key similarities to Ontario and Québec, though some differences </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation planning and urban form offer more people the opportunity to live low-carbon lifestyles </li></ul>
Wind pow er – Samsø, Denmark’s Rene wable Energy Island