UTTAR PRADESH STATE RURAL LIVELIHOOD MISSION
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ACTION RESEARCH IN NRLM RESOURCE BLOCK FOR SOCIAL MOBILIZATION AND FINANCIAL INCLUSION IN UTTAR PRADESH

ACTION RESEARCH IN NRLM RESOURCE BLOCK FOR SOCIAL MOBILIZATION AND FINANCIAL INCLUSION IN UTTAR PRADESH

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UTTAR PRADESH STATE RURAL LIVELIHOOD MISSION Presentation Transcript

  • 1. MANAGEMENT TRAINEESHIP SEGMENT “Action Research in NRLM Resource Block For Social Mobilization And Financial Inclusion” KIIT SCHOOL OF RURAL MANAGEMENT, BHUBANESHWAR, ORISSA
  • 2. 2 NATIONAL RURAL LIVELIHOOD MISSION (NRLM)  Universal Social Mobilization  Participatory identification of poor (PIP)  Promotion of Institutions of the poor  Strengthening all existing SHGs and federations of the poor  Emphasis on Training, Capacity building and skill building  Universal Financial Inclusion  Revolving Fund and Community investment support Fund (C.I.F)  Provision of Interest Subvention  Funding Pattern  Phased Implementation  Intensive blocks  Rural Self Employment Training Institutes (RSETIs) UTTAR PRADESH STATE RURAL LIVELIHOOD MISSION (UPSRLM)  Enabling the States to formulate their own State specific poverty reduction action plans  Enables the SRLM to professionalize their human resources at State, district and block level  Creating linkages with livelihoods opportunities for the poor  Partner institutions like NGOs  All blocks in the country will become intensive blocks over time  Women SHGs and their Federations  Financial Assistance to the SHGs  Capital Subsidy has been discontinued under NRLM  Supervision and monitoring of the Scheme INTRODUCTION
  • 3. 3 Financial & Capital Services Human and Social Capital (Leaders, CRPs, Community Para- Professionals) Dedicated Support Institutions (Professionals, Learning Platform M & E Systems) Institutional Platforms of Poor (Aggregating and Federating Poor, Women, Small & Marginal Farmers, SCs and STs) INNOVATIONS Livelihood Services Building Enabling Environment Partnerships and Convergence
  • 4. 4
  • 5. 5 SGSY and NRLM SGSY NRLM DRDA as main implementation agency with very limited role at State level Dedicated professionally managed support organization from State to sub- block level to mobilize poor and nurture their institutions Community institutional architecture comprised of only SHGs While SHGs remain the basic unit, higher order structures like SHG federations, producer organizations are planned for last mile service delivery and market access Income generation focus of SHGs Scope to address multiple dimensions of poverty – assets, skills, incomes, consumption and risks (including food and health risks) Economic activity focus on investment in common assets and activities Economic activity focus for provision of support services and aggregation for access to markets
  • 6. 6
  • 7. 7 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY Social Mobilization  To map out and study the SHGs (promoted by SJGSY,NGO or other institutions ) in the resource block.  To do Social Mobilization of people residing in resource block using PIP approach along with NRLM guidelines. Financial Inclusion  To know the problems being faced by NGO, bank & SHGs.  Suggestions for Role of financial inclusion through Self help group  To Study the linkage of SHGs with Nearby banks for Financial services.
  • 8. 8  Financial constraint.  Response rate is low.  Quality of data (authentication)  Quality of interviewing.  The climatic conditions are not favourable.  Researchers error (sample bias & confounding factors).  Government Officials (block office) support was very discouraging. RESEARCH LIMITATIONS Social Mobilization and Financial Inclusion The study was confined to Hardoi district of Uttar Pradesh state covering only two Gram Panchayat (AHIRORI & KHAKHEDA) with 13 villages.
  • 9. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY? 9
  • 10. 10 Primary Data Collection  Household & SHG Survey  Group Discussion  Personal Interviews INTENT  To know about SHG, and their current status  To know the perception of villagers regarding women SHG  Reason behind deformed SHGs  Role of Banks & Block Secondary Data Collection  Block Office, NGOs record books  Previous reports & Studies  Websites INTENT To know no. of SHGs, and their current status  Active or Non-Active SHGs  Reason behind deformed SHGs  Role of Banks & Block and NGOs  To find out Households and BPL list Tools used: Structured Questionnaire, Group Discussions, Interviews and Observation RESEARCH METHODOLOGY RESEARCH DESIGN: Exploratory Research Method DISTRIBUTION OF LOCATION FOR SURVEY AHIRORI: Ahirori, Ekghara, Bhanwarja, Nara Purwa, Vayas Purwa, Niranjan Purwa KHADAKHEDA: Khadakheda, Umari, Baleha, Sarainya, Khapra, Farkan purwa, Dali purwa
  • 11. 11 SELECTION OF THE RESPONDENTS Gram Panchayat: Ahirori Sl. No. Village/ Majare Total Households Sampled Households 1 Ahirori 355 79 2 Niranjan Purwa 120 27 3 Vayas Purwa 54 12 4 Nara Purwa 83 18 5 Bhanwarja 78 17 6 Ekghara 210 47 Total 900 200 Gram Panchayat: Khadakheda Sl. No. Village/ Majare Total Households Sampled Households 1 Khadakheda 920 107 2 Umari 286 33 3 Baleha 96 11 4 Sarainya 112 13 5 Khapra 264 31 6 Dali purwa 20 02 7 Farkan purwa 20 02 Total 1718 200
  • 12. 12 Gram Panchayat: Ahirori Gram P. : Khadakheda SELECTION OF SHGs for Group Discussion Total Sampled SHG = 17 For our research study we prepared three types of questionnaire, one for HHS (Household Survey) Another for SHG (Self Help Groups) is to know how women are performing And third questionnaire was for Bank to know financial activity of respondents. Sample Size (SHG survey) S. No. Location Target 1 Ahirori 08 2 Bhawarja 02 Total Sample Size 10 Sample Size (SHG survey) S. No. Location Target 1 Khadakheda 05 2 Khapra 02 Total Sample Size 07 QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN
  • 13. 13 STUDY FINDINGS S.NO VARIABLE AHIRORI KHADAKHEDA TOTAL No. % No. % No. % 1 Regular Meetings 7 70 6 85 13 76 2 Regularity of Savings 7 70 7 100 14 82 3 Internal Lending YES YES 4 Need based loans 3 30 0 0 3 17 5 Equal Distribution 10 100 7 100 17 100 6 No Lending 7 70 7 100 14 82 7 Book Keeping YES YES 8 Good 6 60 5 71 11 64 9 Average 1 10 1 14 2 11 10 Poor 3 30 0 0 3 17 11 No Leadership Rotation 10 100 7 100 17 100 12 SHGs Bank Linkage 10 100 7 100 17 100 13 Avg. Idle Fund (Rs.) 6491 4888 5764
  • 14. Social Mobilization using PIP Approach Gram Panchayat : Ahirori (a) Occupation/ Source of Income: 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 174 7 28 112 76 15 0 Farmer Homemaker Artisan Agri-Labour Non Agri-Labour Student Others  Dependence on farming  Landless and marginal farmer depended more on agri and non agri- labour  No industrial zone in near by area  Artisan at a marginal rate but potential to grow Source: Primary Data
  • 15. (b) Card Holder Details :  Population of No Card Holders more Although their names listed in BPL 2002 Census list  BPL Card Holder less  No land ,No Pacca House and No job but still come in No card Holders (c) Average Monthly Income:  Population dependent on Agri and non agri labour more  No Financial support from Bank and Block  Illiteracy 16% 43% 41% Card Holders Details BPL APL No Card 0 100 200 16 166 12 4 2 0-1000 1001-5000 5001-10000 10001-20000 20001 & Above Source: Primary Data Source: Primary Data
  • 16. (B) SOCIAL MOBILIZATION AND FINANCIAL INCLUSION (a). SHGs Working Status: SGSY 2 2 2 1 1 SGSY SHGs Working Status Bhootnath Gayatri Jai shri ram Shri balaji Durga RGMPV 1 1 1 1 1 RGMPV SHGs Working Status Ekta Mahilla Durga mahila Roshni Mahilla Ekta Mahilla2 New Roshni  Two SHG’s Balaji and Jai Shri Ram are active in the SGSY yojna till now. But, still not get 1st Grading from bank.  Two SHG’s Bhootnath and Gayatri , worked from the year 2002 and closed on 2012-13 . Both SHG’s done their 1st & 2nd grading .  In RGMVP , All SHG’s are active and participatory in nature.  In RGMVP, No SHG’s done their 1st & 2nd Grading . Yes-1 , No-2 Source: Primary Data
  • 17. (b) Organizations promoted the SHG: 0 5 5 0 0 SHG Promotion Bank/Financial Institution NGO(RGMVP) Govt. department(SGSY) Cooperative society Any other  Two Institution ,one Government SGSY and another RGMVP NGO, Promoted the SHG’s .  RGMVP SHG’s working Better on capacity building approach . (c) Educational Status: Illitrate 1st - 5th 6th - 8th 9th - 10th 11th - 12th Above 12th 37 8 5 3 2 1 49 5 1 1 1 2 Educational Status SGSY RGMVP  Only Three Members educated above 12th One done M.A. and Two B.A  Illiterates in Gram Panchayat at very high rate Source: Primary Data Source: Primary Data
  • 18. (d)Training details of SHG: (e) Inter- Lending for activities: 0 1 2 3 4 5 Emergencies Agriculture Animal Husbandry Income Generations Any Others Inter Lending Emergencies Agriculture Animal Husbandry Income Generations Any Others Max Min Inter lending loan maximum for agriculture as it is prevalent and well known practice among villagers .  Minimum in income generation activities as they not get capacity building training for that . 0 2 4 6 8 10 10 6 4 7 Training SHG Health Skills development Livestock  Training on Livestock, skill development and also on health is socializing the members .  Capacity building provided them for make them capable in their activities .  Capacity building on skill development lead them towards more awareness .Source: Primary Data Source: Primary Data
  • 19. Social Mobilization using PIP Approach Gram Panchayat : Khadakheda (a) Occupation/ Source of Income:  Dependence on farming more  Landless and marginal farmer depended more on agri and non agri labour .  No industrial zone near by there .  Artisan at a marginal rate but potential to grow 8 1 25 9 94 69 0 OCCUPATION Farmer Homemaker Artisian Agri-labour Non agri-labour Student Others Source: Primary Data
  • 20. (b) Card Holder Details :  Population of No Card Holders more Although their names listed in BPL 2002 Census list .  BPL Card Holder less  No land ,No Pacca House and No job but still come in No card Holders  APL Card Holder were Moderate .  Those have BPL Cards but not get food at the right time . (c) Average Monthly Income:  Population dependent on Agri and non agri labors more .  No Financial support from Bank and Block .  Education rate fall down  No scheme benefited  Unawareness among people more . 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 APL BPL No Card CARD HOLDER APL BPL No Card 36% 56% 8% 0% 0% AVERAGE MONTHLY INCOME 0-1000 1001-5000 5001-10000 10001-20000 20001 & Above Source: Primary Data Source: Primary Data
  • 21. (B) SOCIAL MOBILIZATION AND FINANCIAL INCLUSION: (a) SHGs Working Status:  Eight SHG’s are active in the RGMVP yojna till now. But, still all not done 1st Grading . Six SHG’s are deformed but the reason behind this is either bank support or coordination problem  In RGMVP , inter-coordination problem leads conflict between females this generally occurs when 1 member takes loan and does not repay it. Yes-1 , No-2 2 2 2 2 221 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 SHG's Status Maa Veshnu Swayam Sahayata Samuh Sabera Swayam Sahayata Samuh Anokhi Swayam Sahayata Samuh Ekta Swayam Sahayata Samuha Gomti Mahila Swayam Sahayata Samuh ganga Mahila Swayam Sahayata Samuh Karya baba Swayam Sahayata Samuh Aarti Mahila Swayam Sahayat Samuh Saraswati Mahila Swayam Sahayata Samuh Jagrati Swayam Sahayata Samuh Khuda Gawah Laxmi Swayam Sahayata Samuha Working-1 Not working -2 Source: Primary Data
  • 22. (b) Organizations promoted the SHG: 0 14 0 0 0 SHG Promotion Bank/Financial Institution NGO(RGMVP) Govt. department(SGSY) Cooperative society Any other  No Government Scheme made SHG’s and only RGMVP NGO , Promoted the SHG’s in khadakheda .  RGMVP SHG’s working Better on capacity building  RGMVP Guidelines are same with NRLM .  RGMVP is better approach . (c) Educational Status:  No Members educated 12th and above 12th..  Illiterates in Gram Panchayat at very high rate . Specially women are more  This Illiteracy causes them towards unawareness . 84% 11% 1% 2% 0% 2% Educational Status NIL 1st - 5th 6th - 8th 9th - 10th 11th - 12th Above 12th Source: Primary Data Source: Primary Data
  • 23. (d) Training details of SHG: :  Training on Livestock, skill development and also on health is socializing the awareness among members .  Capacity building provided them for make them capable in their activities .  Capacity building on skill development lead them towards more awareness . (e) No. of transactions in Bank:  Maya Mahila SHG’s done more transaction with banks. Its mean , this SHG is more active .  More transactions with bank leads show good inter- coordination within members .  More transaction with bank lead them towards CCL quickly . 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% On SHG Skill develop ment Livestock Health No. of Members 2 1 3 3 Duration 3 8 7 5 Training details of SHGs 8 4 2 1 13 4 6 No. of transactions in Bank Source: Primary Data Source: Primary Data
  • 24. 24 ROLE & MOTIVES OF STAKEHOLDER’S Financial Institution NGO’s BanksIncentives Guidance Approach for Loan S H G’ s Approval for Loan Interest for Loan Economy Incentives Income Interest
  • 25. 25 Marginal Farmers Landless Farmers Oral Lessees Self Employed Migrants Women Minorities Women Social excluded groups Senior citizens Who are excluded ?
  • 26. 26  SHG's made by the NGO (RGMVP) are working in a much better than SGSY SHG's.  Not providing as such any training to SGSY SHG's was one of the main reason of mismanagement.  Due to this, women's showing reluctance towards NRLM Scheme.  Most of People in villages does not aware with the new government schemes , which lead them towards more poverty.  Women does not have freedom of speech and action.  Due to illiteracy no one takes interest in knowing new things regarding schemes. IMPLICATION AND LESSION LEARNED
  • 27. 27 RECOMMENDATION & SUGGESTIONS 1. SHG Formation - The target approach to group formation need not be adopted rigidly. Officers should have the time to ‘nurture’ the groups once the names of members have been collected. 2. Grading - Financial targets as well as grading targets should be increased to include left over groups before they loose hope and get defunct like many others. 3. Loan/Financing - The current limits should be immediately revised. Moreover loan financing should be done at lesser rates of 6%-7% as in case of KCC and if possible interest subsidy should also be given. 4. MIS - Proper monitoring of groups needs be done at various stages of their growth. A centralized MIS should be created through which the status of each and every SHG in the remotest part could be monitored. 5. Training - It is essential to draw up a training plan according to the specific requirement of each group. It should be made sure to provide training only for the activity being undertaken or willing to be performed by the group, not any other 6. Shortage of Staff - The number of officers/ADOs needs to be increased. No other work except implementation of NRLM should be given to ADOs.
  • 28. 28 Continued….. 7. Economic activity - SHG's members need not be pressured in the matter of choice of economic activity. Rather they should be provided guidance in terms of viability or sustainability of a particular activity depending on available resources and market. 8. Financial Services - Accountability of Banks needs to be set. Unless and until it is done this scheme can never produce results. Since bankers are also pressurized under their work, separate Bank employees specifically working for Government policies should be appointed. 9. Marketing - Market survey as an important component especially of group activities needs to be stressed. Marketing survey should be conducted for each and every possible economic activity in the rural areas to know about the demand patterns of various products. 10. Float of Funds: The funds which is demand driven by the SHG can be submitted to village federation, they will look after it and than the proposal is forwarded to block federation, they will finalise it and send the same to the bank. This framework will help the in making healthy bank relation and also reduce the bank issues faced by SHG members. 11. Awareness: The villagers does not have any source of getting information regarding schemes. Through this programme this issue can be solved out by giving responsibility to some field workers of demonstration schemes and it benefits.
  • 29. 29 Continued….. 12. Monitoring and Evaluation: This is the backbone of any programme to achieve success. The team of people can be given this job which will help to look after SHG situation and the feedback on it will help to bring necessary changes to make it successful. 13. Marketing - Market survey as an important component especially of group activities needs to be stressed. Marketing survey should be conducted for each and every possible economic activity in the rural areas to know about the demand patterns of various products. 14. Miscellaneous - A programme such as NRLM is not enough to pull the poor out of their poverty without a holistic package of inputs. In addition to the credit programme, they must be supported by at least two welfare programmes of social security and public distribution.
  • 30. 30 For the Groups~  The groups studied rate high on quantity parameters like savings, lending and bank-linkage, but score a depressing low in terms of quality parameters.  High levels of distrust: A cause for equal distribution of funds and conflicts as a consequence.  Lack of direction and guidance: A cause for increasing number of defunct groups For the SHG- Bank Linkage~  Stress on optimum savings to extend loans leading to high idle funds in the groups.  Bankers insists that the bank loan be treated as a separate entity to ensure prompt repayment. Conclusion
  • 31. 31 PRESENTED BY: Prachi Mishra (12201029) Banbasi Sinku (12201008) Anoop Kr. Mishra (12201005) Sudhir Kumar (12201038)
  • 32. 32