R2D2 Model is an easy-to-apply, practical model designed "to help online instructors integrate various learning activities with appropriate technologies for effective online learning" (Intro. 250). Created by Dr. Curtis Bonk of the Indiana University and Dr. Ke Zhang of Wayne State University. What is R2D2? It stands for "Read, Reflect, Display, Do"
Fleming and Mills (1992): VARK learning stylesVisual: prefer diagrams, flowcharts, and graphicsAuditory: prefer hearing directions, lectures, and verbal informationReading/writing: prefer learning through text passages, words, and written explanations.Tactile/kinesthetic: prefer to learn through hands-on examples, role plays, debates, practice exercises, and simulations.What kind of learner are you? I emailed a link to a questionnaire designed to assess your learning preferences. What are your thoughts? FEEDBACK??
It is not meant to be a instructional design and development process, but instead fosters reflection on the type of tasks, resources, and activities that one may want to embed in an online course or module to address different modes of human learning (Intro. 251).
First quadrant of the model focuses on knowledge acquisition. There are various ways in distance learning that knowledge can be acquired.Traditional: textbooks, handouts, lectures, course notes, study guides, group discussions, speaking and presenting. These auditory and verbal learners prefer words, spoken or written explanations. Digital: eBooks, blogs, wikis, RSS feeds, online tutorials, screencasts, podcasts, synchronous chats/instant message, Webquests, online scavenger hunts, FAQs, emails, and course announcements via Blackboard, Facebook, Twitter, and text message.Text-based learning activities often involve less risk, time, and cost because they often mirror activities with which students are familiar, don't involve expensive hardware and software, and aren't difficult to access on a range of computers. However, as in the power of the internet continues to expand, "digital natives" that is students born in the Age of the Internet will demand a richer, multi-media experience that is as engaging as the content in which they are inundated outside of the classroom.
The second part of the model has students reflect on what they have learned; it addresses reflective or observational learners who prefer observing, viewing, watching, and reflecting upon learning situations and activities. These students make careful judgments and view things from different perspectives.Online classrooms have an added advantage for reflective students not offered face-to-face. For example, in an asynchronous discussions board, these students can think and reflect before responding to others or posting a new message. These delayed responses are important for in-depth discussions and to critically synthesize thoughts across topics.Here are some ideas for engaging reflective learners: interviews, role plays, online debates, pros and cons, mock trials, online observations with questions and answers, annotating electronic texts, blogging across topics and time, electronic portfolios, journaling, student developed study guides and exam questions. In order to bring the nature of these reflective exercises to life, I'd like to demonstrate Wimba Classroom, which is a great tool to use for synchronous activities such as interviews, expert demonstrations, debates, question and answer sessions.
http://www.youtube.com/user/TravelinEdMan#p/c/80131AF31B378ECE/14/P8fJpDd4wWQThere is notable overlap with the reflection category because activities in both arenas involve showing learners a macro representation of a concept, principle, or idea and then having them reflect on its use (intro. 259). Let's take a look at a few examples of displaying.Bubbl.us: Online brain-storming tool. Students can use this tool to share visual representations of their ideas. A great tool to use for group activities. Creations can be saved in the cloud, printed, or saved as JPG or PNG file.Google Earth: Google Earth has a wide array of educational uses. I'm going to show you something called Google Lit Trips, a tool that maps literary journeys over time and space. Students can create their own journeys or annotate other's journeys
The fourth quadrant of the R2D2 model involves having learns apply what they have learned, reflected on, and visualized in practice exercises in the real world.Kinesthetic/tactile learners prefer learning by active doing, experiencing, hands-on, and often group work. These learning methods situate students in rich contexts or authentic problems where they can test their knowledge.Ways to apply this learning is through case studies, scenarios, and simulations. The goal is to engage learners in content by allowing them to physically manipulate contents or variables and observe the results of those manipulations.National Center for Case Study Teaching Science: emphasizes active learning with an emphasis on problem solving. http://sciencecases.lib.buffalo.edu/cs/Fed Chairman Game: So you want to be in change of monetary policy? This interactive game let's you adjust the interest rates in order to affect unemployment and inflation. http://www.frbsf.org/education/activities/chairman/index.html
How does the model work?<br />Four Quadrants/Four Steps<br /><ul><li>Reading: Problem Orientation and Knowledge Acquisition
Reflecting: Problem Clarification and Knowledge Construction
Displaying: Solution Seeking and Knowledge Representation
Doing: Solution Evaluation and Knowledge Transfer</li></li></ul><li>Read<br />Focus on knowledge acquisition<br />Includes written and spoken language<br />Prefer words; spoken or written explanations<br />Digital<br /><ul><li>Electronic Journals
Course Notes</li></li></ul><li>Reflect<br />Prefer observing, viewing, watching, and reflecting <br />Make careful judgments <br />Online classrooms have a unique advantage: delayed response<br />Activities<br />Interviews<br />Debates<br />Pros and cons<br />Online observations<br />Annotations<br />Blogging across time and topics<br />Portfolios<br />Journaling<br />Student developed study guides and exam questions<br />