The dangerously high level of air pollution in Kazakhstan, due to multiple sources including various industrial enterprises and automobile emissions, is threatening the health and well being of Kazakhstani citizens.
Lead Мetal that is emitted into the air as small particles (from automobile emissions, industrial emissions) Auto transport emits polluting substances (sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide) with exhausted gas which total at over 2 million tons. Contribution of auto emissions to the air basin pollution has reached more than 60% in recent years 90% in Almaty Substance Level Emissions from stationary sources surveyed resulted in 2308 thousand tons of polluting substances.
Sources of Pollution A 1998-99 analysis of various economic activities and their role in air pollution showed the following enterprises to be at fault: -Industrial pollution -Production of Crude -Oil/Natural Gas -Manufacturing -Metallurgy -Production of Materials for Power -Production/Distribution of Gas, Electric Power, and Water -Automobile emissions -Mining Activity -Transport and Communication -Radioactive/Nuclear testing
Industrial enterprises. The majority of the Kazakhstan population resides in areas around or near industrial centers, due to the job opportunities offered in these areas. About 1/3 of these enterprises have no sanitary zones meeting size standards. Besides harmful chemicals and emissions, residents living near industrial centers experience pollution in the form of noise, electric magnet fields, dust, and vibration. These enterprises emit dangerous levels of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and other toxic pollutants
Balkhash copper Lake Balkhash region suffers greatly from disulphide pollution Balkash Copper Smelter recently restarted operation after a long period of Idleness .Copper is produced without purification in the utilization of disulphide.The operation also creates dust, sulphur, and nitrogen oxide pollution.
Nuclear Radiation After effects of nuclear arms testing in the Semipalatinsk Nuclear .Testing Range left Kazakhstan territories as “Environmental Disaster Zones”.From 1949-1989, radioactive fall-out over the bordering territories occupied over 300,000 km including Pavlodar, Karagandin, and Eastern KazakhstanOblasts
Oil and Gas Enterprises Substances emitted by these industries are relatively dense. Many are emitted without treatment.Treatment methods are either not up to code or in some cases simply not implemented at all. In 2002, the total gas and oil enterprise emissions gone untreated reached 7.7% .Тhese emissions include dangerous chemicals such as nitrogen oxides, carbondioxides, sulphur dioxides, benzypyrene, and also suspended dust particles.
Effects on Kazakhstan In recent years, vital statistics have continued to deteriorate at a rapid rate due to multiple factors, including the high level of air pollution.For example, birth rates decreased from 19.9 in 1992 to 14.9 in 1997 (down by 25.2%). Mortality rate increased from 8.1 in 1991 to 10.2 (up by 20.6%)
Health Hazards The incidence rates of communicable and non- communicable diseases have increased. Natural population growth has dropped from 11.8% in 1992 to 4.6% in 1997 (or by 2.6 times).Deterioration of various health factors have been mainly caused by both natural and occupational environmental influences. Higher morbidity rates have been linked to increasing incidences of conditions such as respiratory disease,nervous system and sensory organ disturbances, gastrointestinal disease, and circulatory disease.Poor air quality has been cited as a factor in these conditions.
Tuberculosis Among the infectious diseases, tuberculosis stands out as a problem of special concern The number of deaths associated with tuberculosis is rising annually 11.7 (per 100,000) in 1992 and 34.6 in 1996
Harmful Emissions Pollution has been found to have a chronically damaging impact on the health of the general population of Kazakhstan (cancer, respiratory diseases, damage of organs and systems, reduction of total resistance, and cardio- vascular diseases) Health status of the populations is negatively affected by the unfavorable environmental situation, emissions in general, and technogenic hotspots.
What Are the Major Outdoor AirPollutants? Carbon oxides Nitrogen oxides (NO) and nitric acid (HNO3) Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) Particulates Ozone (O3) Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
Several Factors Can Decrease orIncrease Outdoor Air Pollution. Outdoor air pollution may be decreased by Settling of particles due to gravity Rain and snow Salty sea spray from the ocean Winds Chemical reactions
Air pollution in Kazakhstan is significant environmental problem. Acid rain damages the environment within the country and also affects neighboring countries. In 1992 Kazakhstan had the worlds 14th highest level of industrial carbon dioxide emissions, which totaled 297.9 million metric tons, a per capita level of 17.48 metric tons. In 1996, the total had dropped to 173.8 million metric tons. Pollution from industrial and agricultural sources has also damaged the nations water supply. UN sources report that, in some cases, contamination of rivers by industrial metals is 160 to 800 times beyond acceptable levels. Pollution of the Caspian Sea is also a problem.
Kazakhstans wildlife is in danger of extinction due to the overall level of pollution. According to current estimates, some areas of the nation will not be able to sustain any form of wildlife by the year 2015. In the areas where pollution is the most severe, 11 species of mammals and 19 species of birds and insects are already extinct. As of 2001, 15 mammal species, 15 bird species, 5 types of freshwater fish, and 36 species of plant are listed as threatened. Threatened species include the argali, Aral salmon, great bustard, snow leopard, and tiger. The mongolian wild horse has recently become extinct in the wild.
Primary Pollutants Secondary Pollutants CO2 SO2 NO NO2 Most hydrocarbons SO3 Most suspended particles HNO3H2SO4 H2O2 O3 PANs Most NO3− and SO42− salts Natural StationaryMobile
Level of Air pollution in cities. As a result in the residential zone of the cities various chemical combinations of the 1st-2nd danger classes are registered, to say nothing of the combinations of the 3rd-4th danger classes (nitrogen, sulphur, carbon oxides, and others). Thus on the average in the cities the concentration of benzaperen – a substance of the 1st danger class exceeds the Maximum Admissible Concentration 2.5 times, and in the city of Almaty - 307 times, and sometimes up to 33 MAC, in Taraz - 16 MAC, in Ust-Kamenogorsk - 11 MAC. A content of specific combinations is high. Thus in the city of Shymkent there are high maximum one-time concentrations of phosphorus anhydrate, fluoric hydrogen, copper, lead, and cadmium. In the cities of Ekibastuz and Pavlodar there is benzaperen, zinc, chrome, lead, rubidium, nickel, manganese, iron, chlorine, and mercury. In 1996 the content of lead exceeded a sanitary standard in Zhezkazgan (1.3 MAC), Leninogorsk (1.1 MAC), Shymkent (1.5 MAC), Ust- Kamenogorsk (1.7 MAC) that is lower in comparison with 1995. In 1995 in Zhezkazgan there was 2.3 MAC, in Leninogorsk 3.3 MAC, Ust-Kamenogorsk 2.3 MAC, Shymkent 2.4 MAC.
Our community must take steps to improve air quality, but everyone should know the risks that climate change poses and learn how to best protect themselves when bad air days get worse.
Solutions. Use mass transit Walk or bike Use less polluting fuels Improve fuel efficiency Get older, polluting cars off the road Give large tax write- offs or rebates for buying low-polluting, energy efficient vehicles
Solutions.Outdoor IndoorImprove energy efficiency to reduce Reduce povertyfossil fuel use Distribute cheap and efficientRely more on lower-polluting Cook stoves or solar cookers tonatural gas poor families in developingRely more on renewable energy countries(especially solar cells, wind, andsolar-produced hydrogen) Reduce or ban indoor smokingTransfer energy efficiency,renewable energy, and pollution Develop simple and cheap testsprevention technologies to for indoor pollutants such asdeveloping countries particulates, radon, and formaldehyde
Solutions. IndoorSolS Air Pollution Prevention Cleanup or Dilution Clean ceiling tiles and line AC ducts to prevent release of mineral fibers Use adjustable fresh air vents for work spaces Ban smoking or limit it to well- ventilated areas Increase intake of outside air Set stricter formaldehyde emissions Change air more frequently standards for carpet, furniture, and building materials Circulate a building’s air through rooftop greenhouses Prevent radon infiltration Use office machines in well- Use efficient venting systems ventilated areas for wood-burning stoves Use less polluting substitutes for harmful cleaning agents, paints, and other products