NUR NASAIDA BT MD NASIR
NORFAIZATULAKMA BT ZAINAL ABIDIN
NURUL IMANA BT ABD RAHMAN
RABIATUN ADAWIAH BT NORMAN
AHMAD BARYARE FARAH
Chili is fruit of plants belonging to
Capsicum genus and Solanaceae family.
Capsicum is derived from the Greek word
"Kapsimo" meaning "to bite." When eaten, it
gives a burning sensation.
Chili originates from South America. In
search of spices, in 20th May, 1498
Christopher Columbus set his journey from
Portugal. However, but adopted to Malaysian
Tropical Climate many decades ago.
major producing state;
Parts of Chilli
• Fertigation system is vital for chili plant in order to feed
and maintain the healthy grow to produce a good quality
• Fertigation prevent the crop from infected roots as
Seed sowing method
1. Preparation of seeds
Hybrid F1 568
Hybrid F1 223
Hybrid F1 469
2. Selection of nursery containers
3. medium of sowing
o Peat Moss
o Holland Peat
4. Season of sowing
• January – February
• June – July
• September- October
The way for sowing red chilli
• Soak the seeds into a container of water, the water used must be
purified water, or mineral water. Seed should be soaked for 8 hours
in order to facilitate the process of seed germination.
• Prepare the tray. Fill the hole with the media seedling tray, fill up a
full or 3/4 only.
• Sow the seeds in rows - spacing 10- 15 cm between rows at the
depth of 1cm.
• Put mulch on seed bed.
• Daily watering - Germination of seeds take about 7-10 days.
• Remove and place the mulch in between rows after seedlings
• Put fungicides if the seedlings affected by fungal diseases like, Wilt,
foot rot and damping off.
• Addressing the problem of infertile land, housing and
• The higher revenue because there is no waste and the
• adequate nutrients.
• No problem herbicide / sod.
• Better quality.
• Use of water and fertilizer more efficiently and
• Saving labor with automated systems.
• Temperature: 22-4ºc
• Rain: medium 1500-2000mm/year
• pH value of soil: 5.5-6.8
• Type of soil: all soil are suitable
• Planting method:
• In pot: soil media 3:2:1 (soil,organic & sand )
• Fertigation: rice husk & cocopit
• Bund: width:1-2cm
interride distance: 45cm
Definition : It is a substance such as solid animal waste or a
chemical mixture that you spread on the ground in order to make
plants grow more successfully.
Two ways of fertilization :
A. Organic fertilizers
Manure is organic matter used as organic fertilizer in agriculture.
B. Chemical Fertilizers
Crop nutrient requirements is as follows:
Symptoms and signs of over-
Crust of fertilizer on soil
Yellowing and wilting of
Browning leaf tips and
Browned or blackened limp
Very slow or no growth.
Death of seedlings.
SEEDING AND PLANTING
• Chilies can be seeded directly into prepared ground or seedlings can be
• Seeds should be planted 6 mm deep. Rows should be 50 to 60 cm apart
and seedlings should be thinned to allow for a plant every 50 to 60 cm
within the row.
• Seedlings should emerge in 10 to 14 days. When planting out seedlings,
acclimatize them to the weather (harden-off) before placing them in the
• Fruit should mature in 10 to 16 weeks.
• Water is an important natural resource,
which is becoming scarce with time.
• Agriculture in the future is needed to
increase its production to feed the
growing world population with limited
fresh water. (Howell,2001)
it is necessary to optimize water
• In Malaysia, chilli is commonly grown
under soilless culture by using fertigation
• Irrigation is used in fertigation technology
is the kind of drip (drip irrigation) that is
controlled by a timer device that will work
automatically according to a
predetermined time interval.
• 16mm Rubber Grommet Set
• Tanks Nutrient 200/600 gallons
• 1.5 HP Water Pump
• The Timer (Timer)
• The PH Meter
• The EC Meter
• Filters Water
Figure 1: Irrigation system
Management of Irrigation System
• The supply of fertilizer is done timely manner
with the help of tools programmer (timer).
• Sprinkle time period is not too long to prevent
wastage of fertilizer.
• If too long - the amount of fertilizer will exceed
the capacity of the coco peat to absorb and
• During the day, it is enough to sprinkle over five
to six minutes for every two hours for crops
grown in the lowland.
• During this period, every crop receives
approximately 100ml – 150ml of fertilizer.
• Drip irrigation system is easily blocked by a pile
of minerals and algae.
• To overcome - use the filters and the filter must
be kept clean from time to time to ensure
• Weeds compete with crop for soil moisture,
nutrients, sunlight and space thus reduce the
• Weeds besides competing with the crop plants
for nutrients, space, moisture, sunlight they are
known to harbor insect pests and pathogens
causing damage to the main crop like red chili.
• intercultivation is carried out mainly by
bullock drawn hoes after establishment of
• initial stages of crop growth, depth of
intercultivation is shallow, cares are to be
taken that seedlings are not buried or
branches are not torn while
• Until the cotton is dibbled the
intercultivation is carried out in both the
• If the weed intensity is high near the
vicinity of the chili seedlings small hoes
are worked very close to the base of the
chili seedlings as small hoes
manouvarability is better than bigger ones.
• After the dibbling of cotton seeds
intercultivation is carried out only in one
• Repeated intercultivation 8 to 10 times is
• To prevent cracking and conserve soil
moisture repeated intercultivation is done
even though there may not be weeds.
• The last intercultivation is done at greater
depth so as to layout the land into ridges
and furrows to conserve soil moisture.
• Tillage is also sometimes used for weed control,
however an over reliance on tillage can lead to
soil structural issues, loss of soil moisture and
damage to the crop.
• Advantages: limits evaporation (by limiting the
evaporative surface), reduces weed growth (few
weeds grow in un-irrigated areas), and
minimizes interruption of cultural operations (i.e.
tillage, harvesting etc. and irrigation can be
carried out simultaneously).
Why disease management?
Disease management. Continue…
Chillies is infected by as many as 26
5 of them are considered major diseases.
21 of them are considered minor
How do you know if the disease if major or
Is this a mojor disease or minor?
Best strategic disease
management in red chillies.
• Avoidance Avoidance.
There are 12 fungal diseases, 2 bacterial
diseases and 12 viral diseases.
Is it fungal, viral or bacterial?
Chili pepper: Insect pests
Management : Crop rotation, parasitic wasp
& spraying insecticides or miticides
•Harvesting should be done at the right
stage of maturity.
• Retaining fruits for a long period on the
plants causes wrinkles and color fading.
•the produce is to heaped or kept in clean
gunnies for one day for uniform color
development for the pods.
•Grading is to be done to remove defective
and discolored pods.
• Based on survey
For each plant can produce maximum
4kg of chili.
If we use 3,000 plant of chili per acres,
production will be 12,000 kg for starting
• Price on Farmers 'Market is fix make by
Federal Agricultural Marketing Authority –
• Based on Commodity Price Guide 22 The
Farmers 'Market In Alor Star Kedah on
January 29, 2014.
• Price of Chili for RED LOCAL / OIL / KULAI ;
Farmers 'Market Guide Price =RM8.00
Public Market Price = RM10.00.There have
Price Savings = RM2.00.
Equipment Price (RM)
Poly tank 400 gallon 400.00
Pump 0.75hp 250.00
Main pipe poly 32mm x 100m 120.00
Medium coco peat 70 bag 315.00
Medium rice husk 70 bag 175.00
Poly bag 15 x 14 40kg 300.00
Tubing 4mm 9 roll x 80m 198.00
Fertilizer tank a/b x 2 70.00
Silver shine 0.035mm x 250m 70.00
Fitting lump sum
Timer digital 1 minute cut off 60.00
Tray 10 pieces 30.00
Seeds 10gm 30.00
Fertilizer a/b 1 set = 50kg 240.00
Disk filter 1’’ 55.00
Benefits of Red Chilli
Helps to Clear Congestion
Natural Pain Killer