SMP16
    Faster Than a Speeding Disk
      (Solid State Drives)

                    Mark Olson
                    IBM W...
STG Technical Conferences 2009


New Solid State Drives (SSD)


      • SSD or “flash drives” offers a new
        way of ...
STG Technical Conferences 2009


Solid State Drives (SSD) Matching Applications’ Need


       • Today’s applications can ...
STG Technical Conferences 2009


Many Systems Buy “Extra” Disk Arms for Performance

• HDD % utilization of capacity is he...
STG Technical Conferences 2009


SSD

                                                                                    ...
STG Technical Conferences 2009




                   4KB/op Read Response Time
               9                          ...
STG Technical Conferences 2009


Not So Sweet Spots for SSD

     • Where server performance with a modest number of HDD i...
STG Technical Conferences 2009


NAND Based Flash
     Placing a charge (electrons) on the floating-gate is called program...
STG Technical Conferences 2009


Implementing “Hot” and “Cold” Data

     AIX                                             ...
STG Technical Conferences 2009


AIX – Moving Data to SSDs

      • Add SSD hdisk to VG with
         – # extendvg <vgname...
STG Technical Conferences 2009


SSD Balancing One of Five Types of ASP Balancing
      1. Balance data between busy units...
STG Technical Conferences 2009


How to Find Hot Tables and Indexes

     • Performance Explorer
      – BY FAR the best s...
STG Technical Conferences 2009


Example 1: AIX & Mixed SSD+HDD


            “Hot”                                       ...
STG Technical Conferences 2009


Examples 3/4/5/6:
                                                                       ...
STG Technical Conferences 2009


Scenario: Complete HDD I/O Refresh
     • Modernize older disk subsystem, replacing all o...
STG Technical Conferences 2009


Scenario: Existing SAN Refresh - SSD Turbo-charger
     Problem: Older HDD in SAN not mee...
STG Technical Conferences 2009


 SSD Agenda


                     • Technology / benefit overview

                     ...
STG Technical Conferences 2009


Pricing Comparison                                                                       ...
STG Technical Conferences 2009


 SSD Agenda


                • Technology / benefit overview

                • Implemen...
STG Technical Conferences 2009


Pre-requisite Details
        • AIX 5.3
            – with the 5300-07 Technology Level a...
STG Technical Conferences 2009


SAS Adapters Supporting SSD on Power 520/550/560/570/595
     Three SAS adapter/controlle...
STG Technical Conferences 2009


Configuring SSD - 520/550 CEC Details

        Imbedded controller*                      ...
STG Technical Conferences 2009


Configuring SSD - 560/570 CEC Details                                       (2 of 2)

   ...
STG Technical Conferences 2009


Configuring SSD - #5802/5803 12X PCIe I/O Drawer Details
                                ...
STG Technical Conferences 2009


AIX SSD Configuration -




49           Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives)...
STG Technical Conferences 2009


DB2 and SSD integration for IBM i – CL enhancements
• IBM i V5R4 and V6R1
     – CRTPF, C...
STG Technical Conferences 2009


 SSD Agenda


              • Technology / benefit overview

              • Implementing...
STG Technical Conferences 2009


ANZSSDDTA – *SUMMARY output

                                     SSD Data Analysis - Dis...
STG Technical Conferences 2009


Four Power Systems SSD White Papers

     • AIX-specific
        – “Driving Business Valu...
STG Technical Conferences 2009


AIX Oriented References

• Installing and configuring SSDs
  http://publib.boulder.ibm.co...
STG Technical Conferences 2009


Storage Hierarchy
                                         Access                 Capacit...
STG Technical Conferences 2009


 Special notices
   This document was developed for IBM offerings in the United States as...
Faster Than A Speeding Disk
Faster Than A Speeding Disk
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Transcript of "Faster Than A Speeding Disk"

  1. 1. SMP16 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) Mark Olson IBM WW Power Systems Product Manager STG Technical Conferences 2009 © 2009 IBM Corporation STG Technical Conferences 2009 SSD Agenda • Technology / benefit overview • Implementing Hot/Cold– AIX & IBM i • Examples/Scenarios • Technology/Pricing • Configuring SSD • Additional information 2 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation 1
  2. 2. STG Technical Conferences 2009 New Solid State Drives (SSD) • SSD or “flash drives” offers a new way of running your system to really boost I/O performance l e: mp • Ultra high speed I/O can r exa Fo Compare all HDD OLTP / DB – Improve your system performance vs mixed Sample* • Faster response time HDD+SSD Workload • Shorter batch job runtimes All HDD (Hard Disk Drives) 800 HDD SSD + HDD 36 SSD + 80 HDD – Save space in your computer room Total transactions 1.65 X more – Lower your electrical/cooling costs SSD+HHD average 10.8 X more – Fewer drives improves overall drive throughput – I/O (SSD do 97% work) per second hardware reliability SSD average I/O response time 3.1 X better Reads Fewer total drives 86% reduction * This sample workload comparison documented in white paper Energy for I/O 90% reduction released late April, 2009 Sample workload selected to stress I/O. Customer workloads, configurations and SSD impact will vary from this sample. “Hot” data placed on SSD. The size of benefits are dependent upon several factors. Application I/O usage and starting/ending configuration are key. 3 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation STG Technical Conferences 2009 Basic Problem --- Disk “Slowing” Down (Relatively) Seagate 15k RPM/3.5" Drive Specifications +35% 450 Capacity (GB) Max Sustained 171 DR (MB/s) +15% Read Seek (ms) 73 75 3.6 -1% 3.4 2002 2008 • Capacity growing ok (35% per year), but Read/Seek -1% & Data Rate only 15% per year • While processors & memory speed up and add threads and cache • Net … a growing imbalanced between disk and processor/memory 4 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation 2
  3. 3. STG Technical Conferences 2009 Solid State Drives (SSD) Matching Applications’ Need • Today’s applications can often benefit with a faster storage option • SSD high speed can really help get rid of I/O bottlenecks, bridging the gap between memory and disk speeds – Improve performance – And save space, energy at the same time SSD Processors Memory Disk Very, very, Very, very, Very, very slow very, very, very fast Fast comparatively very fast 1,000,000 - < 10’s ns ~100 ns ~200,000 ns 8,000,000 ns Access Speed 5 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation STG Technical Conferences 2009 Solid State Drives (SSD) Matching Applications’ Need Human Time Context memory SSD Disk ~1 ~33 ~ 12.5 second minutes hours SSD Processors Memory Disk Very, very, Very, very, Very, very slow very, very, very fast Fast comparatively very fast 1,000,000 - < 10’s ns ~100 ns ~200,000 ns 8,000,000 ns Access Speed 6 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation 3
  4. 4. STG Technical Conferences 2009 Many Systems Buy “Extra” Disk Arms for Performance • HDD % utilization of capacity is held low to help ensure higher I/O performance and more consistent response time - arm movement, spinning platter an issue • Write cache and read cache attempt to buffer the impact Often less than 30-50% full for performance sensitive workloads • SSD % utilization of capacity not restricted Can run much closer to 100% full 7 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation STG Technical Conferences 2009 Mixed SSD + HDD Can be Great Solution • It is typical for data bases to have a large percentage of data which is infrequently used (“cold”) and a small percentage of data which is frequently used (“hot”) Hot data may be only 10-20% capacity, but represent 80-90% activity • SSD offers best price performance when focused on “hot” data • HDD offers best storage cost, so focus it on “cold” data …. sort of a hierarchal approach Cold May be able to use larger HDD and/or a larger % capacity used Hot Can run SSD closer to 100% capacity 8 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation 4
  5. 5. STG Technical Conferences 2009 SSD Faster than a spinning disk Solid State Drive (also called “Flash Drive”) • High speed – no rotational delay, no arm movement • Ignore old rules of enough disk arms for performance • No moving parts improves SSD reliability • Far lower power/cooling than a 3.5-inch disk drive (HDD) – Similar power/cooling to 2.5-inch SFF HDD • Can save floor space and energy by eliminating many HDDs • High cost on a “per drive” or “per GB” comparison – but for the right application, a very nice fit with good return on investment 9 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation STG Technical Conferences 2009 SSD Performance 30000 8000 7000 25000 6000 20000 5000 15000 4000 3000 10000 2000 5000 1000 0 0 SSD HDD SSD HDD Power Consumption in Watts Random I/O Operations Per Second Required for 135K IOPS (Sustained ) performance 10 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation 5
  6. 6. STG Technical Conferences 2009 4KB/op Read Response Time 9 8 8 7 6 5 Rt (ms) 3.9 4 3 2 1 0.1 0.33 0 IOA Cache Hit SSD 15k RPM HDD 15k RPM HDD Short Seek Long Seek 11 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation STG Technical Conferences 2009 Sweet Spots for SSD • Where server performance is really important and I/O dependent • Where server has a lot of HDD with low capacity utilization (or ought to have them configured this way) • Where high value (from a performance perspective) can be focused in SSD – Fairly small portion of total data (“hot data”) – Specific indexes/tables/files/libraries of the operating system or data base or application • Best workload characteristics for SSD – Lots of random reads … and a low percentage of sequential/predictable reads – Higher percentage reads than writes • Assuming a disk adapter/controller with enough write cache, SSD writes may or may not be that much faster than HDD writes 12 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation 6
  7. 7. STG Technical Conferences 2009 Not So Sweet Spots for SSD • Where server performance with a modest number of HDD is just fine • Workload characteristics for SSD (and/or cached disk controllers) – Predictable reads – non-random (especially with read cache controller for HDD) – High percentage write (especially with write cache controller) • Where data usage is evenly spread out (no hot data) • Other examples where SSD won’t make much difference vs HDD – Boot drives / load source drives (IPLs not disk I/O intensive) – Journals/journal receivers (heavy writes – if leverage write cache on controller) – Application binaries 13 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation STG Technical Conferences 2009 Power SSD Technology Insights • Endurance – Cheaper, “consumer” SSD have a reputation for “wearing out” – IBM Power SSD have great SSD characteristics - more reliable than HDD – Over-provisioned – 69 GB available, 128 GB used • Wear leveling – writes are spread around • Approximate maximum of 100,000 writes to a cell (SLC) • ECC – detection and correction • Bad block relocation if problem detected • DRAM used to buffer frequently-accessed data and eliminate WRITEs – Like HDD, provides warning to system to call for service if drive starting to wear out • Performance – Unlike consumer SSD, Power SSD deliver high performance – consistently, continually – under heavy enterprise workloads 24x7x367 – NAND flash memory can only be electronically erased or reprogrammed in large blocks (as opposed to small blocks, such as a byte of data, for instance). – The NAND-Flash (the logical “Not And” operation) as used in Power and the DS8000 is working page-based (sector-based) and block-based. A page typically has a size of 512, 2048, 4096, or 8192 bytes. Each page has also a spare area of 64 bytes that is reserved for Error Correction Code, or other internal operations information. Pages are then grouped into blocks. A page is the smallest unit that can be read or written. – Pages that contain data cannot be directly overwritten with new data, they must be erased first before they can be reused. The page itself cannot be erased because of the grouping into blocks, so the block needs to be erased (erasure procedure takes typically 1.5 to 2.0 ms). – For each write operation, a copy of the block is needed and is performed at that time. The block that was used before is blocked until it is erased. 14 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation 7
  8. 8. STG Technical Conferences 2009 NAND Based Flash Placing a charge (electrons) on the floating-gate is called programming or writing, whereas removing the charge from the floating-gate is called erasing. The current commercial NAND-flash has two varieties of flash cells: Single Level Cell Flash (SLC-Flash) SLC-Flash technology manipulates the charge on the floating gate of the flash transistor cell to allow representation of two (voltage) states, which translates to a single bit per cell. The bit value is a 0 (written state) or a 1 (erased state), A Single Level Cell flash typically allows about 100,000 writes per cell. The number of writes to the same cell is limited because each write operation wears out the insulation of the floating gate. Multi Level Cell Flash (MLC-Flash) MLC-Flash is designed to allow a more precise amount of charge on the floating gate of the transistor to represent four different states, thereby translating to two bits of information per cell and therefore a higher bit density is possible. A Multi Level Cell only allows about 10,000 writes per cell and the MLC-Flash. Although an MLC-Flash can store more information, but... the lifetime of the SLC-Flash is about ten times higher than the MLC-Flash MLC-Flash is slower in writes per cell than the SLC- Flash. For those reasons, the Solid State Drives available for Power and the DS8000 use a NAND-Flash with SLC technology. Data stored in the SLC-flash remains valid for about ten years, without power. 15 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation STG Technical Conferences 2009 SSD Agenda • Technology / benefit overview • Implementing Hot/Cold – AIX & IBM i • Examples/Scenarios • Technology/Pricing • Configuring SSD • Additional information 16 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation 8
  9. 9. STG Technical Conferences 2009 Implementing “Hot” and “Cold” Data AIX IBM i • Ability to granularly/flexibly select and • #1 Best integrated, automated locate hot files on SSD capability available in the industry today – Key AIX performance tools are filemon & iostat. – “Trace and Balance” function part of IBM i – Database vendors provide hot data – Monitors by partition or ASP (Aux analysis tools, example: DB2 Storage Pool) to determine hot/cold Snapshot. – Upon request, automatically moves • Migrating hot data hot data to SSD, cold to HDD – Migratepv is often useful – Can re-monitor & rebalance any time – Softek Migration Tool provides a nice • A few key OS files can automatically suite of functions and can be combined be placed on SSD with IBM Services • Can specify specific data base – See Total Storage Productivity Center objects to be placed on SSD • SSD white paper released late April for • See white paper released late May for additional insights additional insights • New/enhanced tools being developed • Additional enhancements being developed 17 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation STG Technical Conferences 2009 AIX – Choosing Data to Place on SSD • iostat – identify IOPS (tps) and R/W ratio for PV – High small-block tps and high R/W ratio suggests good candidate – iostat –t: if there is no iowait time, SSDs will not improve performance – iostat –D: Total system storage tps may be substantially higher SDD vs HDD look for hdisks that do over 200 IOPS (tps) or %tm act at least 99% busy – Investigate further with lvmstat and # lspv –l <hdisk#> • lvmstat – identify IOPS (iocnt) and R/W ratio for LVs – Turn on lvmstat for VG with # lvmstat –e –v <vgname> # lvmstat -v newvg2 Logical Volume iocnt Kb_read Kb_wrtn Kbps … – High iocnt and high R/W ratio LVs are good candidates – Also reports IOPS on PPs – useful when the LV is relatively large • filemon – identify IO sizes, sequentiality to PVs, LVs trace for only seconds of time See sorted LV utilization in “Most Active Logical Volumes” report. High utilization is good SSD candidate. • Some applications have tools for identifying hot data – DB2 snapshot monitoring tool 18 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation 9
  10. 10. STG Technical Conferences 2009 AIX – Moving Data to SSDs • Add SSD hdisk to VG with – # extendvg <vgname> <hdisk#> • Migrate LV to hdisk dynamically with – # migratepv –l <lvname> <source hdisk> <target hdisk(s)> – Repeat with other hdisks the LV resides on • Or create a new VG for just SSD data – # mkvg –y ssdvg –s 32 –S <ssdhdisk(s)> – Offers smaller PP sizes to waste less space • Stop application and copy the LV to the new VG with – # cplv –v <sourcevg> -y ssdlv <source LV> – Or backup/restore/copy data to new file system 19 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation STG Technical Conferences 2009 IBM i Load Balancer • Industry leading automated capability • Monitors partition/ASP using “trace” IBM i intelligent hot/cold placement makes – User turns trace on during a peak time a big difference vs normal IBM striping / scattering of data across all drives. – User turns trace off after reasonable sample time This example 72 HDD + 16 SSD – Negligible performance impact expected – Tool monitors “reads” to identify hot data – Looks a 1MB stripes of data • Upon command, automatically moves hot Application Response time data to SSD, cold data to HDD 72 HDD + 16 SSD No Balance – Minimal performance impact, done in 72 HDD + 16 SSD Data Balanced background • Can remonitor and rebalance any time – Probably a weekly or monthly activity – Perhaps less often if data not volatile Trans/min Predicting/analyzing what % of data is hot for presale analysis to help size the number of SSD required: • Use PEX tool/output • Output from monitor (will need technical person to interpret) 20 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation 10
  11. 11. STG Technical Conferences 2009 SSD Balancing One of Five Types of ASP Balancing 1. Balance data between busy units and idle units (STRASPBAL TYPE(*USAGE)) 2. Make all of the units in the ASP have the same percent full (STRASPBAL TYPE(*CAPACITY)) 3. Drain the data from a disk, to prepare unit it to be removed from the configuration (STRASPBAL TYPE(*MOVDTA)) 4. (Almost obsolete) move hot data off of a compressed disk, and move cold data to the compressed disk (STRASPBAL TYPE(*HSM)) Requires specific disk controllers with compression capability – feats #2741/2748/2778. Compression only allowed in user ASPs 5. Move cold data to HDDs and move hot data to SSDs (STRASPBAL TYPE(*HSM)) 21 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation STG Technical Conferences 2009 Using TRCASPBAL to place hot data on SSDs HDD1 HDD2 HDD3 HDD4 SSD 100 500 100 2000 6000 10000 100 1200 6000 900 3000 10000 100 300 800 500 900 6000 900 0 4000 300 300 400 4000 300 200 600 700 1000 100 100 • Trace ASP balance counts the read operations based on 1MB stripes – TRCASPBAL SET(*ON) ASP(1) TIMLMT(*NOMAX) • Start ASP balance moves the data – STRASPBAL TYPE(*HSM) ASP(1) TIMLMT(*NOMAX) – Target is 50% of read operations to be on SSD – Cold data is moved (multiple threads) to HDDs, hot data is moved (single thread) to SSD 22 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation 11
  12. 12. STG Technical Conferences 2009 How to Find Hot Tables and Indexes • Performance Explorer – BY FAR the best solution – Perform analysis based on read complete and write complete events • DB2 maintains statistics about the number of operations on a table or index – Statistics are zeroed on each IPL – Statistics only identify candidates (logical operations include both random and sequential operations) – Available via: • Display file description (DSPFD) • Application programming interface (API) QUSRMBRD • System i Navigator Health Center (V6R1 only) • SQL catalog queries 23 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation STG Technical Conferences 2009 SSD Agenda • Technology / benefit overview • Implementing Hot/Cold– AIX & IBM i • Examples/Scenarios • Technology/Pricing • Configuring SSD • Additional information 24 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation 12
  13. 13. STG Technical Conferences 2009 Example 1: AIX & Mixed SSD+HDD “Hot” Compare all OLTP / DB “Hot” HDD vs mixed Sample* SSD+HDD Workload “Cold” “Cold” All HDD (Hard Disk Drives) 800 HDD SSD + HDD 36 SSD + 80 HDD 800 HDD 36 SSD +80 HDD Total transactions 1.65 X more SSD+HHD average drive throughput – 10.8 X more • Power 550 running AIX I/O per second (SSD do 97% work) • 800 HDD SSD average I/O – 720 HDD in DS4800s with “hot” data 3.1 X better Reads response time – 80 HDD in DS3400 with “cold” data Fewer total drives 86% reduction • 116 SSD+HDD Energy for I/O 90% reduction – 36 SSD in #5886 EXP12S Drawers “hot” – 80 HDD in DS3400 with “cold” data • Comparisons of 720 HDD to 36 SSD (“hot * This sample workload documented in white paper released late April. Sample workload selected to stress I/O. Customer to hot”) even more impressive workloads, configurations and SSD impact will vary from this sample. 25 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation STG Technical Conferences 2009 Example 2: #1 in BI for SAP & all SSD • IBM i with Power 520 and 550 deliver top results for SAP Business Intelligence workload in April 2009 • SAP BI Mixed Load Standard Application Benchmark – Using SAP NetWeaver, query activity and load/update activity are executed in parallel • Re-ran 550 benchmark with SSD to see what would happen …. 550 550 Processor 4-core 5.0 GHz 4-core 5.0 GHz Disk/SSD 96 x 15K RPM Disk 22 x SSD Memory 64 GB 64 GB Throughput 90,492 90,634 (Query Navigation Steps/per hour) • Configuration SSD enables the same results with: – IBM i 6.1 with DB2 for i – SAP NetWeaver 7.0 • 75% fewer drives – 300,000,000 Records • Smaller footprint • Energy savings SAP certified results are found at www.sap.com/benchmark 26 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation 13
  14. 14. STG Technical Conferences 2009 Examples 3/4/5/6: SSD SSD Cheetah wins race Example Config: HDD only Config: With Performance with SSD (Note: These OS & sample comparisons SSD results measured using sample workloads workloads (all 15k rpm) designed to exercise I/O and may differ noticeably from customer workloads.) used HDD to SSD 1.5GB SAS adapter 1.5GB SAS • Same number drives IBM i & + 8 15k rpm HDD adapter + 8 SSD • 11X more transactions OLTP/DB • 10X better user response time 3 • 19X better disk response time • 11X more IOPs/device HDD to SSD (6) 1.5GB SAS (6) 1.5GB SAS • Same number drives AIX & adapters + 36 15k adapters + 36 • 42X more transactions OLTP/DB rpm HDD SSD • 3X better database response time 4 (hot data only compare) (hot data only compare) • 3.5X better disk response time • 42X more IOPs/device HDD to (4) 1.5GB SAS (4) 1.5GB SAS • 39% fewer drives IBM i & SSD+HDD adapters + 144 adapters + 16 • Same number transactions OLTP/DB HDD SSD + 72 HDD • 2-2.5X better user response time • 1.75X better disk response time 5 • 2.1X more IOPs/device SCSI HDD to (3) 1.5GB SCSI (2) 1.5GB SAS • 89% fewer drives IBM i & SAS SSD adapters + 108 adapters + 12 • 18% more transactions OLTP/DB SCSI HDD SSD • 2.5X better user response time 6 • • 4.5X better disk response time 11X more IOPs/device 27 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation STG Technical Conferences 2009 Example 7: Batch Window Reduction • Associated Bank needed to reduce month end batch run time from 4+ hours to under 3 hours 40% Reduction • SSDs cut 1.5 hours from batch run time – Plus a 16% reduction in # of disk drives Batch Performance Runs 5 # of SAS # of Batch Run 4 Disk Drives SSDs Time 3 Hours Base run 72 0 4:22 2 SSD run 1 72 8 2:43 1 SSD run 2 60 4 2:48 0 72 HDD 72 HDD + 8 SSD 60 HDD + 4 SSD • Leveraged recent IBM i enhancements – Directed 8 DB2 Objects (table, index, view) to SSD Source: IBM Power Systems Performance and Benchmark Center 5-23-09 28 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation 14
  15. 15. STG Technical Conferences 2009 Scenario: Complete HDD I/O Refresh • Modernize older disk subsystem, replacing all old HDD with new SSD+HDD • Put “hot” active data on SSD & put “cold” data on spinning disk – Combination has better price performance than using all SSD – IBM i load balancing function can do this nearly automatically • Save space, maintenance, power/cooling, improve performance and increase storage capacity Power 570 w/ older SCSI disk Power 570 w/ SSD & newer SAS disk (360) 35GB disk = 12.6 TB (32) 69 GB SSD = 2.2 TB 152 U rack space (4.1 racks) (48) 282 GB disk = 13.5 TB 36 U rack space (1 rack) 4.5 to 1 Drive reduction And grow capacity 25%* Assumptions: Amount customer useable space net of parity protection not shown Ratio of hot to cold data for this scenario = 1 : 6 Will vary by client and application * Impact/benefit of using a higher % of drive’s capacity not considered Example uses 4 partitions equal in size and configuration for disk and controllers 29 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation STG Technical Conferences 2009 Scenario: Existing HDD Refresh - SSD Turbo-charger Problem: Older HDD not meeting performance needs • Normal tuning efforts have not worked • Prefer not to mix newer HDD with older HDD • Leases/budgets make it difficult to replace existing HDD • Prefer not to invest more money in additional older HDD Solution: Add SSD and keep HDD. Put “hot” data on SSD & keep “cold” data on HDD • SSD gives performance boost to system …. SWAG 20-40% • SSD provides new technology investment • HDD usable capacity can be larger SWAG 20-30%...as average capacity utilization increased • HDD financial investment protected/leveraged Power 570 w/ older SCSI disk (360) 35GB disk = 12.6 TB (12) 69 GB SSD = 756 G Plus xx% more GB usable from HDD Assume • older drives 30% data capacity • 80-20 cold-hot split System configuration and usage will impact results and applicability Then: 12 SSD covers hot data needs 30 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation 15
  16. 16. STG Technical Conferences 2009 Scenario: Existing SAN Refresh - SSD Turbo-charger Problem: Older HDD in SAN not meeting performance needs • Normal tuning efforts have not worked • Leases/budgets make it difficult to replace existing SAN • Prefer not to invest more money in additional older SAN resource Solution: Add SSD and keep SAN. Put “hot” data on SSD & keep “cold” data on SAN • SSD gives performance boost to system …. SWAG 20-40% • SSD provides new technology investment • SAN usable capacity can be larger SWAG 10-20%...as average capacity utilization increased • HDD financial investment protected/leveraged Same scenario works for SAN (12) 69 GB SSD = 756 G Plus xx% more GB usable from HDD Note – operational considerations as some of the data is pulled off SAN assuming using SAN advanced function -- if simple usage, not an issue Assume • older drives 30% data capacity • 80-20 cold-hot split System configuration and usage will impact results and applicability Then: 12 SSD covers hot data needs 31 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation STG Technical Conferences 2009 SSD – Internal/External or SAN Scenario SSD • Flexibility to choose where to implement – Power BladeCenter JS23/JS43 HDD – Power 520/550/560/570 CEC – EXP12S SAS Expansion Unit #5886 • On Power 520/550/560/570/575/595 – DS8000 (uses very similar SSD – a Fibre Channel version instead of SAS) • All above options can offer the best price/performance if hot data is put on the SSD and cold data on HDD • As you would expect, tooling to identify/manage the data is somewhat different by OS and if SAN is used or not • Using non-SAN SSD for hot data and SAN for cold can be done and can provide a performance boost, but if using robust SAN functions, carefully consider operational aspects. For example, if the SAN is doing replication/backup, this would now need to be coordinated with the SSD to ensure all data was handled. 32 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation 16
  17. 17. STG Technical Conferences 2009 SSD Agenda • Technology / benefit overview • Implementing Hot/Cold– AIX & IBM i • Examples/Scenarios • Technology/Pricing • Configuring SSD • Additional information 33 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation STG Technical Conferences 2009 Power SSD Offering Technology 2.5 inch • Enterprise Grade Solid State Drive (SSD) ( SFF ) – Built in wear leveling • Rated capacity: 69.7 GB – Actually has 128 GB for industrial strength – Extra 83% capacity for long life of drive • First SAS SSD in industry – Higher performance interface – Higher levels of redundancy/reliability • SAS Interface ( 3 Gb ) – 2.5 / 3.5 inch inserts/carriers • Performance Throughput Sustained: – 220MB/s Read – 115MB/s Write • Random transactional operations (IOPS) – 28,000 IOPS • Average Access time: – Typically around 200 microseconds • Power Consumption: 8.4W max, 5.4W idle – Same as SFF 15k HDD – About half 3.5” 15K HDD (16-18W for today’s larger capacity) 3.5 inch 34 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation 17
  18. 18. STG Technical Conferences 2009 Pricing Comparison SFF SSD • Price per 69 GB SSD = MUCH higher “per drive” vs HDD • Great price per performance (I/O Operations Per Second) SFF HDD • Therefore it makes sense to apply SSD where it offers the best impact for both performance and price/performance – Use SSD where high performance I/O really matters – Use HDD where cost per GB storage is important – Using BOTH SSD and HDD on the same configuration can make a LOT of sense SSD HDD • Higher $ per GB capacity • Lower $ per GB capacity • Higher I/O performance • Can need lots more I/O • Fewer devices = less devices for good energy, floor space performance All prices shown are IBM's USA suggested list prices as of April 2009 and are subject to change without notice; reseller prices may vary. 35 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation STG Technical Conferences 2009 SSD/HDD Maintenance Pricing Insights • Maintenance price of IBM HDD shown as zero …. not really true – Price buried in maintenance price of CEC or I/O expansion unit with disk bays for maintenance pricing simplicity. • IBM SSD is designed to be reliable – Far more reliable comparing chance of 1 SSD failing versus chance of 1 out of several HDD failing (using scenario of on a few SSD replacing many HDD) – No moving parts – Sophisticated management in SSD of flash memory being used to avoid over using storage locations (wear leveling) – Huge amount of spare storage in SSD to extend life (83% of SSD actual capacity reserved) • But SSD cost results in a maintenance price per SSD, even with its reliability • Interesting math exercise – Calculate the imputed cost per month of maintenance of HDD – Multiply that cost above by the ratio of (SSD-price)/(HDD price) – Compare it to SSD price – You’ll find that you would have expected a significantly higher SSD maintenance price ……… 36 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation 18
  19. 19. STG Technical Conferences 2009 SSD Agenda • Technology / benefit overview • Implementing Hot/Cold– AIX & IBM i • Examples/Scenarios • Technology/Pricing • Configuring SSD • Additional information 37 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation STG Technical Conferences 2009 Configuring SSD - The Basics SFF SSD • SSD leverages SAS HDD infrastructure SFF HDD – Located in a SAS drive bay – same as SAS HDD would use • Subset of SAS HDD location options – Run by SAS adapter/controller – same as HDD would use • Subset of SAS adapters – Contents can be protected by RAID or mirroring same as HDD • RAID-5, RAID-6, RAID-10, mirroring, hot spare • Same rule as HDD: optionally protected AIX/Linux, required protection IBM i – A number of specific configuration rule differences – see details • POWER6 servers where SSD located in – BladeCenter JS23/JS24 – Power 520, 550, 560, 570 CEC – #5886 EXP12S Disk Drawer, #5802/5803* 12X PCIe I/O drawer • AIX 5.3, IBM i 5.4, Linux SES10, RHEL4.5 or later * added Oct 2009 38 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation 19
  20. 20. STG Technical Conferences 2009 Pre-requisite Details • AIX 5.3 – with the 5300-07 Technology Level and Service Pack 9 – with the 5300-08 Technology Level and Service Pack 7 – with the 5300-09 Technology Level and Service Pack 4 – with the 5300-10 Technology Level • AIX 6.1 – with the 6100-00 Technology Level and Service Pack 9 – with the 6100-01 Technology Level and Service Pack 5 – with the 6100-02 Technology Level and Service Pack 4 – with the 6100-03 Technology Level • IBM i V5R4M5 LIC and V5R4 OS – Cumulative PTF package C9104540 – Respin RS545-F LIC, RS540-30 OS (installation not needed, but need CD for system reload purposes) – Database group 22 (SF99507) – The following PTFs should be in temporary, permanent or superseded status on the system: • MF46591, MF46593, MF46594, MF46595, MF46743*, MF46748, SI35126, SI35365 (* = DELAYED PTF) • IBM i V6R1M0 LIC and OS – Cumulative PTF package C9111610 – Respin RS610-F, RS640-00 OS – (installation not needed, but need CD for system reload purposes) – Database group 10 (SF99601) – The following PTFs should be in temporary, permanent or superseded status on the system: • MF46390, MF46518, MF46587, MF46588, MF46609, MF46714, MF46771, MF46817, MF47076*, MF47224*, SI35299, SI35379, SI35572 (* = DELAYED PTF) • SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10, Service Pack 2 or later • Red Hat Enterprise Linux version 4.7 or later • Red Hat Enterprise Linux version 5.2 or later • System firmware FW 3.4.2 – 520 – EL340_075; 550 – EL340_075; 560 – EM340_075; 570 – EM340_075; 595 – EH340_075 + EB340_078 • HMC V7 R3.4.0 Service Pack 2 39 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation STG Technical Conferences 2009 SSD Feature Codes One 69 GB SSD Drive, but five feature codes – Three packages – BladeCenter, 2.5” SFF and 3.5” – Two SFF and two 3.5” features help eConfig know if AIX/Linux or IBM i will use the drive • No physical difference between SSD with AIX/Linux feature vs i feature • Ignoring eConfig’s confusion, can move SSD from AIX i or i AIX partition whenever needed (remembering normal need to “empty” contents and remove from RAID set before moving) SSD Placed in #8273 JS23/JS43 SFF 520/550 CEC #1890 or #1909(i) #5802/5803 3.5” 560/570 CEC #3586 or #3587(i) EXP12S #5886 40 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation 20
  21. 21. STG Technical Conferences 2009 SAS Adapters Supporting SSD on Power 520/550/560/570/595 Three SAS adapter/controller options: – Most powerful: PCI-X 1.5GB Cache RAID Adapter AIX / IBM i / Linux – Mid choice: PCIe 380MB Cache RAID Adapter AIX / IBM i (Oct 2009) / Linux – Least costly: imbedded controller* AIX / IBM i / Linux – SAS Adapters not used: PCI-X #5900/5912, PCIe #5901, PCI-X #5902 • PCI-X SAS RAID Adapter CCIN 572F – Feat code #5904/5906/5908 (all same card, but 3 features indicate double-wide blind swap cassette) – 1.5 GB effective write cache – Read cache disabled using SSD – Double wide adapter - uses 2 PCI-X slots • PCIe SAS RAID Adapter CCIN 574E – Feat Code #5903 – 380 MB write cache pair – Used in pairs • Integrated SAS Controller CCIN 572C – Recommended cache daughter card FC 5679 – Systems: 520, 550, 560, & 570 *175MB Cache RAID #5679 optional on Power 520/550, but often recommended 41 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation STG Technical Conferences 2009 SAS Adapters Supporting SSD on Power 520/550/560/570/595 Three SAS adapter/controller options: – Most powerful: PCI-X 1.5GB Cache RAID Adapter AIX / IBM i / Linux – Mid choice: PCIe 380MB Cache RAID Adapter AIX / IBM i (Oct 2009) / Linux – Least costly: imbedded controller AIX / IBM i / Linux – SAS Adapters not used: PCI-X #5900/5912, PCIe #5901, PCI-X #5902 SFF Imbedded controller* #1890 520/550 #5904 PCI-X 1.5GB Adapter #1909(i) CEC Imbedded controller 3.5” #3586 560/570 #5903 PCIe 380MB Adapter #3587(i) CEC #5908 PCI-X 1.5GB Adapter #5903 PCIe 380MB Adapter 3.5” EXP12S #5904/6/8 PCI-X 1.5GB Adapter #3586 #3587(i) #5886 #5903 PCIe 380MB Adapter SFF #5802 #1890 This option announced Oct 2009 #1990(i) #5803 *175MB Cache RAID #5679 optional, but often recommended 42 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation 21
  22. 22. STG Technical Conferences 2009 Configuring SSD - 520/550 CEC Details Imbedded controller* SFF #1890 520/550 #5904 PCI-X 1.5GB Adapter #1909(i) CEC • Use 520/550 CEC SFF SAS bays, NOT 3.5” SAS bays • Can not mirror SSD against HDD, can not mix in same RAID array • Using imbedded controller for all 8 SSF bays -- AIX / IBM i / Linux – * Can augment performance/protection with #5679 175MB cache/RAID enabler – Can mix HDD and SSD in these 8 bays • Need enough HDD and enough SSD for each protection scheme used • Using Split Backplane AIX / Linux Not IBM i – Use imbedded controller for first four SSF bays • Can augment performance/protection with #5679 175MB cache/RAID enabler • Can NOT mix HDD and SSD in these 4 bays – Need enough SSD for protection scheme used – Use #5904 PCI-X 1.5GB Cache RAID Adapter for second four SSF bays • Can NOT mix HDD and SSD in these 4 bays – Need enough SSD for protection scheme used • #5904 located in 520/550 CEC PCI-X slots. Note – #5903 not used. Neither required #3667 – Connect to 520/550 backplane via SAS cables #3679+#3669/3670 SAS cable introduced • #5904 second/third ports not used – can not attach additional HDD or SSD nor testing done 43 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation STG Technical Conferences 2009 Configuring SSD - 560/570 CEC Details (1 of 2) Imbedded controller 3.5” #3586 560/570 #5903 PCIe 380MB Adapter #3587(i) CEC #5908 PCI-X 1.5GB Adapter • Use 3.5” SAS bays (no SFF bays offered in 560/570 CEC) • Can not mirror SSD against HDD, can not mix in same RAID array • Using imbedded controller for all 6 3.5” bays -- AIX / IBM i / Linux – Can mix HDD and SSD in these 6 bays • Need enough HDD and enough SSD for each protection scheme used • Using PCI adapter(s) to drive all 6 bays AIX / IBM i / Linux (Awkward use of term “split backplane”) – Use pair #5903 PCIe adapters AIX / IBM i (Oct 2009) / Linux • Can NOT mix HDD and SSD in these 6 bays – Need enough SSD for protection scheme used • #5903 adapters located in 560/570 CEC PCIe slots – Connect to 560/570 backplane via SAS cable #3667+#3651 • #5903 second pair ports not used – can not attach additional HDD or SSD – Use #5908 PCI-X 1.5GB Cache RAID Adapter AIX / IBM i / Linux • Can NOT mix HDD and SSD in these 6 bays – Need enough SSD for protection scheme used • #5908 located in 560/570 CEC PCI-X slots. – Connect to 560/570 backplane via SAS cables #3679+#3651 • #5908 second/third ports not used – can not attach additional HDD or SSD 44 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation 22
  23. 23. STG Technical Conferences 2009 Configuring SSD - 560/570 CEC Details (2 of 2) Imbedded controller 3.5” #3586 560/570 #5903 PCIe 380MB Adapter #3587(i) CEC #5908 PCI-X 1.5GB Adapter • Use 3.5” SAS bays (no SFF bays offered in 560/570 CEC) • Can not mirror SSD against HDD, can not mix in same RAID array • Using Classic Split backplane (3+3) AIX / Linux Not IBM i • Using imbedded controller for first three bays AIX / Linux Not IBM i – Can Not mix HDD and SSD in these 3 bays • Need enough SSD for each protection scheme used • Using PCI adapter(s) to drive second three bays AIX / Linux Not IBM i – Use pair #5903 PCIe adapters AIX / Linux • Can NOT mix HDD and SSD in these 3 bays – Need enough SSD for protection scheme used • #5903 adapters located in 560/570 CEC PCIe slots – Connect to 560/570 backplane via SAS cable #3667+#3650 • #5903 second pair ports not used – can not attach additional HDD or SSD – Use #5908 PCI-X 1.5GB Cache RAID Adapter AIX / Linux • Can NOT mix HDD and SSD in these 3 bays – Need enough SSD for protection scheme used • #5908 located in 560/570 CEC PCI-X slots. – Connect to 560/570 backplane via SAS cables #3679+#3650 • #5908 second/third ports not used – can not attach additional HDD or SSD 45 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation STG Technical Conferences 2009 Configuring SSD - #5886 EXP12S Details #5903 PCIe 380MB Adapter 3.5” #3586 EXP12S #5904/6/8 PCI-X 1.5GB Adapter #3587(i) #5886 • EXP12S has twelve 3.5” SAS bays, but max of 8 bays used – One pair #5903 or one #5904/6/8 adapter runs all bays – Can not mix HDD and SSD in the EXP12S – Need enough SSD for protection scheme used – Can not cascade into second EXP12S via EE SAS cables • Can not mirror SSD against HDD, can not mix in same RAID array • Using pair #5903 PCIe adapters AIX / IBM i (Oct 2009) / Linux – #5903s in PCIe slots in 520/550/560/570/575 CEC or PCIe 12X I/O drawer – Attached to EXP12S using SAS X cable – #5903 second pair ports not used – can not attach additional HDD or SSD • Using #5904/6/8 PCI-X 1.5GB Cache RAID Adapter AIX / IBM i / Linux – #5904/6/8 in PCI-X slots in 520/550/560/570 CEC or PCI-X 12X I/O drawer or PCI-X RIO/HSL I/O drawer – Attached to EXP12S using SAS YO cable – #5904/6/8 second/third ports not used – can not attach additional HDD or SSD 46 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation 23
  24. 24. STG Technical Conferences 2009 Configuring SSD - #5802/5803 12X PCIe I/O Drawer Details SFF #5903 PCIe 380MB Adapter #1890 #5802 This option announced Oct 2009 pair #1909(i) #5803 • #5802 has 18 SFF SAS bays – bays can be “partitioned” – Into one set of 18 (AIX/Linux) or 2 sets or 9 (AIX/IBM i/Linux) • #5803 has 26 SFF SAS bays – bays can be “partitioned” – Into one set of 26 (AIX/Linux) or 2 sets or 13 (AIX/IBM i/Linux) • Using pair #5903 PCIe adapters (Oct 2009) AIX / IBM i / Linux – Max of two pairs of #5903 per #5802/5803 – Max 9 SSD per pair #5903 (SSD located in max of one set of bays) – Thus max 18 SSD per #5802/5803 with two pairs of #5903 – Rules • Can not mix HDD and SSD in the same set of bays • Can mix HDD and SSD in the same drawer, but on different SAS adapters • Need enough SSD for protection scheme used • Can not mirror SSD against HDD, can not mix in same RAID array • Using SSD, #5903 second pair ports not used – can not attach additional HDD or SSD – #5903s located in PCIe slots of #5802/5803 I/O drawer • #5903 SAS ports attached to #5802/5803 with SAS AT cables #3688 47 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation STG Technical Conferences 2009 AIX SSD Configuration • Devices are initially configured as pdisks – # lsdev -Cc pdisk – pdisk0 Available 02-08-00 Physical SAS Disk Drive – pdisk1 Available 02-08-00 Physical SAS Disk Drive • smitty devices -> Disk Array -> IBM SAS Disk Array -> IBM SAS Disk Array Manager • Create an Array Candidate pdisk and Format to 528 Byte Sectors • Create a SAS RAID array – RAID 0, 5, 6 or 10 (2 disk RAID 10 = RAID 1) – 16, 64 or 256 KB stripe (aka strip) size • RAID 5 will be popular (because cost of drives & highly reliable) – An hdisk appears • # lsdev -Cc disk | grep "SAS RAID" • hdisk3 Available 02-08-00 SAS RAID 0 Disk Array • hdisk5 Available 02-08-00 SAS RAID 0 Disk Array • Choose whether or not to turn on write cache for the adapter • # sissasraidmgr -K 4 -l <sissas#> -o 1 (disable) | 0 (enable) • Probably do not create hot spares (because cost of drives & highly reliable) • Proceed to LVM configuration 48 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation 24
  25. 25. STG Technical Conferences 2009 AIX SSD Configuration - 49 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation STG Technical Conferences 2009 AIX SSD Configuration • From Disk Array Manager menu -> Diagnostics and Recovery Options -> Change/Show SAS RAID Controller • Using adapter’s cache with SSD may or may not be best performance option – is workload/data dependent. – TPC benchmark workload & test data found “Disabled” the best option – HA configurations with SSDs, disabled cache probably best 50 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation 25
  26. 26. STG Technical Conferences 2009 DB2 and SSD integration for IBM i – CL enhancements • IBM i V5R4 and V6R1 – CRTPF, CRTLF, CHGPF, CHGLF, CRTSRCPF, and CHGSRCPF commands enhanced to indicate preference for placement on SSDs • V5R4 – example – CRTPF lib1/pf1 SRCFILE(libsrc/dds) UNIT(*255) – CHGPF lib1tst/pf1 UNIT(*255) • V6R1 – example – CRTPF lib1/pf1 SRCFILE(libsrc/dds) UNIT(*SSD) – CHGPF lib1tst/pf1 UNIT(*SSD) – Delivered via Database Group PTF plus additional PTFs • V5R4 SF99504 – Version 22 (Recommended minimum level) • V6R1 SF99601 – Version 10 (Recommended minimum level) Notes: • Capabilities are continuously being added – When using the CRTPF, CRTLF, CHGPF, to DB2. You should stay current to take CHGLF commands, if table or physical file has multiple partitions or members, the media advantage of them. See techdocs preference applies to all partitions or members. entry TD105280. – An exclusive lock is required to change the PF/LF and is released. – Movement will be asynchronous (expected delivery 4Q09). 51 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation STG Technical Conferences 2009 DB2 and SSD integration for IBM i – SQL enhancements • IBM i V6R1 SQL support – UNIT SSD on the object level Example: add partition • CREATE TABLE for current year and • ALTER TABLE place on SSD • CREATE INDEX – UNIT SSD on the partition level • CREATE TABLE • ALTER TABLE ... ADD PARTITION • ALTER TABLE ... ALTER PARTITION Example: move partition with last year’s data back to HDDs 52 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation 26
  27. 27. STG Technical Conferences 2009 SSD Agenda • Technology / benefit overview • Implementing Hot/Cold– AIX & IBM i • Examples/Scenarios • Technology/Pricing • Configuring SSD • Additional information 53 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation STG Technical Conferences 2009 New SSD Analyzer Tool for IBM i • Quick, easy, no-charge analysis • Looks at standard performance report output – • Provides “probably yes”, “probably no”, or “maybe SSD ANALYSIS TOOL (ANZSSDDTA) Type choices, press Enter. PERFORMANCE MEMBER . . . . . . . *DEFAULT__ Name, *DEFAULT LIBRARY . . . . . . . . . . . __________ Name Additional Parameters REPORT TYPE . . . . . . . . . . *SUMMARY *DETAIL, *SUMMARY, *BOTH TIME PERIOD:: START TIME AND DATE:: BEGINNING TIME . . . . . . . . *AVAIL__ Time, *AVAIL BEGINNING DATE . . . . . . . . *BEGIN__ Date, *BEGIN END TIME AND DATE:: ENDING TIME . . . . . . . . . *AVAIL__ Time, *AVAIL ENDING DATE . . . . . . . . . *END____ Date, *END NUMBER OF RECORDS IN REPORT . . 50__ 0 - 9999 Bottom F3=Exit F4=Prompt F5=Refresh F12=Cancel F13=How to use this display F24=More keys Available via www.ibm.com/support/techdocs in “Presentations & Tools”. Search using keyword SSD 54 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation 27
  28. 28. STG Technical Conferences 2009 ANZSSDDTA – *SUMMARY output SSD Data Analysis - Disk Read Wait Summary Performance member Q224014937 in library @SUE Time period from 2009-08-12-01.49.40.000000 to 2009-08-13-00.00.00.000000 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Disk read wait average response was 00.003058. Maybe candidate. Bottom F3=Exit F12=Cancel F19=Left F20=Right F24=More keys 55 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation STG Technical Conferences 2009 ANZSSDDTA – *DETAIL output SSD Data Analysis - Jobs Sorted by Disk Read Time Performance member Q224014937 in library @SUE Time period from 2009-08-12-01.49.40.000000 to 2009-08-13-00.00.00.000000 CPU Disk Read Disk Read Disk Total Wait Total Wait Average Read Wait Job Name Seconds Seconds Seconds /CPU ------------------------- --------- ----------- ------------ --------- QSPRC00001/QSYS/448980 38.010 4,276.730 .004677 113 DELSMBQPRT/SUEBA02/455198 67.096 3,551.437 .004724 53 QSPLMAINT/QSYS/448961 23.377 2,820.571 .004547 121 PERFNAVDS/SUEBA01/451039 15.865 862.070 .001861 54 WCSMBB01/SUEBAK/456767 144.285 774.387 .002174 5 WCSMBB02/SUEBAK/456856 49.446 589.355 .003625 12 QPADEV000F/SUEBA01/451414 7.612 544.305 .004620 72 SB055J/SUEBA01/453231 690.375 482.659 .002527 1 QCLNSYSPRT/QPGMR/456926 5.232 459.801 .005025 88 DELSMBQQPR/SUEBA02/455585 12.035 431.057 .004763 36 71 minutes of disk read wait time 113 seconds of disk read wait per second of CPU run time 56 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation 28
  29. 29. STG Technical Conferences 2009 Four Power Systems SSD White Papers • AIX-specific – “Driving Business Value on Power Systems with Solid State Drives” – First published April 2009 • IBM i-specific – “Performance Value of Solid State Drives using IBM i” – First published May 2009 • More SSD technology specific – AIX/IBM i/Linux appropriate – “Performance Impacts of Flash SSDs Upon IBM Power Systems” – First published June 2009 • Above papers in Power Systems web site under “Resources/Literature” – http://www.ibm.com/common/ssi/apilite?infotype=SA&infosubt=WH&lastdays=18 25&hitlimit=200&ctvwcode=US&pubno=POW*USEN&appname=STGE_PO_PO_U SEN_WH&additional=summary&contents=keeponlit • 4th paper recently released for an SAP environment – http://www.sdn.sap.com/irj/sdn/db4?rid=/library/uuid/90a1637e-065f-2c10-3ab7- bea9375fc88d 57 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation STG Technical Conferences 2009 i Oriented References • IBM - Performance Management on IBM i Resource Library http://www.ibm.com/systems/i/advantages/perfmgmt/resource.html • Performance Value of Solid State Drives using IBM i http://www.ibm.com/systems/resources/ssd_ibmi.pdf • Performance Impacts of Flash SSDs Upon IBM Power Systems http://www.ibm.com/common/ssi/cgi- bin/ssialias?infotype=SA&subtype=WH&htmlfid=POW03028USEN&attachment=POW03028 USEN.PDF&appname=STGE_PO_PO_USEN_WH • Driving Business Value on Power Systems with Solid State Drives http://www.ibm.com/common/ssi/cgi- bin/ssialias?infotype=SA&subtype=WH&htmlfid=POW03025USEN&attachment=POW03025 USEN.PDF&appname=STGE_PO_PO_USEN_WH • IBM Systems Lab Services and Training http://www.ibm.com/systems/services/labservices • IBM Power Systems(i) Benchmarking and Proof-of-Concept Centers http://www.ibm.com/systems/i/support/benchmarkcenters 58 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation 29
  30. 30. STG Technical Conferences 2009 AIX Oriented References • Installing and configuring SSDs http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/systems/scope/hw/index.jsp?topic=/iphal/iph alssdconfig.htm&resultof=%22%53%53%44%22%20&searchQuery=%53%53%44&sear chRank=%31&pageDepth=%30 • Considerations for Solid-State Drives (SSD) http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/systems/scope/hw/index.jsp?topic=/arebj/are bjsolidstatedrives.htm&resultof=%22%53%53%44%22%20&searchQuery=%53%53%44 &searchRank=%30&pageDepth=%30 • SSD Wiki https://www.ibm.com/developerworks/wikis/display/WikiPtype/Solid+State+Drives • SSD movie by Nigel Griffiths https://www.ibm.com/developerworks/wikis/display/WikiPtype/Movies 59 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation STG Technical Conferences 2009 THANKS, Questions? P16 tions: SM Evalua 60 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation 30
  31. 31. STG Technical Conferences 2009 Storage Hierarchy Access Capacity 4 KB OPS Programming Time Model Processor Processor < 10’s ns < MB 10’s - 100’s M Registers & Caches Load-store DRAM ~100 ns GB - TB 10’s M Rotating Disk 1-8 ms .1’s TB 150 I/O 61 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation STG Technical Conferences 2009 Storage Hierarchy – New Optimizations Access Capacity 4 KB OPS Programming Processor Time Model Processor Registers & < 10’s ns < MB 10’s - 100’s M Caches Load-store DRAM ~100 ns GB - TB 10’s M SSD ~200 us GB - .1’s TB 10’s – 100’s K I/O Rotating Disk 1-8 ms .1’s TB 150 62 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation 31
  32. 32. STG Technical Conferences 2009 Special notices This document was developed for IBM offerings in the United States as of the date of publication. IBM may not make these offerings available in other countries, and the information is subject to change without notice. Consult your local IBM business contact for information on the IBM offerings available in your area. Information in this document concerning non-IBM products was obtained from the suppliers of these products or other public sources. Questions on the capabilities of non-IBM products should be addressed to the suppliers of those products. IBM may have patents or pending patent applications covering subject matter in this document. The furnishing of this document does not give you any license to these patents. Send license inquires, in writing, to IBM Director of Licensing, IBM Corporation, New Castle Drive, Armonk, NY 10504-1785 USA. All statements regarding IBM future direction and intent are subject to change or withdrawal without notice, and represent goals and objectives only. The information contained in this document has not been submitted to any formal IBM test and is provided "AS IS" with no warranties or guarantees either expressed or implied. All examples cited or described in this document are presented as illustrations of the manner in which some IBM products can be used and the results that may be achieved. Actual environmental costs and performance characteristics will vary depending on individual client configurations and conditions. IBM Global Financing offerings are provided through IBM Credit Corporation in the United States and other IBM subsidiaries and divisions worldwide to qualified commercial and government clients. Rates are based on a client's credit rating, financing terms, offering type, equipment type and options, and may vary by country. Other restrictions may apply. Rates and offerings are subject to change, extension or withdrawal without notice. IBM is not responsible for printing errors in this document that result in pricing or information inaccuracies. All prices shown are IBM's United States suggested list prices and are subject to change without notice; reseller prices may vary. IBM hardware products are manufactured from new parts, or new and serviceable used parts. Regardless, our warranty terms apply. Any performance data contained in this document was determined in a controlled environment. Actual results may vary significantly and are dependent on many factors including system hardware configuration and software design and configuration. Some measurements quoted in this document may have been made on development-level systems. There is no guarantee these measurements will be the same on generally- available systems. Some measurements quoted in this document may have been estimated through extrapolation. Users of this document should verify the applicable data for their specific environment. Revised September 26, 2006 63 Faster Than a Speeding Disk (Solid State Drives) © 2009 IBM Corporation STG Technical Conferences 2009 Special notices (cont.) 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