Diploma poster


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Diploma poster

  1. 1. 2 5 6 81620222429Treat InjuryN/APhysicalAppearanceDietary NeedsOverall HealthMaintAid RecoveryBuild MuscleIncreased EnergyImprovePerformanceSodium Bicarbonate: A Role in Collegiate SwimmingAllison Kliewer, University of the Incarnate Word, Nutrition DepartmentIRB # 13-01-004IntroductionThe demand of a sport requires athletes to perform at their best in anycondition which often leads to the use of ergogenic aids or supplements toenhance performance. Results of a study conducted by Karabudak andErcumen on elite water sport athletes who compete at a national, interna-tional and Olympic level within Europe, show that 72% of athletes takesupplements and believe they are necessary to be successful in sport andare an unavoidable part of competition (2001). Other results showed that53% of athletes had minimal or no knowledge about the supplements theytook, and only 36% of those who used supplements were aware of thepossible contamination. The authors conclude that athletes appear to takesupplements with poor understanding of why they take them (Karabudakand Ercumen, 2011).According to the Australian institute of Sport, sodium bicarbonate, morecommonly known as baking soda, is considered a grade A supplement andhas been shown to benefit performance (2010). There is limited researchon competitive swimmers regarding the motives behind taking ergogenicaids such as sodium bicarbonate. The purpose of the study is to assessbasic nutrition and supplementation knowledge, and the use of sodium bi-carbonate including frequency, perceived benefits, and reasons for use inNational Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) swimmers.SubjectsA 52 member male and female Division II NCAA swim team was selected to participate inthe study. The total response rate was 76.9% (n= 40). All participants were 18 years orolder, gave written consent to participate in the study, and had the opportunity to declineparticipation. The study was approved by the University of the Incarnate Word InstitutionalReview Board on the ninth of January, 2013. Characteristics of the sample in Table 1.Table1 Sample Characteristicsassessing sodium bicarbonate knowledge and usage. Wording and language of the ques-tions and answer choices were articulated so that the subject would be able to offer accu-rate answers. Format of the questionnaire aimed to keep interest of the subject, reducepossible habituation, and limit same answer choices by using multiple choice, numericopen-ended, text open-ended, and agreement scale answer options.Data AnalysisAnalysis of data was conducted using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS)software. The nutrition knowledge based questions were assessed by awarding a one forcorrect and zero for incorrect answers. On the four point agreement scale questions,strongly agree and agree were considered correct for true statements and disagree andstrongly disagree were considered correct for false statements. Sodium bicarbonateknowledge and usage, attitude, beliefs, and influence questions were analyzed using de-scriptive statistics and frequency distributions.How many supplements do you take?Figure 1Nutrition and Supplement Knowledge Test ScoresWhy do you take supplements?Results: Supplement UseResults: Nutrition and Supplement KnowledgeTotal number of participants N= 41Female 15 (36.5 %)Male 26 (63.4 %)Age Mean= 20.7 yr Range= 18-25 yrNationalityNon-American 11 (26.8 %)American 25 (60.9%)Unknown 5 (12.2)Years as a competitiveswimmerMean= 11.9 yr Range= 3-18 yr68234None12-55-10SummaryThe results are similar to other studies that have surveyed thecollegiate athletic population. Lewis, M. surveyed 152 male andfemale division I athletes and found that 80% used ergogenicaids and believed supplements are the most effective way to buildmuscle and increase energy (2012).This is the first known study to survey college level swimmersspecifically about sodium bicarbonate usage. Although 57% ofswimmers used it incorrectly, and 71% did not know the side ef-fects, sodium bicarbonate is being used as a supplement inNCAA swimming. The lack of basic nutrition knowledge and se-vere lack of supplement knowledge should not be ignored. Swim-mers are using supplements without knowing the possible effectsof ingestion.OutcomeThe results of the survey demonstrate a need for nutrition edu-cation in the NCAA swim population. Further investigation of thepossible ergogenic effects on swim performance need to be con-ducted to determine the role of sodium bicarbonate in collegiateswimming.RelationshipsThose who disagree that swimmers need dietary supplements tostay healthy and compete at their best are 78% less likelyto take a supplement and 66% less likely to make a longterm health sacrifice in order to excel in swimmingOf those who agree supplements on the market have beenproven useful and effective, 82% do not thinksupplements should be bannedOf those who agree that the use of supplements compensatesfor poor food choice and inadequate diet, 82% do not thinksupplements should be bannedOf those who disagree that supplements are the mostconvenient way to meet the demands of swimming, only32% would take a legal supplement, only 27% would makea long-term health sacrifice to excel, and 32% agree tobanning all supplements due to an unfair advantage it givestothose that do take supplementsSupplement Use Sodium Bicarbonate UseMale 25 (96%) 6 (23%)Female 10 (66%) 1 (0.06%)Total 35 (85%) 7 (17%)Sodium Bicarbonate UseOf the 7 athletes that took sodium bicarbonate, all but one re-ported improved performance, and only one reported an ad-verse reaction of a stomach ache. The majority were influencedby a friend, teammate, or coach to take sodium bicarbonate forimproved performance. Sodium bicarbonate usage practicesvaried by athlete and no significant similarities were evident.ProcedureSurvey data was collected using a questionnaire developed by the researcher evaluatingnutrition knowledge and perceptions of sodium bicarbonate and personal utilization prac-tices. Questionnaires were completed in a group setting in the presence of the researcher.The questionnaire consisted of 16 nutrition and supplement knowledge questions, 14questions addressing the athlete’s attitudes, beliefs, and influences, and 21 questionsScores for Specific QuestionsOnly one athlete correctly answered that vitamins and minerals do notprovide energy and build muscle, while the other 97% answeredincorrectly27% answered hydration can be maintained by drinking any fluid,regardless the source30% believe training on an empty stomach does not have anegative effect on performanceTable 2 Supplement Use by GenderScores for Specific Questions78% agreed that dietary supplements are needed tostay healthy and meet the demand of competitiveswimmingThe average score related to safety, regulations, andeffectiveness of supplements was 53%46% believe that supplements found in stores areregulated by the FDA and are considered safeand free from contamination46% consider supplements to be the most effectiveway to build muscle an increase energy46% agree supplements are the most convenient wayto meet the demands of swimmingTop 3 influences to take supplements are teammates,family, and coachesTop 3 people whom swimmers seek for nutritionaladvice are coaches, teammates, and friendsReferencesAustralian Sports Commission. (2010). Supplements and sports foods. In Burke & Deakin (Eds.), Clinical Sports Nutrition (5th ed.). Sydney:McGraw Hill.Karabudak, E. & Ercumen, S. (2011). Water sports athletes and nutritional supplements: A study of use and perceptions. Scientific Researchand Essays. 6(2): 4839-4847.Lewis, M., (2012). Evaluation of knowledge beliefs and use of nutritional ergogenic aids among collegiate athletes. Master’s Theses. paper835.71.8%62.5%68.8% 65.4%82.9% 77.7% 74.0%68.2%0.0%25.0%50.0%75.0%100.0%