What is Irrigation ?
1. Irrigation is an artificial application of water
to the soil
2. It is usually used to assist in gr...
 IT IS A SCIENCE DEALING WITH
 PLANNING , DESIGNING, CONSTRUCTION,
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF
IRRIGATION WORKS.
Additionally, irrigation also has a few
other uses in crop production, which
include :
1. Protecting plants against frost...
How was irrigation used?
Engineers in Mesopotamia built humongous dams, to
create reservoirs and canals that would carry w...
PERCENTAGE OF IRRIGATION
TYPES OF IRRIGATION:
• Surface irrigation
• Center pivot irrigation
• Lateral move irrigation
• Localized irrigation
1. Surface Irrigation
 Surface irrigation can be subdivided into two types:
• Border Strips or Basin Flood:
– Strips of l...
WATER SUPPLY
• Methods of water supply
–Head ditch with siphon tubes or side-
opening gates
–Gated pipe (aluminum or plast...
2. CENTER PIVOT IRRIGATION
• Is a form of sprinkler irrigation.
• Consisting of several segments of pipe (usually
galvaniz...
3. LATERAL MOVE IRRIGATION:
• A series of pipes, each with a wheel is affixed to its
midpoint and sprinklers along its len...
• This system is less expensive to install.
• Much more labor intensive to operate.
• It is limited in the amount of water...
4. LOCALIZED IRRIGATION:
• Water is distributed under low pressure through a
piped network.
• Applied as a small discharge...
TOPICS TO BE FOCUSED:
DRAINAGE:
Drainage means the removal of water from the soil it
have two main goals prevention of seepage, improvement
of ...
DRAINAGE SYSTEM:
 The drainage system depend on drainage characteristic of
soil, the length of time of system must operat...
 Two main goals of drainage are,
prevention of seepage
improvement of soil properties
Primary Drain Secondary Drain Trunk Drain
Natural WaterwaySecondary Water WayStream
43
Past
Present
Future?
Today’s
Sub-Surface
Drainage Systems
•Faster & Easier to Install
•Cheaper Per Foot
•Longer Useful Life
•More Intensive
But...
The Golden Rule
Of Drainage….
“Drain only the amount of water needed to ensure
equipment access and healthy crop productio...
Water Table Profile
Considerations
• Location
• Soil type
• Drainage intensity
• Crop
• Planting date
THANK YOU
FOR YOUR ATTENTION
Prepared by Akkaya
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
Irrigation and drainage
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Irrigation and drainage

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Irrigation and drainage

  1. 1. What is Irrigation ? 1. Irrigation is an artificial application of water to the soil 2. It is usually used to assist in growing crops in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall
  2. 2.  IT IS A SCIENCE DEALING WITH  PLANNING , DESIGNING, CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF IRRIGATION WORKS.
  3. 3. Additionally, irrigation also has a few other uses in crop production, which include : 1. Protecting plants against frost, 2. Suppressing weed growing in grain fields 3. Helping in preventing soil consolation
  4. 4. How was irrigation used? Engineers in Mesopotamia built humongous dams, to create reservoirs and canals that would carry water across land, so that people without easy access to water could get water for their needs. As part of the irrigation system, there were many canals carrying water to different parts of Mesopotamia.
  5. 5. PERCENTAGE OF IRRIGATION
  6. 6. TYPES OF IRRIGATION: • Surface irrigation • Center pivot irrigation • Lateral move irrigation • Localized irrigation
  7. 7. 1. Surface Irrigation  Surface irrigation can be subdivided into two types: • Border Strips or Basin Flood: – Strips of land with dikes on the sides – Usually graded but with no cross slope – Downstream end may be diked • Furrow: – Small channels carry the water (entire surface is not wet) – Commonly used on row crops – Lateral as well as vertical infiltration – Furrows are usually graded
  8. 8. WATER SUPPLY • Methods of water supply –Head ditch with siphon tubes or side- opening gates –Gated pipe (aluminum or plastic pipe with small gates that can be opened and closed) –Buried pipeline with periodically spaced valves at the surface
  9. 9. 2. CENTER PIVOT IRRIGATION • Is a form of sprinkler irrigation. • Consisting of several segments of pipe (usually galvanized steel or aluminum) joined together and supported by trusses. • Mounted on wheeled towers with sprinklers. • System moves in a circular pattern. • These systems are common in parts of the United States where terrain is flat.
  10. 10. 3. LATERAL MOVE IRRIGATION: • A series of pipes, each with a wheel is affixed to its midpoint and sprinklers along its length. • Water is supplied at one end using a large hose. • After sufficient water has been applied, the hose is removed. • The hose is reconnected. • The process is repeated until the opposite edge of the field is reached.
  11. 11. • This system is less expensive to install. • Much more labor intensive to operate. • It is limited in the amount of water it can carry. • They are most often used for small or oddly- shaped fields, such as those found in hilly or mountainous regions, or in regions where labor is inexpensive.
  12. 12. 4. LOCALIZED IRRIGATION: • Water is distributed under low pressure through a piped network. • Applied as a small discharge to each plant or adjacent to it. IT MAY BE DIFFERENT KINDS: 1.Drip irrigation 2.Sprinkler irrigation 3.bubbler irrigation
  13. 13. TOPICS TO BE FOCUSED:
  14. 14. DRAINAGE: Drainage means the removal of water from the soil it have two main goals prevention of seepage, improvement of soil properties.  DRAINAGE SYSTEM: Drainage system means the different methods to be used for dewatering the foundation and to keep the foundation safe. DEFINITIONS TO BE REMEMBER: 40
  15. 15. DRAINAGE SYSTEM:  The drainage system depend on drainage characteristic of soil, the length of time of system must operate, and position of ground water.  For temporary drains installed during construction, minimum interference with work and maximum effectiveness in a short time are essential.  For permanent drains long term effectiveness and minimum maintenance is required. 41
  16. 16.  Two main goals of drainage are, prevention of seepage improvement of soil properties
  17. 17. Primary Drain Secondary Drain Trunk Drain Natural WaterwaySecondary Water WayStream 43
  18. 18. Past Present Future?
  19. 19. Today’s Sub-Surface Drainage Systems •Faster & Easier to Install •Cheaper Per Foot •Longer Useful Life •More Intensive But…No Smarter! Still Flows 24/7 to Depth of Tile Drain!
  20. 20. The Golden Rule Of Drainage…. “Drain only the amount of water needed to ensure equipment access and healthy crop production, and not a drop more.” -Dr. Wayne Skaggs WAKE UP!!
  21. 21. Water Table Profile Considerations • Location • Soil type • Drainage intensity • Crop • Planting date
  22. 22. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION Prepared by Akkaya
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