Research process


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Research process

  1. 1. The Research Process
  2. 2. What is research……….??? <ul><li>Systematic search for knowledge through method of study, observation, comparison & experiment. </li></ul><ul><li>An answer to the question/ a solution to the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>The art of scientific investigation. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Series of various actions, which are necessary to effective research work. </li></ul><ul><li>Research process consist of a number of closely related activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Various steps involved in a research process are not mutually exclusive;nor they are separate & distinct. </li></ul>What is research process……???
  4. 4. Steps involved in research process….. <ul><li>1 ST STEP-Establishing the needs for research </li></ul><ul><li>2 ND STEP-Defining the problem </li></ul><ul><li>3 RD STEP-Formation and Development Working Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>4 TH STEP- Determining research design </li></ul><ul><li>5 TH STEP-Identifying information types and source </li></ul><ul><li>6 TH STEP-Determining methods of assessing data </li></ul><ul><li>7 TH STEP-Designing data collection form </li></ul><ul><li>8 TH STEP-Determining sample plan and size </li></ul>
  5. 5. Contd…. <ul><li>9 TH STEP-Data collection </li></ul><ul><li>10 TH STEP-Analyzing data </li></ul><ul><li>11 TH STEP-Preparing and presenting final research report </li></ul>
  6. 6. STEP 1-Establishing the needs for market research…. <ul><li>This step involves identification of a few problems and selection of one out of them, after evaluating the alternatives against ce rtain selection criteria . </li></ul><ul><li>Market research is not needed when: </li></ul><ul><li>Required information is already available </li></ul><ul><li>Decesion need to be made now </li></ul><ul><li>Organisation can’t afford the research </li></ul><ul><li>Cost outweight the value of research </li></ul>
  7. 7. STEP 2-Defining the problem.. <ul><li>The most important step in the research process is defining the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>PROCESS INVOLVED IN DEFINING THE PROBLEM </li></ul><ul><li>STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM IN A GENERAL WAY. </li></ul><ul><li>UNDERSTANDING THE NATURE Of PROBLEM </li></ul><ul><li>SURVEYING THE AVAILABLE LITERATURE </li></ul>
  9. 9. Modes of problem identification…. <ul><li>There are 3 modes of problem identification: </li></ul><ul><li>Extraction from a managers practical problem in a dialogue. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive identification of an experienced researcher in the area of his expertise. </li></ul><ul><li>A two step research process by a novice(scholar):literature search & pilot study. </li></ul>
  10. 10. STEP 3- Formation and Development of working hypothesis <ul><li>Assumptions are drawn to test its logical sequence. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis is guiding force of researcher. </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome of researcher is deep thinking of research </li></ul>
  11. 11. Preparation of Research design <ul><li>Outline or a conceptual structure </li></ul><ul><li>Collecting relevant data. </li></ul><ul><li>Methods for preparation of research design </li></ul>
  12. 12. STEP 4-Determining research design…. <ul><li>EXPLANATORY RESEARCH: </li></ul><ul><li>Collecting information in an unstructured & informal manner. </li></ul><ul><li>DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH: </li></ul><ul><li>Refers to a set of methods & procedures describing research variables. </li></ul><ul><li>CASUAL RESEARCH: </li></ul><ul><li>(Experiments & other approches):allows isolation of causes & effects. </li></ul>
  13. 13. STEP 5-Identifying information types & source…. <ul><li>SECONDARY DATA : </li></ul><ul><li>Information that has been collected for some purpose other than the research at hand. </li></ul><ul><li>PRIMARY DATA: </li></ul><ul><li>Information that has been gathered specially for the research objectives at hand. </li></ul>
  14. 14. STEP 6-Determine methods of accessing data… <ul><li>SECONDARY DATA: </li></ul><ul><li>Accessing data through source such as the internet & library . </li></ul><ul><li>PRIMARY DATA: </li></ul><ul><li>Collecting data from participants through methods such as telephone,mail,online & face to face(quantitative)& observation studies & focus groups(qualitative). </li></ul>
  15. 15. STEP 7-Design data collection forms.. <ul><li>The design of data collection form that is used to ask or observe projects is critical to the success of the project. </li></ul><ul><li>It is easy to write a set of questions but very difficult to construct a questionnaire. </li></ul><ul><li>General types “instruments”(forms) </li></ul><ul><li>& record information in research. </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaires. </li></ul><ul><li>Observation study forms(protocols). </li></ul>
  16. 16. STEP 8-Determine sample plan & size ….. <ul><li>SAMPLE PLAN AND ITS CHARACTIRISTICS </li></ul><ul><li>Refers to the process used to select units from the population to be included in the sample. </li></ul><ul><li>Representativeness. </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate. </li></ul><ul><li>Independence. </li></ul><ul><li>Homogenous. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of bias. </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate and complete. </li></ul>
  17. 17. SAMPLE SIZE AND ITS DETERMINATION <ul><li>Refers to determining how many elements(units)of the population should be include in the sample. </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of Universe. </li></ul><ul><li>Number of classes proposed. </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of study. </li></ul><ul><li>Type of sampling. </li></ul><ul><li>Standard of accuracy. </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of finance. </li></ul>
  18. 18. STEP 9-Data collection….. <ul><li>Sound data collection is very important because regardless of the data analysis methods used,data analysis cannot “fix” bad data. </li></ul><ul><li>Non sampling errors may occur during data collection.They are related to poor design &/or execution of the data gathering. </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling error may occur based purely on chance. </li></ul>
  19. 19. STEP 10-Analyze data…. <ul><li>DATA ANALYSIS: </li></ul><ul><li>Involves entering data into computer files,inspecting data for errors (data cleaning),running tabulations (frequencies), & conducting various stastical tests. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Findings are presented,often by research objective in a clear & concise way. </li></ul><ul><li>The need for a good report cannot be overlased.It is the report,& for its presentation,that properly communicates the results to the clients. </li></ul>STEP 11-Prepare & present the final research report…
  21. 21. Contd… <ul><li>Report should consist of:- </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary Pages </li></ul><ul><li>Title page </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledgement </li></ul><ul><li>Foreword. </li></ul><ul><li>Table Of Contents. </li></ul><ul><li>List of Tables, Charts & Graphs. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Contd… <ul><li>2. Main Text </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction. </li></ul><ul><li>Summary Of Findings. </li></ul><ul><li>Main Report. </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>3. At the end of the report Appendices & Bibliography Should be mentioned. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Contd… <ul><li>Avoid Vague language while writing report like “it seems”, “there may be”, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Charts and illustrations should be mentioned only if they present clear information. </li></ul>
  24. 24. CASE STUDY: <ul><li>THE DEPARTMENT STORE </li></ul><ul><li>PATRONAGE PROJECT </li></ul><ul><li>A department store patronage project is used to illustrate concepts & data analysis procedures.The purpose of this project was to access the relative strengths & weaknesses of a major department store relative to a group of direct & indirect competitors.This store will be referred as Sears;the true identity of actual store has been disguised.The goal was to formulate marketing programs designed to boost the declining sales & profit of Sears.Ten major stores,including prestigious department stores(eg.,Saks Fifth Avenue,Neiman-Marcus),national chains(eg.,J.C Penney),discount stores(eg.,Kmart, Wal-Mart),& some regional chains (eg.,Kohl’s) where considered in this study.A questionnaire was designed & administered.using in-home personal interviews,to a convenience sample of 271 households drawn from a major metropolitan area.A six-point scale was used (subjects were asked to check a number from 1 to 6) whenever ratings were obtained.The following information was solicited: </li></ul>
  25. 25. Contd…. <ul><li>1.Familiarity with the 10 department stores. </li></ul><ul><li>2.Frequency with which households members shopped at each of the 10 stores. </li></ul><ul><li>3.Relative importance attached to each of eight factors selected as the choice criteria utilized in selecting a department store.These factors were quality of merchandise,variety & assortment of merchandise.returns & adjustment policy,service of store personnel,prices,convenience of location,layout of store,& credit & billing policies. </li></ul><ul><li>4.Evaluation of 10 stores on each of eight factors of choice criteria. </li></ul><ul><li>5.Preference ratings for each stores. </li></ul><ul><li>6.Rankings for 10 stores(from most preferred to least preferred). </li></ul><ul><li>7.Degree of agreement with 21 lifestyle statements. </li></ul><ul><li>8.Standard demographic characteristics(age,education,education.etc). </li></ul><ul><li>9.Name, address, & telephone number. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Contd…. <ul><li>The study helped the sponser to determine consumers perceptions of & preferences for the department stores.Areas of weakness were identified in terms of specific factors influencing the consumers choice criteria & in terms of specific product categories.Appropriate marketing research programs were designed to overcome these weaknesses.Finally,a positioning strategy was developed to attain a desirable store image. </li></ul><ul><li>Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>1.What was the marketing opportunities & problem confronting Sears? </li></ul><ul><li>2.What role can marketing research play in helping Sears? </li></ul><ul><li>3.What type of marketing research would be needed to help Sears decide whether it should aggressively expand in rural areas in the United States? </li></ul>
  27. 27. MAJOR PROBLEMS…… <ul><li>Declining sales & profit. </li></ul><ul><li>No market research. </li></ul><ul><li>Competetion. </li></ul><ul><li>No positioning strategy. </li></ul>
  28. 28. STEPS TAKEN BY THE ORGANISATION TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM…. <ul><li>Survey was conducted in 10 deparmental stores. </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer preferences were kept in mind. </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire was designed to see the consumers likings. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal interviews were taken in 271 households drawn from a major metropolitan area. </li></ul>
  29. 29. CONTD…. <ul><li>Ratings were done according to consumer preferences. </li></ul><ul><li>Relative importance attached to each of eight factors selected as the choice criteria utilized in selecting a department store.These factors were quality of merchandise,variety & assortment of merchandise.returns & adjustment policy,service of store personnel,prices, convenience of location,layout of store,& credit & billing policies. </li></ul>
  30. 30. FORMULATION OF THE PROBLEM <ul><li>Declining sales of the company due to improper research & due to intesive competetion in the market. </li></ul>
  31. 31. SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM…. <ul><li>Market research should be done. </li></ul><ul><li>Proper strategy should be adopted by the company. </li></ul><ul><li>Market survey. </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer preferences. </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Visit for relevant information on case study. </li></ul><ul><li>Case study: </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing research </li></ul><ul><li>By: Naresh K.Malhotra </li></ul><ul><li>Books reffered: </li></ul><ul><li>Management research methodology </li></ul><ul><li>By: K.N Krishnaswamy </li></ul><ul><li>Appa Iyer Shivkumar </li></ul><ul><li>M.Mathirajan </li></ul><ul><li>Research Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>By: C.R Kothari </li></ul>
  33. 33. THANK YOU……