Research process

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  • 1. The Research Process
  • 2. What is research……….???
    • Systematic search for knowledge through method of study, observation, comparison & experiment.
    • An answer to the question/ a solution to the problem.
    • The art of scientific investigation.
  • 3.
    • Series of various actions, which are necessary to effective research work.
    • Research process consist of a number of closely related activities.
    • Various steps involved in a research process are not mutually exclusive;nor they are separate & distinct.
    What is research process……???
  • 4. Steps involved in research process…..
    • 1 ST STEP-Establishing the needs for research
    • 2 ND STEP-Defining the problem
    • 3 RD STEP-Formation and Development Working Hypothesis
    • 4 TH STEP- Determining research design
    • 5 TH STEP-Identifying information types and source
    • 6 TH STEP-Determining methods of assessing data
    • 7 TH STEP-Designing data collection form
    • 8 TH STEP-Determining sample plan and size
  • 5. Contd….
    • 9 TH STEP-Data collection
    • 10 TH STEP-Analyzing data
    • 11 TH STEP-Preparing and presenting final research report
  • 6. STEP 1-Establishing the needs for market research….
    • This step involves identification of a few problems and selection of one out of them, after evaluating the alternatives against ce rtain selection criteria .
    • Market research is not needed when:
    • Required information is already available
    • Decesion need to be made now
    • Organisation can’t afford the research
    • Cost outweight the value of research
  • 7. STEP 2-Defining the problem..
    • The most important step in the research process is defining the problem.
    • PROCESS INVOLVED IN DEFINING THE PROBLEM
    • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM IN A GENERAL WAY.
    • UNDERSTANDING THE NATURE Of PROBLEM
    • SURVEYING THE AVAILABLE LITERATURE
  • 8. Contd….
    • DEVELOPING IDEAS THROUGH DISCUSSIONS
    • REPHRASING THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
  • 9. Modes of problem identification….
    • There are 3 modes of problem identification:
    • Extraction from a managers practical problem in a dialogue.
    • Cognitive identification of an experienced researcher in the area of his expertise.
    • A two step research process by a novice(scholar):literature search & pilot study.
  • 10. STEP 3- Formation and Development of working hypothesis
    • Assumptions are drawn to test its logical sequence.
    • Hypothesis is guiding force of researcher.
    • Outcome of researcher is deep thinking of research
  • 11. Preparation of Research design
    • Outline or a conceptual structure
    • Collecting relevant data.
    • Methods for preparation of research design
  • 12. STEP 4-Determining research design….
    • EXPLANATORY RESEARCH:
    • Collecting information in an unstructured & informal manner.
    • DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH:
    • Refers to a set of methods & procedures describing research variables.
    • CASUAL RESEARCH:
    • (Experiments & other approches):allows isolation of causes & effects.
  • 13. STEP 5-Identifying information types & source….
    • SECONDARY DATA :
    • Information that has been collected for some purpose other than the research at hand.
    • PRIMARY DATA:
    • Information that has been gathered specially for the research objectives at hand.
  • 14. STEP 6-Determine methods of accessing data…
    • SECONDARY DATA:
    • Accessing data through source such as the internet & library .
    • PRIMARY DATA:
    • Collecting data from participants through methods such as telephone,mail,online & face to face(quantitative)& observation studies & focus groups(qualitative).
  • 15. STEP 7-Design data collection forms..
    • The design of data collection form that is used to ask or observe projects is critical to the success of the project.
    • It is easy to write a set of questions but very difficult to construct a questionnaire.
    • General types “instruments”(forms)
    • & record information in research.
    • Questionnaires.
    • Observation study forms(protocols).
  • 16. STEP 8-Determine sample plan & size …..
    • SAMPLE PLAN AND ITS CHARACTIRISTICS
    • Refers to the process used to select units from the population to be included in the sample.
    • Representativeness.
    • Adequate.
    • Independence.
    • Homogenous.
    • Lack of bias.
    • Accurate and complete.
  • 17. SAMPLE SIZE AND ITS DETERMINATION
    • Refers to determining how many elements(units)of the population should be include in the sample.
    • Nature of Universe.
    • Number of classes proposed.
    • Nature of study.
    • Type of sampling.
    • Standard of accuracy.
    • Availability of finance.
  • 18. STEP 9-Data collection…..
    • Sound data collection is very important because regardless of the data analysis methods used,data analysis cannot “fix” bad data.
    • Non sampling errors may occur during data collection.They are related to poor design &/or execution of the data gathering.
    • Sampling error may occur based purely on chance.
  • 19. STEP 10-Analyze data….
    • DATA ANALYSIS:
    • Involves entering data into computer files,inspecting data for errors (data cleaning),running tabulations (frequencies), & conducting various stastical tests.
  • 20.
    • Findings are presented,often by research objective in a clear & concise way.
    • The need for a good report cannot be overlased.It is the report,& for its presentation,that properly communicates the results to the clients.
    STEP 11-Prepare & present the final research report…
  • 21. Contd…
    • Report should consist of:-
    • Preliminary Pages
    • Title page
    • Acknowledgement
    • Foreword.
    • Table Of Contents.
    • List of Tables, Charts & Graphs.
  • 22. Contd…
    • 2. Main Text
    • Introduction.
    • Summary Of Findings.
    • Main Report.
    • Conclusion.
    • 3. At the end of the report Appendices & Bibliography Should be mentioned.
  • 23. Contd…
    • Avoid Vague language while writing report like “it seems”, “there may be”, etc.
    • Charts and illustrations should be mentioned only if they present clear information.
  • 24. CASE STUDY:
    • THE DEPARTMENT STORE
    • PATRONAGE PROJECT
    • A department store patronage project is used to illustrate concepts & data analysis procedures.The purpose of this project was to access the relative strengths & weaknesses of a major department store relative to a group of direct & indirect competitors.This store will be referred as Sears;the true identity of actual store has been disguised.The goal was to formulate marketing programs designed to boost the declining sales & profit of Sears.Ten major stores,including prestigious department stores(eg.,Saks Fifth Avenue,Neiman-Marcus),national chains(eg.,J.C Penney),discount stores(eg.,Kmart, Wal-Mart),& some regional chains (eg.,Kohl’s) where considered in this study.A questionnaire was designed & administered.using in-home personal interviews,to a convenience sample of 271 households drawn from a major metropolitan area.A six-point scale was used (subjects were asked to check a number from 1 to 6) whenever ratings were obtained.The following information was solicited:
  • 25. Contd….
    • 1.Familiarity with the 10 department stores.
    • 2.Frequency with which households members shopped at each of the 10 stores.
    • 3.Relative importance attached to each of eight factors selected as the choice criteria utilized in selecting a department store.These factors were quality of merchandise,variety & assortment of merchandise.returns & adjustment policy,service of store personnel,prices,convenience of location,layout of store,& credit & billing policies.
    • 4.Evaluation of 10 stores on each of eight factors of choice criteria.
    • 5.Preference ratings for each stores.
    • 6.Rankings for 10 stores(from most preferred to least preferred).
    • 7.Degree of agreement with 21 lifestyle statements.
    • 8.Standard demographic characteristics(age,education,education.etc).
    • 9.Name, address, & telephone number.
  • 26. Contd….
    • The study helped the sponser to determine consumers perceptions of & preferences for the department stores.Areas of weakness were identified in terms of specific factors influencing the consumers choice criteria & in terms of specific product categories.Appropriate marketing research programs were designed to overcome these weaknesses.Finally,a positioning strategy was developed to attain a desirable store image.
    • Questions:
    • 1.What was the marketing opportunities & problem confronting Sears?
    • 2.What role can marketing research play in helping Sears?
    • 3.What type of marketing research would be needed to help Sears decide whether it should aggressively expand in rural areas in the United States?
  • 27. MAJOR PROBLEMS……
    • Declining sales & profit.
    • No market research.
    • Competetion.
    • No positioning strategy.
  • 28. STEPS TAKEN BY THE ORGANISATION TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM….
    • Survey was conducted in 10 deparmental stores.
    • Consumer preferences were kept in mind.
    • Questionnaire was designed to see the consumers likings.
    • Personal interviews were taken in 271 households drawn from a major metropolitan area.
  • 29. CONTD….
    • Ratings were done according to consumer preferences.
    • Relative importance attached to each of eight factors selected as the choice criteria utilized in selecting a department store.These factors were quality of merchandise,variety & assortment of merchandise.returns & adjustment policy,service of store personnel,prices, convenience of location,layout of store,& credit & billing policies.
  • 30. FORMULATION OF THE PROBLEM
    • Declining sales of the company due to improper research & due to intesive competetion in the market.
  • 31. SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM….
    • Market research should be done.
    • Proper strategy should be adopted by the company.
    • Market survey.
    • Consumer preferences.
  • 32.
    • Visit www.sears.com for relevant information on case study.
    • Case study:
    • Marketing research
    • By: Naresh K.Malhotra
    • Books reffered:
    • Management research methodology
    • By: K.N Krishnaswamy
    • Appa Iyer Shivkumar
    • M.Mathirajan
    • Research Methodology
    • By: C.R Kothari
  • 33. THANK YOU……