Chapter  9 Trading-Area Analysis RETAIL  MANAGEMENT: A STRATEGIC APPROACH,   9th Edition BERMAN   EVANS
Chapter Objectives <ul><li>To demonstrate the importance of store location for a retailer and outline the process for choo...
Chapter Objectives_2 <ul><li>To examine three major factors in trading-area analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population char...
Location, Location, Location <ul><li>Criteria to consider include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>population size and traits </li></...
Figure 9.1 Importance of  Location to Esprit
Choosing a Store Location Step 1: Evaluate alternate geographic (trading) areas in terms of residents and existing retaile...
Trading-Area Analysis <ul><li>A trading area is a geographic area containing the customers of a particular firm or group o...
Benefits of Trading Area Analysis <ul><li>Discovery of consumer demographics and socioeconomic characteristics </li></ul><...
Figure 9.2 The Trading Areas of Current and Proposed Outlets
GIS Software <ul><li>Geographic Information Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>digitized mapping with key locational data to gr...
Figure 9.3a  The TIGER Map Service
Figure 9.3b  The TIGER Map Service
Figure 9.4  GIS Software in Action - A
Figure 9.4  GIS Software in Action - B
Private Firms Offering  Mapping Software <ul><li>Claritas </li></ul><ul><li>ESRI </li></ul><ul><li>GDT </li></ul><ul><li>G...
Figure 9.5 The Segments of a Trading Area
Figure 9.6 Delineating Trading-Area Segments
The Size and Shape of  Trading Areas <ul><li>Primary trading area  - 50-80% of a store’s customers </li></ul><ul><li>Secon...
Destinations versus Parasites <ul><li>Destination stores   have a better assortment, better promotion, and/or better image...
Trading Areas and Store Type Largest TRADING AREAS Smallest Department stores Supermarkets Apparel stores Gift stores Conv...
Figure 9.7 Carrefour Shanghai
The Trading Area of a New Store <ul><li>Different tools must be used when an area must be evaluated in terms of opportunit...
Computerized Trading-Area Analysis Models Analog Model Regression Model Gravity Model
Reilly’s Law <ul><li>Reilly’s law of retail gravitation, a traditional means of trading-area delineation, establishes a po...
Limitations of Reilly’s Law <ul><li>Distance is only measured by major thoroughfares; some people will travel shorter dist...
Huff’s Law <ul><li>Huff’s law of shopper attraction delineates trading areas on the basis of product assortment (of the it...
Table 9.1 Chief Factors to Consider in Evaluating Retail Trading Areas <ul><li>Total size and density </li></ul><ul><li>Ag...
Table 9.1 Chief Factors to Consider in Evaluating Retail Trading Areas <ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><li>Management tra...
Table 9.1 Chief Factors to Consider in Evaluating Retail Trading Areas <ul><li>Delivery costs </li></ul><ul><li>Timeliness...
Table 9.1 Chief Factors to Consider in Evaluating Retail Trading Areas <ul><li>Dominant industry </li></ul><ul><li>Extent ...
Table 9.1 Chief Factors to Consider in Evaluating Retail Trading Areas <ul><li>Number and size of existing competition </l...
Table 9.1 Chief Factors to Consider in Evaluating Retail Trading Areas <ul><li>Number and type of store locations </li></u...
Table 9.1 Chief Factors to Consider in Evaluating Retail Trading Areas <ul><li>Taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Licensing </li></ul...
Figure 9.8 Analyzing Retail Trading Areas
Elements in Trading-Area Selection Population  Characteristics Economic Base Characteristics Nature and Saturation of Comp...
Figure 9.9 The Census Tracts of  Long Beach, NY
Table 9.3 Selected Population Statistics for Trading Areas A and B
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Trading-Area Analysis

  1. 1. Chapter 9 Trading-Area Analysis RETAIL MANAGEMENT: A STRATEGIC APPROACH, 9th Edition BERMAN EVANS
  2. 2. Chapter Objectives <ul><li>To demonstrate the importance of store location for a retailer and outline the process for choosing a store location </li></ul><ul><li>To discuss the concept of a trading area and its related components </li></ul><ul><li>To show how trading areas may be delineated for existing and new stores </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter Objectives_2 <ul><li>To examine three major factors in trading-area analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic base characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition and level of saturation </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Location, Location, Location <ul><li>Criteria to consider include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>population size and traits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transportation access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>parking availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nature of nearby stores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>property costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>length of agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>legal restrictions </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Figure 9.1 Importance of Location to Esprit
  6. 6. Choosing a Store Location Step 1: Evaluate alternate geographic (trading) areas in terms of residents and existing retailers Step 3: Select the location type Step 2: Determine whether to locate as an isolated store or in a planned shopping center Step 4: Analyze alternate sites contained in the specific retail location type
  7. 7. Trading-Area Analysis <ul><li>A trading area is a geographic area containing the customers of a particular firm or group of firms for specific goods or services </li></ul>
  8. 8. Benefits of Trading Area Analysis <ul><li>Discovery of consumer demographics and socioeconomic characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to determine focus of promotional activities </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to view media coverage patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment of effects of trading area overlap </li></ul><ul><li>Ascertain whether chain’s competitors will open nearby </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery of ideal number of outlets, geographic weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Review of other issues, such as transportation </li></ul>
  9. 9. Figure 9.2 The Trading Areas of Current and Proposed Outlets
  10. 10. GIS Software <ul><li>Geographic Information Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>digitized mapping with key locational data to graphically depict trading-area characteristics such as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>population demographics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>data on customer purchases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>listings of current, proposed, and competitor locations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Figure 9.3a The TIGER Map Service
  12. 12. Figure 9.3b The TIGER Map Service
  13. 13. Figure 9.4 GIS Software in Action - A
  14. 14. Figure 9.4 GIS Software in Action - B
  15. 15. Private Firms Offering Mapping Software <ul><li>Claritas </li></ul><ul><li>ESRI </li></ul><ul><li>GDT </li></ul><ul><li>GeoVue </li></ul><ul><li>Mapinfo </li></ul><ul><li>SRC </li></ul>
  16. 16. Figure 9.5 The Segments of a Trading Area
  17. 17. Figure 9.6 Delineating Trading-Area Segments
  18. 18. The Size and Shape of Trading Areas <ul><li>Primary trading area - 50-80% of a store’s customers </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary trading area - 15-25% of a store’s customers </li></ul><ul><li>Fringe trading area - all remaining customers </li></ul>
  19. 19. Destinations versus Parasites <ul><li>Destination stores have a better assortment, better promotion, and/or better image </li></ul><ul><li>It generates a trading area much larger than that of its competitors </li></ul><ul><li>Dunkin’ Donuts: “It’s worth the trip!” </li></ul><ul><li>Parasite stores do not create their own traffic and have no real trading area of their own </li></ul><ul><li>These stores depend on people who are drawn to area for other reasons </li></ul>
  20. 20. Trading Areas and Store Type Largest TRADING AREAS Smallest Department stores Supermarkets Apparel stores Gift stores Convenience stores
  21. 21. Figure 9.7 Carrefour Shanghai
  22. 22. The Trading Area of a New Store <ul><li>Different tools must be used when an area must be evaluated in terms of opportunities rather than current patronage and traffic patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trend analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computerized trading area analysis models </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Computerized Trading-Area Analysis Models Analog Model Regression Model Gravity Model
  24. 24. Reilly’s Law <ul><li>Reilly’s law of retail gravitation, a traditional means of trading-area delineation, establishes a point of indifference between two cities or communities, so the trading area of each can be determined </li></ul>
  25. 25. Limitations of Reilly’s Law <ul><li>Distance is only measured by major thoroughfares; some people will travel shorter distances along cross streets </li></ul><ul><li>Travel time does not reflect distance traveled. Many people are more concerned with time traveled than with distance </li></ul><ul><li>Actual distance may not correspond with perceptions of distance </li></ul>
  26. 26. Huff’s Law <ul><li>Huff’s law of shopper attraction delineates trading areas on the basis of product assortment (of the items desired by the consumer) carried at various shopping locations, travel times from the shopper’s home to alternative locations, and the sensitivity of the kind of shopping to travel time. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Table 9.1 Chief Factors to Consider in Evaluating Retail Trading Areas <ul><li>Total size and density </li></ul><ul><li>Age distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Average educational level </li></ul><ul><li>Percentage of residents owning homes </li></ul><ul><li>Total disposable income </li></ul><ul><li>Per capita disposable income </li></ul><ul><li>Occupation distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Trends </li></ul>Population Size and Characteristics
  28. 28. Table 9.1 Chief Factors to Consider in Evaluating Retail Trading Areas <ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><li>Management trainee </li></ul><ul><li>Clerical </li></ul>Availability of Labor
  29. 29. Table 9.1 Chief Factors to Consider in Evaluating Retail Trading Areas <ul><li>Delivery costs </li></ul><ul><li>Timeliness </li></ul><ul><li>Number of manufacturers </li></ul><ul><li>Number of wholesalers </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of product lines </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability of product lines </li></ul>Closeness to Sources of Supply
  30. 30. Table 9.1 Chief Factors to Consider in Evaluating Retail Trading Areas <ul><li>Dominant industry </li></ul><ul><li>Extent of diversification </li></ul><ul><li>Growth projections </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom from economic and seasonal fluctuations </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of credit and financial facilities </li></ul>Economic Base
  31. 31. Table 9.1 Chief Factors to Consider in Evaluating Retail Trading Areas <ul><li>Number and size of existing competition </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of competitor strengths and weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Short-run and long-run outlook </li></ul><ul><li>Level of saturation </li></ul>Competitive Situation
  32. 32. Table 9.1 Chief Factors to Consider in Evaluating Retail Trading Areas <ul><li>Number and type of store locations </li></ul><ul><li>Access to transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Owning versus leasing opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Zoning restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>Costs </li></ul>Availability of Store Locations
  33. 33. Table 9.1 Chief Factors to Consider in Evaluating Retail Trading Areas <ul><li>Taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Licensing </li></ul><ul><li>Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum wages </li></ul><ul><li>Zoning </li></ul>Regulations
  34. 34. Figure 9.8 Analyzing Retail Trading Areas
  35. 35. Elements in Trading-Area Selection Population Characteristics Economic Base Characteristics Nature and Saturation of Competition
  36. 36. Figure 9.9 The Census Tracts of Long Beach, NY
  37. 37. Table 9.3 Selected Population Statistics for Trading Areas A and B
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