The Brain
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The Brain

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  • Deep lesioning - insertion of a thin, insulated wire into the brain through which an electrical current is sent that destroys the brain cells at the tip of the wire. Electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB) – milder electrical current that causes neurons to react as if they had received a message.
  • These are four methods researchers use to study the brain: EEGs, CT scans, MRIs, and PET scans. Electroencephalogram (EEG) - Record of the brain wave patterns produced by electrical activity of the surface of the brain. Computed tomography (CT) - brain-imaging method using computer controlled X-rays of the brain. Positron emission tomography (PET) - brain-imaging method in which a radioactive sugar is injected into the subject and a computer compiles a color-coded image of the activity of the brain with lighter colors indicating more activity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - brain-imaging method using radio waves and magnetic fields of the body to produce detailed images of the brain. Functional MRI (fMRI) – computer makes a sort of “movie” of changes in the activity of the brain using images from different time periods.
  • Medulla - the first large swelling at the top of the spinal cord, forming the lowest part of the brain, which is responsible for life-sustaining functions such as breathing, swallowing, and heart rate. Pons - the larger swelling above the medulla that connects the top of the brain to the bottom and that plays a part in sleep, dreaming, left–right body coordination, and arousal. Reticular formation (RF) - an area of neurons running through the middle of the medulla and the pons and slightly beyond that is responsible for selective attention. Cerebellum - part of the lower brain located behind the pons that controls and coordinates involuntary, rapid, fine motor movement.
  • Medulla - the first large swelling at the top of the spinal cord, forming the lowest part of the brain, which is responsible for life-sustaining functions such as breathing, swallowing, and heart rate. Pons - the larger swelling above the medulla that connects the top of the brain to the bottom and that plays a part in sleep, dreaming, left–right body coordination, and arousal. Reticular formation (RF) - an area of neurons running through the middle of the medulla and the pons and slightly beyond that is responsible for selective attention. Cerebellum - part of the lower brain located behind the pons that controls and coordinates involuntary, rapid, fine motor movement.
  • Limbic system - a group of several brain structures located under the cortex and involved in learning, emotion, memory, and motivation. Thalamus - part of the limbic system located in the center of the brain, this structure relays sensory information from the lower part of the brain to the proper areas of the cortex and processes some sensory information before sending it to its proper area. Olfactory bulbs - two projections just under the front of the brain that receive information from the receptors in the nose located just below. Hypothalamus - small structure in the brain located below the thalamus and directly above the pituitary gland, responsible for motivational behavior such as sleep, hunger, thirst, and sex. Sits above and controls the pituitary gland (master endocrine gland). Hippocampus - curved structure located within each temporal lobe, responsible for the formation of long-term memories and the storage of memory for location of objects. Amygdala - brain structure located near the hippocampus, responsible for fear responses and memory of fear.
  • Limbic system - a group of several brain structures located under the cortex and involved in learning, emotion, memory, and motivation. Thalamus - part of the limbic system located in the center of the brain, this structure relays sensory information from the lower part of the brain to the proper areas of the cortex and processes some sensory information before sending it to its proper area. Olfactory bulbs - two projections just under the front of the brain that receive information from the receptors in the nose located just below. Hypothalamus - small structure in the brain located below the thalamus and directly above the pituitary gland, responsible for motivational behavior such as sleep, hunger, thirst, and sex. Sits above and controls the pituitary gland (master endocrine gland). Hippocampus - curved structure located within each temporal lobe, responsible for the formation of long-term memories and the storage of memory for location of objects. Amygdala - brain structure located near the hippocampus, responsible for fear responses and memory of fear.
  • Cortex - outermost covering of the brain consisting of densely packed neurons, responsible for higher thought processes and interpretation of sensory input. Corticalization – wrinkling of the cortex. Allows a much larger area of cortical cells to exist in the small space inside the skull. Why is the cortex so wrinkled? The wrinkling of the cortex allows a much larger area of cortical cells to exist in the small space inside the skull. If the cortex were to be taken out, ironed flat, and measured, it would be about 2 to 3 square feet. (The owner of the cortex would also be dead, but that’s fairly obvious, right?) As the brain develops before birth, it forms a smooth outer covering on all the other brain structures. This will be the cortex, which will get more and more wrinkled as the brain increases in size and complexity. This increase in wrinkling is called corticalization and is the real measure of human intelligence.
  • Occipital lobe - section of the brain located at the rear and bottom of each cerebral hemisphere containing the visual centers of the brain. Primary visual cortex – processes visual information from the eyes. Visual association cortex – identifies and makes sense of visual information. Parietal lobes - sections of the brain located at the top and back of each cerebral hemisphere containing the centers for touch, taste, and temperature sensations. Temporal lobes - areas of the cortex located just behind the temples containing the neurons responsible for the sense of hearing and meaningful speech. Primary auditory cortex – processes auditory information from the ears. Auditory association cortex – identifies and makes sense of auditory information. Frontal lobes - areas of the cortex located in the front and top of the brain, responsible for higher mental processes and decision making as well as the production of fluent speech.
  • The motor cortex in the frontal lobe controls the voluntary muscles of the body. Cells at the top of the motor cortex control muscles at the bottom of the body, whereas cells at the bottom of the motor cortex control muscles at the top of the body. Body parts are drawn larger or smaller according to the number of cortical cells devoted to that body part. For example, the hand has many small muscles and requires a larger area of cortical cells to control it. The somatosensory cortex , located in the parietal lobe just behind the motor cortex, is organized in much the same manner and receives information about the sense of touch and body position.
  • Cerebrum - the upper part of the brain consisting of the two hemispheres and the structures that connect them. Split brain research Study of patients with severed corpus callosum. Involves sending messages to only one side of the brain. Demonstrates right and left brain specialization.
  • Left side of the brain: seems to control language, writing, logical thought, analysis, and mathematical abilities, processes information sequentially, can speak. Right side of the brain controls emotional expression, spatial perception, recognition of faces, patterns, melodies, and emotions, processes information globally, cannot speak.
  • endocrine glands - glands that secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream. hormones - chemicals released into the bloodstream by endocrine glands. pituitary gland - gland located in the brain that secretes human growth hormone and influences all other hormone-secreting glands (also known as the master gland). pineal gland - endocrine gland located near the base of the cerebrum that secretes melatonin. thyroid gland - endocrine gland found in the neck that regulates metabolism. pancreas - endocrine gland that controls the levels of sugar in the blood. gonads - the sex glands that secrete hormones that regulate sexual development and behavior as well as reproduction. ovaries - the female gonads. testes - the male gonads. adrenal glands - endocrine glands located on top of each kidney that secrete over 30 different hormones to deal with stress, regulate salt intake, and provide a secondary source of sex hormones affecting the sexual changes that occur during adolescence.
  • Another activity is to have students draw a figure 8 in the air with their right hand while simultaneously lifting their left leg and moving their left foot around in a clockwise circle. Very difficult to do as conflicting commands are bumping in to one another as they travel across the corpus collosum.
  • If a picture of a ball is flashed to the right side of the screen, the image of the ball will be sent to the left occipital lobe. The person will be able to say that he or she sees a ball. If a picture of a hammer is flashed to the left side of the screen, the person will not be able to verbally identify the object or be able to state with any certainty that something was seen. But if the left hand (controlled by the right hemisphere) is used, the person can point to the hammer he or she “didn’t see.” The right occipital lobe clearly saw the hammer, but the person could not verbalize that fact. By doing studies such as these, researchers have found that the left hemisphere specializes in language, speech, handwriting, calculation (math), sense of time and rhythm (which is mathematical in nature), and basically any kind of thought requiring analysis. The right hemisphere appears to specialize in more global (widespread) processing involving perception, visualization, spatial perception, recognition of patterns, faces, emotions, and melodies, and expression of emotions. It also comprehends simple language but does not produce speech.

The Brain The Brain Presentation Transcript

    • NERVOUS SYSTEM, NEURONS & NERVES
    • LO 2.1 Nervous system, neurons, nerves
    • LO 2.2 Neural communication
    • CENTRAL & PERIPHERAL NS
    • LO 2.3 Brain and spinal cord
    • LO 2.4 Somatic and autonomic systems
    Links to Learning Objectives STRUCTURES OF THE BRAIN LO 2.5 Studying the brain LO 2.6 Bottom part of the brain LO 2.7 Control of emotion, learning, memory, & motivation LO 2.8 Control of senses and movement LO 2.9 Higher forms of thought LO 2.10 Left and right sides of the brain THE CHEMICAL CONNECTION LO 2.11 Hormones & the nervous system
  • The Structures of The Brain The Brain The Structures of The Structures of The Brain
  • Peeking Inside the Brain
    • Deep lesioning – electrical current used to destroy brains cells
    • Electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB) – milder electrical current use to simulate neural activity in brain
    2.5 How do psychologists study the brain and how it works?
  • Peeking Inside the Brain EEG CT MRI PET The EEG has been admitted in court as another method of lie detection, alternately referred to as “brain fingerprinting.”
  • The Hindbrain
    • Hindbrain – located at the base of the brain, consisting of various parts functioning to sustain bodily functions.
    2.6 What are the different structures of the bottom part of the brain?
  • The Hindbrain cerebellum medulla pons reticular formation
  • Structures Under the Cortex
    • Limbic system – located under the cortex and involved in learning, emotion, memory and motivation
    2.7 What controls emotion, learning memory and motivation?
  • hypothalamus thalamus hippocampus amygdala Damage to the amygdala can lead to difficulties in the processing of facially expressed emotions.
  • The wrinkled outermost covering of the brain ortex WHY is the cortex so wrinkled?
  • 2.8 What parts of the cortex control the different senses and movement of the body? The Two Hemispheres The cortex is divided into two sections called the cerebral hemispheres, which are connected by a thick, tough band of neural fibers (axons) called the corpus callosum. The corpus callosum allows the left and right hemispheres to communicate with each other” -Page 73 (Ciccarelli & White)
  • Four Lobes of the Brain
    • Both the left and right hemispheres can be roughly divided into four sections
  •  
  • Somatosensory & Motor Areas S o m a t o s e n s o r y M o t o r
  • Association Areas of Cortex
    • Association areas - areas within each lobe of the cortex responsible for the coordination and interpretation of information, as well as higher mental processing.
    • Broca’s aphasia - condition resulting from damage to Broca’s area (usually in left frontal lobe), causing the affected person to be unable to speak fluently, to mispronounce words, and to speak haltingly.
    • Wernicke’s aphasia - condition resulting from damage to Wernicke’s area (usually in left temporal lobe), causing the affected person to be unable to understand or produce meaningful language.
    • Spatial neglect - condition produced by damage to the association areas of the right hemisphere resulting in an inability to recognize objects or body parts in the left visual field.
    2.9 What parts of the cortex are responsible for higher forms of thought?
  • Split Brain Research
    • Corpus callosum sometimes severed to reduce seizures
      • left visual field  right hemisphere
      • light visual field  left hemisphere
    2.10 How does the left side of the brain differ from the right?
  • Hemispheres of The Brain
  • The Structures of The Brain The Brain The Structures of The Structures of The Brain
  • The Endocrine Glands
    • Endocrine glands – secrete into bloodstream hormones that target specific organs
    2.11 How do hormones interact with the NS and affect behavior? pituitary pineal thyroid pancreas gonads
  • End of Chapter 2
  • Lecture Activities
    • On the next slide, you will read about three psychological scenarios. In small groups, discuss which brain areas/systems are probably being activated in these scenarios.
    • Shandra is a a painter. She is standing by her easel. The window is open and she can smell the jasmine flowers in her yard. She is painting with her right hand. She can hear her children playing in the background.
    • Melanie is a police officer. She is preparing for her rank-advancement exam. It’s late at night. She is reading through some material and viewing pictures related to brutal murder cases. She is drinking coffee and eating a sandwich.
    • James is a football player. He is the quarterback in a tough game and the home crowd is yelling and screaming. It’s the fourth quarter and James is tired and sweating as he goes up to hike the ball. After hiking the ball, he and his teammates execute some very complicated running and passing routes to execute a play.
    • Complications of Contralateral Wiring
    • Pair up. One person will be the experimenter and the other will be
    • the subject . Here is the procedure:
        • Subject should extend both arms in front of the body—straight out and parallel to one another.
        • Rotate hands so that palms face away from one another.
        • Cross hands over and clasp (palm-to-palm). The, rotate arms (with hands clasped) down and back towards the body and then up.
        • Experimenter should point at (but not touch) different fingers on the subjects’ hands and see how quickly the contorted subject can wiggle the correct fingers.
        • Now, reverse roles…
    • Split-Brain Experiment
    • Sperry and Gazzaniga devised a creative experiment to test hemispheric functioning. In this experiment, visual stimuli were shown to either the LEFT or RIGHT visual fields of split-brain patients.
    • On the next slide, you will see a red “X.” Stare at the X until you are asked to provide a verbal response.
  • Trial #1 (Click anywhere to begin)
  • X What did you see? CONTINUE TRY AGAIN
  • Trial #2 (Click anywhere to begin)
  • X What did you see? CONTINUE TRY AGAIN
  • I saw nothing. How do you think a split-brained patient would respond when asked to identify an object flashed to the LEFT VISUAL FIELD? It’s a ball! Given what you now know about how the brain processes information from the two visual fields, how do you think a split-brained patient would respond when asked to identify an object flashed to the RIGHT VISUAL FIELD?
  • Acknowledgements
    • Photos used with permission under the Creative Commons “Attribution” license from the internet domain of www.flickr.com
      • Arms Across the Water – username “laszlo-photo”
      • Bird’s Eye View – username “manitou2121”
      • Img_1038 – username “aaronbflickr”
      • the eye of a storm – username “rocketjim54”
    • Tiger barb fish animation by Dave Sutton, developer of Seven Oaks Art
    • Some royalty-free images from www.clipart.com
    • Some royalty-free images from Juice Drops 35: futureTECH software image archive, distributed by Digital Juice, Inc.