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Community mapping report final Community mapping report final Document Transcript

  • COMMUNITY MAPPING REPORT UEY SELKIRK - INTERLAKE Karin Rensfelt, Community Researcher June 2010 Understanding the Early Years, Selkirk-Interlake www.lssd.ca/ueyselkirkinterlake
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report The UEY Selkirk-Interlake project is funded by the Government of Canada’s Understanding the Early Years Initiative. More information on the UEY Selkirk-Interlake can be found at www.lssd.ca/ueyselkirkinterlake For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 1
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 2 View slide
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report UEY Selkirk-Interlake COMMUNITY MAPPING REPORT DISCLAIMER The views expressed in this report do not necessarily reflect the opinions of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC), the Government of Canada or the Lord Selkirk School Division. Although the UEY Selkirk-Interlake region includes Brokenhead Ojibway Nation, all data from that community has been extracted. Therefore, there may be discrepancies between this report and others. While efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information within this report, no warranty is made as to accuracy, propriety, completeness or usefulness of the information. The user assumes the entire risk related to accessing and using the data. Due to the ever changing nature of communities and their resources, the community characteristics may change before the final publication of this report. Efforts have been made on the part of the author to report on the most recent characteristics and resources at the time of writing this report. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 3 View slide
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Understanding the Early Years (UEY) initiative has made a significant contribution to increasing community capacity with agencies and organizations in the Lord Selkirk School Division region to meet the needs of young children and their families. We have been able to integrate this project with the ongoing work of the Southeast Interlake Early Childhood Development Coalition (SEI-ECDC) to achieve mutual goals. The UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report could not have been possible without the efforts of:  Happy Thought School  Healthy Child Manitoba Office  Human Resources and Skills Development Canada  Lord Selkirk School Division  Offord Centre for Child Studies, McMaster University  Statistics Canada  South East Interlake Early Development Coalition For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 4
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report CONTENTS Acronyms…………………………………………………………………………………………………..7 1. Components of the Understanding the Early Years Initiative EDI……………………………………………………………………………………………..9 Community Mapping…………………………………………………………………………11 Inventory of Community Services…….……………………………………………………….12 Parent Interview & Direct Assessment of Children Survey…………………………………....13 2. Geography of UEY Selkirk-Interlake Location of Selkirk-Interlake………………………………………………………………….15 Our Neighbourhoods…………………………………………………………………………16 City of Selkirk………………………………………………………………………………...23 3. Where are the Children and Families Located?..…………………………………………………………25 Population of Young Children ………………………………………………………………..26 Families with Young Children…………………………………………………………………27 4. Community Resources……………………………………………………………………………………...29 Schools………………………………………………………………………………………..31 Kindergarten……………………………………………………………………………….…32 Child Care……………………………………………………………………………………33 Child Centered Resource Availability………………………………………………………...34 Social Supports……………...………………………………………………………………..37 Parent and Family Centred Resource Availability……………………………………………39 Services for Children with Special Needs…………………………………………………….41 Libraries………………………………………………………………………………………43 Recreation…………………………………………………………………………………….46 Preventative Health Services…………………………………………………………………53 Emergency Health Services………………………………………………………………...…55 Cultural and Entertainment Resources………………………………………………………...56 Places of Worship……………………………………………………………………………57 Public Transportation…………………………………………………………………………58 5. Community Strengths and Challenges…………………………………………………………………......59 6. Community Demographics………………………………………………………………………………...63 Population Mobility…………………………………………………………………………..64 Education……………………………………………………………………………………..65 Employment…………………………………………………………………………………...68 Family Income………………………………………………………………………....………69 Prevalence of Low Income……………………………………………………………………74 Family Structure………………………………………………………………………………77 Ethnic and Linguistic Diversity…………………………………………………………………81 Immigration…………………………………………………………………………………...82 Aboriginal Resources…………………………………………………………………………83 Government Transfer Payments………………………………………………………………84 Home Ownership……………………………………………………………………………..85 For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 5
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report 7. What does the Evidence tell us? Highlights of Findings…………………………………………………………………………87 Next Steps……………………………………………………………………………………89 References…………………………………………………………………………………………………….91 For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 6
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report THE ACRONYMS  ECDC - Early Childhood Development Coalition  EDI - Early Development Instrument  GIS - Geographic Information Systems  HCMO - Healthy Child Manitoba Office  HRSDC - Human Resources & Skills Development Canada  LSSD - Lord Selkirk School Division  PIDACS - Parent Interview & Direct Assessment of Children Survey  PMK - Person Most Knowledgeable  SEI-ECDC - South-East Interlake Early Childhood Development Coalition  SES - Socioeconomic Status  Triple P - Positive Parenting Program  UEY - Understanding the Early Years For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 7
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 8
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report COMPONENTS OF THE UEY INITIATIVE Early Development Instrument (EDI)  The EDI is a questionnaire completed by Kindergarten teachers in February to gather information on five areas of child development and measures the school readiness skills of kindergarten children.  It is not an assessment of individual children, but a tool to monitor populations of children over time.  The EDI was developed by the Offord Centre for Child Studies at McMaster University, which has a contractual agreement with Human Resources and Skills Development Canada to manage the EDI data collection and produce reports for each UEY community.  This data collection is done in collaboration with participating schools, school boards, and the UEY coordinator.  The Lord Selkirk School Division has been completing the EDI since 2003 as mandated provincially through Healthy Child Manitoba Office (HCMO). The five domains of child development looked at in the EDI and examples of skills measured are: 1. Physical Health and Well-Being  fine motor development o generally refers to actions of the hands, wrists, and arms, such as using the hands and fingers to grasp and manipulate objects for activities like eating, writing, dressing, building and playing  gross motor development o generally refers to actions such as sitting, standing, walking, and climbing, using larger muscle groups  levels of energy throughout the day  daily preparedness for school (tired, late, hungry)  physical independence (independent in washroom, established hand preference, well coordinated) 2. Social Competence  cooperative and respectful to others (children and adults)  able to work within the school environment  socially appropriate behaviour during school activities  self-control, self-confidence  shows respect for others and property  follows instructions and routines  curious about new things 3. Emotional Maturity  pro-social behaviour, helping, tolerance, empathy as opposed to aggressive behaviour, anxiety, hyperactivity, inattention, impulsiveness  informal, peer-to-peer interaction - as opposed to the more structured interaction measured on the social competence scale  comfortable being left at school by caregiver  able to concentrate, settle into chosen activities and wait their turn For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 9
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report 4. Language and Cognitive Development  interest in books, reading, language-related activities (rhyming, group reading)  literacy – ability to recognize letters, read and write simple words  interest in simple math related activities  numeracy – ability to recognize and compare numbers, count, sort, etc. 5. Communication and General Knowledge  ability to clearly communicate one’s own needs  ability to understand others  clear articulation  active participation in story-telling (not necessarily with good grammar or syntax)  shows adequate general knowledge For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 10
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Community Mapping Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) computer software, maps are created to display the following information by different geographic areas of the community:  Inventory of Community Programs and Services  Canadian census data  Early Development Instrument results The community maps:  are designed to gather information about the physical and social environment and the programs and services available in the community  can help identify areas of strength and need in the community  will stimulate discussion and bring people together to generate ideas and solutions  provide a visual picture of the relationships between community factors (i.e. location of parks, libraries and child care centres), and socio-economic characteristics (i.e. rates of employment and home ownership) For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 11
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Inventory of Community Programs and Services Each UEY community is responsible for developing an inventory of the local programs and services available to young children and their families.  It includes a range of services such as health clinics, schools, family resource centres, recreational facilities (including parks and pools), and child care facilities, and the programming specific to each.  Collecting information on the location of these resources allows the researcher to map them with other data using Arc GIS software.  The purpose of this exercise is to observe how the availability and distribution of community resources is linked to young children’s developmental outcomes and whether there are gaps in the provision of programs and services to support children and their families. The UEY Selkirk-Interlake inventory included information from six sectors: 1. Education 2. Health and Well-Being 3. Sports and Leisure 4. Social 5. Special Interest 6. Culture and Entertainment For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 12
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Parent Interviews and Direct Assessments of Children Survey (PIDACS) PIDACS examines the relationship between children’s development and various family and community factors that could influence that development. It has two parts: 1. An interview with the person most knowledgeable (PMK) about the child - usually a parent or guardian - to obtain information on the: - family - child’s development - child’s experiences in the community 2. Three direct assessment activities with the child which assess: - Picture Vocabulary – receptive or hearing vocabulary, words children use for things that they see - Who Am I? – copying and printing skills related to early literacy and the understanding of shapes - Number Knowledge – the understanding of numbers, counting, number sequence, simple arithmetic It is conducted by an independent contractor, R.A. Malatest, hired by Human Resources and Skills Development Canada. - The UEY Selkirk-Interlake coordinator and researcher provide local coordination and support, such as providing information to parents and schools, obtaining permission forms from participating parents, and acting as a liaison to the contractor hired by HRSDC. - The data collection is done in collaboration with participating parents, schools, school boards, and the UEY coordinator. - The contractor is responsible for analyzing the data and writing community-specific research reports based on the EDI and PIDACS results for each UEY site. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 13
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 14
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report GEOGRAPHY OF UEY SELKIRK-INTERLAKE Location of UEY-Selkirk-Interlake UEY Selkirk-Interlake is a geographically diverse, unevenly populated area located north of Winnipeg, Manitoba. The region stretches along both sides of the Red River, from the southern suburban communities of Lockport and St. Andrews; through the farming areas of Clandeboye, Petersfield, East Selkirk, and Libau; to the lakeshore communities of Grand Beach and Victoria Beach on Lake Winnipeg. The historic City of Selkirk is the hub of the region. These communities encompass 1760 square kilometers. The communities of the Selkirk-Interlake region celebrate the proud heritage and culture of the region – including the Brokenhead Ojibway Nation, the Scottish pioneers, the Netley Hutterite Colony, the French Canadian voyageurs, and the Ukrainian settlers. With a population of 27,705 people, there are approximately 14.5 people per square kilometer! There are 1875 children under age six in the region, representing 6.7% of the population. The proportion of young children is declining each year. The economy of the Selkirk- Interlake region is dependent on the manufacturing, agriculture, and tourism industries. There is a common bond among the residents of the region because of shared services and activities. Map 1shows the location of UEY Selkirk-Interlake within the Province of Manitoba. It also shows where the City of Selkirk is situated in the UEY Selkirk-Interlake region. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 15
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Our Neighbourhoods The boundaries for UEY Selkirk Interlake are divided by the electoral boundary lines of the region. Map 2 - Ward 1 - St. Andrews South Cloverdale Road borders Wards 1 and 2 in the north. The Red River separates Wards 1 and 4 in the east. The City of Selkirk’s city limits border Ward 1 to the northeast. The RM of Rockwood is the western border and Parkdale Road is the border to the south. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 16
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Map 3- Ward 2 - St. Andrews North The southern border of St. Andrews North is Cloverdale Road and the north boundary of the City of Selkirk. The Red River separates Wards 2 and 4 in the east. The RM of Rockwood is the western border of Ward 2. Taylor Road, Philpott Road, Chalet Beach Road and Pilatski Road are northern borders of Ward 2. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 17
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Map 4 - Ward 3 - St. Clements, RM of Victoria Beach, RM of Alexander Ward 3 extends north to the RM of Victoria Beach, and is bordered to the west by Lake Winnipeg. The southern border of Ward 3 is Road 89. Ward 3 also borders the Brokenhead Ojibway Nation. A portion of the RM of Alexander is within Ward 3 and part of it is the eastern border. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 18
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Map 5 - Ward 4 - St. Clements The Red River runs along the entire western border of Ward 4. Road 89 is the north border while Boundary Road, Church Road, and the RM of Springfield are all borders in the south. The Lord Selkirk School Division boundary line is the eastern border of Ward 4. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 19
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Map 6 - Ward 5a - Selkirk North The north side of Manitoba Avenue is the southern border for Ward 5a. It separates Wards 5a from 5b and 5c. The north border of Ward 5a is the City of Selkirk’s city limits. The Red River borders 5a to the East. Cloverdale Road and Highway 4 are the borders in the west. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 20
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Map 7 - Ward 5b - Selkirk West Cloverdale Road borders Ward 5b to the northwest. Selkirk’s city limits borders Ward 5b in the south. Main Street is the border to the east, with the west side of Main Street part of Ward 5b. To the north, Manitoba Avenue separates Wards 5b and 5a, with the south side of Manitoba Avenue up to Main Street is part of Ward 5b. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 21
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Map 8 - Ward 5c - Selkirk East The Red River borders Ward 5c in the east. The northern border is Manitoba Avenue with the south side of Manitoba Avenue part of Ward 5c. Main Street is the western border, with the east side of Main Street being part of Ward 5c. The southern border is the city limits of the City of Selkirk. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 22
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report City of Selkirk Selkirk is the centre of the community for economic, medical, social, and educational activities. Important regional services are provided to families and young children by the Selkirk & District General Hospital, the Selkirk Mental Health Centre, the Red River North Regional Library, Nova House Shelter for Women, Selkirk Friendship Centre, Growing Years Family Resource Centre, Selkirk & District Chamber of Commerce, as well as many others. Map 9 shows the aerial street view of the City of Selkirk. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 23
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 24
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report WHERE ARE CHILDREN AND FAMILIES LOCATED? Population of Young Children The 2006 Canadian census data shows the population of UEY Selkirk-Interlake to be 27,705. Of this number, 1875 are children aged six and under which is 6.7% of the population. The neighbourhood with the highest percentage of children under age six per capita is Ward 5a – Selkirk North with 8.6%. The neighbourhood with the lowest percentage of children per capita is Ward 3 (St. Clements North, RM of Alexander and the RM of Victoria Beach) with 2.8%. Figure 1 Figure 1 shows the percentage of the total UEY Selkirk-Interlake population that are between the ages of zero and six. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 25
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Map 10 shows where the greatest density of children is found in the region. The greatest density of children live in the City of Selkirk. The next highest density of children is found in Ward 1. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 26
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Families with Young Children There are 8365 families in UEY Selkirk-Interlake. Of this number, 4910 (58.7%) families have children at home. Since more than half of the families in UEY Selkirk-Interlake have children at home, it is important for the community to provide enough resources and services to help these families and their children. The location of these services is also important. When adding new programs and services, communities need to identify:  where programs are implemented now and where there are gaps  where families live in relation to these programs  if there are appropriate resources in the areas families are located The majority of programs and services are currently located within the City of Selkirk, although the highest population of families with children live in Ward 1(St. Andrews South). Map 5 shows the greatest number of families with children live in Ward 1, and the least are in Ward 3. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 27
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 28
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report COMMUNITY RESOURCES –INTRODUCTION UEY Selkirk-Interlake has many community resources. The Inventory of Community Programs and Services is available to parents, guardians, community agencies, and anyone who is interested in what the UEY Selkirk- Interlake community has to offer its young families. Evidence suggests that neighbourhoods and communities where children grow and learn directly influence their development. Community/neighbourhoods affect parents’ ability to provide the best possible family environment and the ability of schools to offer the best possible education. The purpose of the inventory is to:  Promote collaboration among community groups  Avoid duplication of effort  Find gaps that may be used for community planning In developing the Inventory of Community Programs and Services, UEY Selkirk-Interlake considered community centered resources that would fall under the sectors of: Health and Well Being, Education, Sports and Leisure, Social, Special Interest and Culture and Entertainment. See Figure 2 for a list of the sectors, categories and sub-categories (see page 25 in this report for more information on the Inventory). Information for the inventory was compiled from several resources – local telephone books, websites, direct contact with organizations, etc. Another regional resource is the opportunity to participate in outdoor activities. UEY Selkirk-Interlake is fortunate to have access to provincial parks, as well as Lower Fort Garry National Historic Park. Grand Beach Provincial Park is located in Ward 3 and boasts beaches, walking and ski trails, picnic areas and many other family fun possibilities. There are many opportunities for UEY Selkirk-Interlake families to enjoy the beautiful outdoors in any season. The early childhood development coalition is another strength of the community. Since 2003, local services providers in the region have worked together as members of the Southeast Interlake Early Childhood Development Coalition (SEI-ECDC). The twenty-seven coalition members represent public health, education, community library, child care centres, family literacy, friendship centre, family resource centre, and other community agencies. The strength of this coalition is the community capacity building that has taken place. Through the monthly coalition meetings, new partnerships have been created, information is shared, and people are working to offer a greater variety of services to parents with young children. This group has been a great asset to the region as they continue to work towards a better community for children and families. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 29
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Figure 2 For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 30
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Schools The children of the UEY Selkirk-Interlake region attend school in one of the fifteen schools in the Lord Selkirk School Division. The division offers a wide variety of programs and services to approximately 5000 students. The schools include a Hutterian colony school, a French Immersion school, and a Ukrainian Bilingual school. The majority of children outside the City of Selkirk are bused to school. Map 12 shows the location of the elementary schools, junior high schools, high school and middle school found in UEY Selkirk-Interlake. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 31
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Kindergarten There are fifteen kindergarten classes in UEY Selkirk-Interlake, with some schools having more than one kindergarten class. There are two French Immersion kindergarten classes, one Ukrainian Bilingual kindergarten class, one Hutterian Colony school, and twelve regular kindergarten classes. In the 2005-2006 school year, there were 305 children registered in kindergarten in the Lord Selkirk School Division. In 2008- 2009, there were 268 kindergarten students registered, a decline of 37students. Table 1 Schools Number of Kindergarten Type of Kindergarten class classes Bonaventure 2 French Immersion Table 1shows Centennial 1 English the number of Daerwood 1 English kindergarten Happy Thought 3 1 Ukrainian Bilingual, 2 English classes in each Mapleton 1 English Netley 1 English school and the Robert Smith 1 English type of Ruth Hooker 1 English kindergarten St. Andrews 2 English class. Walter Whyte 1 English William S. Patterson 1 English Figure 3 Figure 3 shows the decline in kindergarten enrollment rates from September 2005 to September 2009. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 32
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Child Care Child care is an issue in communities across Canada and UEY Selkirk-Interlake is no exception. There are 286 licensed child care spaces in UEY Selkirk-Interlake for approximately 1875 children under the age of six. Those spaces include licensed child care centres, family child care homes, and nursery schools in the area. It is difficult to determine how many people actually require child care because many people are on more than one facility wait list and each child care provider keeps their own list. If a family chooses to use child care, all families should have this option available to them. Research shows there are many reasons why enrolling your child in a child care centre can have a positive effect. Children with closer teacher-child relationships in child care had better classroom social and thinking skills, language ability, and math skills from the preschool years into elementary school (Peisner- Feinberg et. al, 2000). Also, children who had closer relationships to their child care teachers were rated lower in problem behaviors by their teachers from preschool through second grade. (Peisner- Feinberg et. al, 2000) Map 13 shows the location of Family Child Care Homes, Child Care Centres, Before and After School Programs and Nursery Schools in relation to where young children are located. Although there is a high number of children located in Ward 4, there are only three child care homes. There are no child care spaces in Ward 3. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 33
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Child-Centered Resource Availability The majority of the child-centered resources are located within the City of Selkirk. For the most part, they are located throughout the city so they are accessible to most residents. There are very few child-centered resources outside the City of Selkirk. Accessing programs located outside the City of Selkirk is very difficult if a family does not have a vehicle. There is no public transportation available and the area is so large that walking or riding a bike is rarely an option. Geography is a concern for community service providers as it is difficult to reach parents living in the rural areas. There is no public transportation available in the region. Thus, parents have difficulty accessing transportation to participate in services offered in a central location. Although there are parenting, nutrition, and family literacy programs available in the urban centre, many rural parents and children are unable to attend. One challenge facing the Selkirk-Interlake region is that local early childhood development programs (found mostly in the City of Selkirk) are often over-subscribed, with estimates indicating that we are reaching less than 20% of the children aged 0-5 in the community. It is therefore, a priority to create more programs in the region and increase awareness of the existing programs. High quality, universal early child development programs could reduce the costs of mental health and crime to individuals and society by more than 50% in 25 years (the time it would take from beginning universal early child development programs to influence the quality and capability of the next generation). (Mustard, F. J., 2008). Another challenge to parent participation in early childhood programming is communication and advertising existing programs. SEI-ECDC has advertised their programs through a monthly calendar of events, but this calendar does not reach all parents. The money available to early childhood programs is usually just enough to implement and carry out the programming. Rarely would there be any finances available to advertise. Many parents who attend programs find out about them through word of mouth, through other programs they attend, or through the little advertising that is done. Even though the programs are reaching less than 20% of the children in the community, they are often full, thus highlighting need for more programming. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 34
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Map 14 shows where there are prenatal, preschool, and toddler health and education programs in proximity to the young children in the region. Almost all the programs are located inside the City of Selkirk although the highest number of young children live in Ward 1(St. Andrews South). For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 35
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Figure 3 Figure 3 shows the percentage of families in UEY Selkirk- Interlake that considered each issue to be a barrier to their use of programs and resources. The five most prominent barriers identified by the parents were: - programs were not available at convenient times (54%) - being unaware the resource was available (47%) - programs were only available to older children (41%) - there was not enough time (41%) - the programs were too costly (39%). Source: As part of the UEY project, information was collected from parents, kindergarten children and their teachers on the development of children in the community, using the Parent Interviews and Direct Assessment of Children Survey (PIDACS) and the Early Development Instrument (EDI). Some of the preliminary results of this data collection are shown in Figure 3. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 36
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Social Supports As with many services in the UEY Selkirk-Interlake area, the majority of the family centered resources and family support services are located within the City of Selkirk. This does not allow easy access for families living in rural areas. The family centered resources within the City of Selkirk offer a variety of programs and supports for families in the community and surrounding areas. Some examples of family and community social services are:  Financial services  Food banks  Soup kitchens  Community billboards  Clothing depots  Nova House Women’s Shelter The importance of family support cannot be understated. According to the preliminary data collection results of PIDACS, 17% of the mothers surveyed in UEY Selkirk-Interlake were displaying strong signs of depression which is significantly higher than the 10% of mothers surveyed in other 2007 UEY communities in Canada. There are many possibilities of why this could be. Since the number is higher than the national average, maternal depression in the region should not be discounted. More resources need to be put in place for new mothers to get the support and help they need. More opportunities need to be made for mothers living in isolated areas to get together with other mothers at play groups or programs. The City of Selkirk does have a regularly operating soup kitchen and food bank which not all communities have. Nutritious meals are served on a regular basis at Our Daily Bread Soup Kitchen offering families a place to go when in need. Families with few resources and who live in underprivileged areas have more difficulty providing their children with an upbringing that will keep them away from deviant and at-risk behavior (Smith 2004). Therefore it is important that as a community we are there to support all families and be sure that the resources are in place for those who need them. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 37
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Map 15 shows the location of social supports in relation to where children live in the region. There are many locations of billboards for families to check to see what is happening in their community. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 38
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Parent and Family Centered Resource Availability It is important to provide support and services to parents as it is a key factor in early childhood development. Examples of parent and family centered resources are:  Counselling services  Support groups  Parenting programs Parents want the best for their children and sometimes need a little help and education to do so. Often parents do not know about the many little things they can do to foster their children’s healthy cognitive and emotional development, such as talking to children beginning in infancy, reading to them from a very early age, and helping them play simple games. Parents, especially new or young parents, may also need help recognizing their child’s cues indicating they are hungry for stimulation or have had enough. (T. Hawley. 2000). In some cases, written materials or attending parenting education classes may be all that a parent needs to learn how to provide his or her child with appropriate stimulation. However, parenting styles and beliefs that have evolved over generations - such as rarely talking to babies - can be difficult for parents to change. Many parents benefit from community-based programs in which a parent group leader or a home visitor acts as a role model and coach, supporting parents in their relationships with their children. Programs that work with parents over several years can be very successful in helping them become effective "first teachers" of their children. (Olds 1993). An example of a parenting program in UEY Selkirk-Interlake is Triple P (Positive Parenting Program). It is offered at the Student Services Centre at Daerwood School to help parents with their parenting skills. It is an effective, practical approach to raising children that emphasizes the positive. Triple P is based on strong nurturing relationships, good communication and positive attention to help children develop. It involves creating a family environment that is loving, supportive and predictable. (Government of Manitoba) For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 39
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Map 16 shows where counselling services, support groups and parenting programs are found in relation to where young children live. Although there are a number of services within the City of Selkirk that families can access, there are no services in the rural areas. Families of children with disabilities are twice as likely as other families to run out of money for food (16% compared to 8%). -Harvey, 2002 For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 40
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Services for Children with Special Needs A sub-committee of the National Children’s Alliance developed a definition of Children with Special Needs, and this is the description we have chosen to use. They define children with special needs as infants and young children and their families who require additional specialized resources, intervention, and support because of the presence of a single or multiple, identified childhood developmental delay(s) or disability(ies). This could include an established condition or diagnosed disability that may persist over time and may prevent or limit participation in age-appropriate activities due to problems in function in one or more of the following areas: physical, cognitive, sensory, learning, communication, social and emotional, or behavioural. Extra costs associated with raising a child with special needs often make it difficult to provide for the most basic of needs. Additional assistance and financial help are needed to meet the extra needs of children with disabilities and to support their families, regardless of their income. (Canadian Coaliton for the Rights of Children. 2003). As a community, supports for these families could be free programming that offers a nutritious snack. Map 17 shows where there are services for children with special needs in the region. More access to transportation is needed. The Selkirk and District Handi Bus is available, but they only service the west side of the Red River, therefore Wards For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 41
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report 3 and 4 are unable to access this resource. If a child is involved with Children’s Special Services through the Province of Manitoba, assistance may be available for families who need financial support to cover the costs of transportation to and from medical appointments and specialized services for their child with disabilities. This is mainly for families in rural and northern Manitoba. (Manitoba, Children's Special Services 2010). For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 42
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Libraries There are two public libraries within the UEY Selkirk-Interlake boundaries. The main public library, the Red River North Regional Library services the municipalities of Selkirk, St. Andrews and St. Clements. The location is central within the City of Selkirk and is easily accessible to Selkirk residents. There is no public transportation for residents outside the City of Selkirk which can make accessing the library for rural residents an issue. The size of the Red River North Regional Library is 5,000 sq feet which is far below recommendations. The province recommends 27,000 sq ft for the number of people living in this region. There are current plans to build a new library that will be 21,000 square feet, which is better then the current library size, but still 6,000 square feet smaller than the provincial recommendations. The size of our current library is typical for communities under 3,000 people in rural Manitoba. The limited space causes a number of concerns, such as having to limit the size of programming events for both children and adults. The building is designed for 30,000 collection items, but the library has 41,500 collection items, the recommended number for our population is for 90,000 volumes. Modern libraries can be quite noisy community places. Due to the current size of the Red River North Regional Library, it is difficult to designate areas for quiet study and for others to use for community space. Even after doubling the number of public computers to 10 adult and 3 children, there are still waiting lists which requires the library to limit public computer access to one hour at a time per person. A new library would allow double the number of public computers. The other library in the UEY Selkirk-Interlake community is Beaches Library located in Walter Whyte School. This library is a branch of the Allard Library located in St. George, Manitoba. The library services those residents living in the north eastern section of the UEY Selkirk-Interlake area. Figure 4 Figure 4 shows the increase in library memberships from 2005-2009 at the Red River North Regional Library. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 43
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Figure 5 Figure 5 shows the increase in items borrowed at the Red River North Regional Library from 2005-2009. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 44
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Map 18 shows where there are: - Computer lending resources - Toy and book lending library - Community computers - Public libraries - Resource libraries - Early literacy computers The entire region has access to these services although, location and transportation to these services may be an issue. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 45
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Recreation Recreation and physical activity are an equally important criteria to the development of young children. Children need physical activity to help develop a healthy living lifestyle. Physical development in the early years includes the development of the body, the senses, and skills such as coordination and balance. A vital component of physical maturation is motor development, which includes increases in strength, coordination and movement control. Motor development affects exploration, play and interaction with peers, which in turn influence cognitive, language and social development. (CCL, 2007). There are a number of parks in the UEY-Selkirk Interlake area which allows for inexpensive family entertainment and activities. There are many play structures within the City of Selkirk. The majority of these play structures are situated at schools which poses a problem for families wanting to use the play structures during school hours. Many other play structures in the City of Selkirk are in poor condition. Most of the play structures outside the City of Selkirk are located at schools, which again is not convenient for families wanting to use play structures during the day. If, at a conservative estimate, 20% to 25% of Canadian children are overweight or obese when they enter school, we need widespread multisectoral preventive efforts to ensure that they do not increase their risk of future problems during their school years. This will require health promotion policies in schools concerning diet and exercise, support from food industries to offer more nutritious food, support from the public and private sectors to facilitate healthy pregnancies, and local, provincial and national funding and legislation to improve the safety of neighbourhoods and increase access to playgrounds and recreational facilities. (Willms 2004). There are a number of organized sports that UEY Selkirk-Interlake children can participate in, although at times they can be expensive and not all families can afford this. As part of the UEY project, information was collected from parents, kindergarten children and their teachers on the development of children in the community, using the Parent Interviews and Direct Assessments of Children Survey (PIDACS) and the Early Development Instrument (EDI). Preliminary results of this data collection show many of the children in the region are taking part in unorganized sport and play which gives just as many benefits if not more according to Willms 2003. Willms results suggest that the benefits of participation in unorganized sport and physical activity increase with age, and are more important than involvement in organized sport. Selkirk has a number of sports facilities that can be used by families when they are not being used by an organized sports team. There are many soccer fields and baseball diamonds that can be used for recreational games. Throwing or kicking a ball around is very beneficial in helping young children develop their gross motor skills. Walking and skiing trails are another asset that UEY Selkirk-Interlake has. Some of those trails are located in Ward 3 in Grand Beach Provincial Park, but there is also a trail around Selkirk Park. Another option for families is the track at the Selkirk High School, parents can walk around the track while kids can play catch or soccer on the grassy area in the centre. In East Selkirk, there is a walking trail around the soccer fields. There are many options for UEY Selkirk-Interlake families to take part in physical activity. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 46
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Figure 6 Figure 6 shows the number of times per week kindergarten children in UEY Selkirk-Interlake were engaged in sports and other activities. On average, they were engaged in organized sports that involve a coach or instructor about 1.4 times a week, which is the same as the average of other surveyed UEY sites. The children in UEY Selkirk-Interlake were more engaged in unorganized sports (4.6 times a week). Unorganized sports do not require a coach or instructor, and can include things such as, running, swimming, or sports activities in their neighbourhood. Source: As part of the UEY project, information was collected from parents, kindergarten children and their teachers on the development of children in the community, using the Parent Interview and Direct Assessment of Children Survey (PIDACS) and the Early Development Instrument (EDI). Some of the preliminary results of this data are shown in Figure 6. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 47
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Map 19 shows the location of parks, play structures, campgrounds and picnic areas. It also shows where resources are located in proximity to young children in the region. There are many play structures in the City of Selkirk, but very few in the south rural region of UEY Selkirk-Interlake in comparison to the number of children living there. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 48
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Map 20 displays the high number of sport facilities in UEY Selkirk-Interlake. Each Ward has a variety of facilities that can be used by families for both organized and unorganized sports. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 49
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Map 20a shows a detailed view of the location of sports facilities in the City of Selkirk and where facilities are located in relation to young children in the city. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 50
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Map 21 shows the location of organized sports and recreational programs for preschool children and where those programs are located in relation to where preschool children live. Families living in the City of Selkirk or the southern region of UEY Selkirk-Interlake would be close to programs they could access. There are no organized preschool sports programs in the northern region for families. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 51
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Map 22 shows the location of: - Water parks - Walking and ski trails - Community halls - Recreation centres - Community gardens It also shows where these resources are found in relation to where young children live. There are many community halls in the region which neighbourhoods can use to plan community events. There is one water park which is located in the Grand Beach area. In 2008, Growing Years Family Resource Centre and the Chronic Disease Prevention Initiative organized its first community garden in Selkirk. It was a real community effort - St. Margaret’s Church donated the land and local businesses donated seeds. Community help was donated to prepare the land and give gardening tips to families working in the garden. The project is a hands-on opportunity for families to learn more about growing food for themselves and taking care of a plot of land. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 52
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Preventative Health Services The health of children begins in the prenatal period. Numerous studies have shown the devastating effects on intelligence and brain development due to a lack of basic nutrients in the prenatal period, in infancy and in early childhood (T. Hawley. 2000). Therefore, it is important that expectant families have access to appropriate health care as soon as possible. The majority of doctors and other preventative health services in UEY Selkirk-Interlake are located in the City of Selkirk. There is a seasonal doctor in Grand Beach, as well as in Victoria Beach. There is only one pediatrician for the 1875 children under age six in UEY Selkirk-Interlake. Since this number does not include children over age six, one pediatrician is insufficient for all 6380 children under age eighteen in our area. It is impossible for one pediatrician to be able to care for that number of children. Therefore, many families have to travel to communities outside of UEY Selkirk-Interlake to find a doctor. Map 23 shows the preventative health services in the region in relation to where the young children live. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 53
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report According to the EDI results for the Lord Selkirk School Division, many children in our area are not ready for school in the Physical Health and Well Being domain. There are a number of nutrition programs available to teach families about healthy eating, such as the Alphabet Soup parent-child program offered at Ruth Hooker School. Also, some schools have a breakfast program that provides a healthy breakfast to school-age children. Map 23a shows a detailed view of the preventative health services in the City of Selkirk and where they are located in proximity to where young children live. There are five nutrition programs available. This is important for teaching healthy eating which is essential in living a healthy lifestyle. Teaching children healthy habits early can help them continue those skills into adulthood. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 54
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Emergency Health Services There is one hospital to service the entire UEY-Selkirk Interlake area. The Selkirk & District General Hospital provides emergency care, long term care, and ambulance service. Victoria Beach has an Emergency First Response service and the Victoria Beach Police Service which are found at the same location. There are three RCMP offices in the region. The main office in Selkirk. There is a community RCMP office in Grand Marais and a traffic services office in East Selkirk. There are five fire stations in UEY Selkirk- Interlake:  City of Selkirk  Clandeboye  St. Andrews  East Selkirk  Grand Marais The 911 emergency number covers the entire UEY Selkirk-Interlake area. Map 24 shows the security services in UEY Selkirk-Interlake. There are five fire departments which cover the region. Some of these are volunteer fire departments. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 55
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Cultural and Entertainment Resources Cultural and Entertainment Resources in UEY Selkirk-Interlake include art galleries, cultural centres, theatres, museums, movie theatres and tourist centres. There are six museums in the area. The largest is Lower Fort Garry National Historic Site which is commemorated as the location where Treaty #1 was signed between the Ojibwa and Swampy Cree of Manitoba, and the Crown. It was a major business site for all in the Red River Settlement. There are two cultural centres in UEY Selkirk-Interlake. The Selkirk Friendship Centre is located in the City of Selkirk and Windy Hill Community Learning and Wellness Centre is located in the Hillside Beach area in the north western region. The Windy Hill Community Learning and Wellness Centre was developed through the Ma Mawi Wi Chi Itata Centre in Winnipeg. It offers innovative program offerings focus on personal mastery, teamwork, leadership development, cultural development, real life challenges, prevention, connecting with nature and outreach activities. (www.Mamawi.com) Map 25 shows where there are Cultural and Entertainment Resources in relation to where young children live. There are six museums, all of which are located in the south region of UEY Selkirk-Interlake. We believe that strengthening children, youth and families is a worthy investment in the future. -Windy Hill Community Learning and Wellness Centre For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 56
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Places of Worship There are forty-two churches in UEY Selkirk-Interlake and approximately thirteen of those offer Sunday school for children. The churches are widely spread throughout the area with sixteen of the churches found within the City of Selkirk city limits. Churches can offer support to families by being used as a meeting place for families with similar interests. Many churches have halls that are used for community functions. Enrolling children in Sunday school is an opportunity for children to meet new friends to learn important social skills they require when they enter kindergarten. Map 26 shows the location of churches and Sunday Schools in the UEY Selkirk-Interlake region in proximity to where young children live. Although the denomination of the churches is not shown, the region has a variety of denominations. In most areas, there is a church that would be easily accessible to families. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 57
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Public Transportation There are two forms of public transportation available in UEY Selkirk-Interlake – bus and taxi. Taxi service is available in Selkirk and Lockport. There is only one bus route in UEY Selkirk-Interlake. The route departs from the Selkirk Bus Depot, goes down Highway #9, makes a loop through Lockport then continues on Highway #9 to Winnipeg ending at Balmoral Street close to the University of Winnipeg. The bus runs frequently throughout the day, and is able to accommodate a variety of schedules. The trip from Selkirk to Winnipeg takes approximately fifty-five minutes. There are ten bus stops within the City of Selkirk which makes it convenient for families to catch the bus close to their homes. The bus route does not travel throughout all of Selkirk. This can isolate families that do not live close to Main St., as it can be too far to walk for families with younger children. The bus is also not easily accessible to any of the residents of St. Clements or the western portion of St. Andrews. Map 27 shows the Beaver Lines Bus route from Selkirk to Winnipeg. It also shows the density of families living in UEY Selkirk- Interlake. The lack of public transportation is highlighted in this map when looking at the population density. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 58
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report COMMUNITY STRENGTHS AND CHALLENGES Highlights of Community Strengths  In the UEY Selkirk-Interlake region, there is a sense of “community”. Neighbourhoods feel close-knit as neighbours know each other, socialize, and look out for one another.  Families living in this region have said they feel safe living here.  The region continues to be more “affordable” for most families to live compared to living in Winnipeg.  There are family events and other local and seasonal family-focused special events (e.g. Triple S Fair & Rodeo, Children’s Festival, Festival of Trees, Lockport Children’s Festival, Waterfront activities, National Aboriginal Solidarity Day activities, Grand Marais Family Festival, Skate with Santa, Summer Winds Music Festival, etc).  The agencies that provide programs and services to young children and their families know each and often collaborate on programs and scheduling of activities (e.g. National Child Day, SEI-ECDC calendar, Family Literacy Day, rhyming groups, etc.)  There are a variety of preschool programs available for parents and children aged 0-5. These programs provide a place for parents to go with their young children to meet other families, discuss parenting issues, and to socialize. These programs and places for young children are valued.  Many of the programs for parents and preschool children are free, thus eliminating the barrier of cost which might have prevented some families from attending.  There is a food bank and soup kitchen in Selkirk.  There is a free breakfast programs provided in some schools.  In recent years, before and after school programs have started in some schools.  With the development of the SEI-ECDC, ECD service providers have been collaborating for a number of years to support families and young children in the community.  Strong partnerships between ECD service providers operate with the understanding that future learning successes are influenced by the development of “the whole child” starting at birth.  Agencies have identified barriers to accessing early learning programs and are working to reduce these barriers.  There are a number of literacy programs available within the community for preschool, family and adult literacy.  Within a short distance, we have access to beaches, parks and trails (e.g. Grand Beach, Birds Hill Park, Selkirk Park, Oak Hammock Marsh, Winnipeg Beach, etc.).  There are many spaces where families and young children can enjoy the outdoors.  Living in rural communities provides access to the outdoors and nature. This contributes to the promotion of living a healthy, active lifestyle. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 59
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report  The Chronic Disease Prevention Initiative promotes active living programs  Most communities have an elementary schools and community halls.  Services for young children are available in communities, with some services going to children are found (e.g. speech-language, occupational therapy, physical therapy, mental health, child development workers, etc).  Families with low income are able to access subsidies for sports programs (e.g. KidSport, JumpStart)  The Selkirk Business and Professional Women’s Group is addressing the issue of affordable housing and accessibility to child care in the City of Selkirk.  Current family literacy programs are well attended.  Strong partnerships have been established to support family literacy initiatives.  Family literacy programs are being accessed by children and parents/grandparents/caregivers who can take an active role to encourage and support learning and literacy.  Parenting programs are available through Growing Years Family Resource Centre and SEI-ECDC.  Families First and Public Health connect new parents to local programs for families with young children.  The Lord Selkirk School Division has been collecting EDI data since 2002-03 and is able to study changes over time in the readiness skills of children entering Kindergarten. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 60
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Highlights of Community Challenges  The geographical distance between communities to attend programs or services is heavily reliant on owning a vehicle. This makes social isolation of families an issue.  While parents feel that most people in our community are family-friendly, there is room for improvement in creating communities that welcome and value young children.  There is a need for more walking trails in and around our communities.  There is a need for improved stroller and wheelchair accessibility in the community.  Without child-minding, many parents are unable participate in recreation activities for themselves. Between employment and parenting many parents have few or no opportunities to “recharge” themselves.  Families want more family-oriented activities, including multi-generational (not just age-specific) programs and events.  While there are several play structures for children in the City of Selkirk, there needs to be more maintenance of these structures to ensure safety for all children.  In rural communities, there are few playgrounds other than the ones attached to a school  There are very few gathering places for families – parents want a “place to go to” with their young children, close to where they live, where they can meet other families, and children can visit and play safely.  Many parents want a community/recreation centre (including a year round pool) that is used for a variety of activities (not just sports). There are few indoor places for young children to play and run during the winter months.  Parents who have recently moved to the community express their challenge finding information about programs and services available for families.  There are gaps in programs/services, including: available childcare, indoor programs, and evening and weekend programs for employed parents.  There is a demand for more child care spaces (e.g. spaces which are open earlier and later for shift workers, before and after school programs, weekend child care, etc)  Parents from small communities must travel to participate in programs and services.  Some families are not aware of programs available locally, particularly when new to the area or are first time parents. More or better communication with parents is needed.  Many residents express a concern that there is a shortage of family doctors in the region.  Transportation, particularly during winter months, remains an issue in terms of accessing services and programs. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 61
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report  The Early Development Instrument identifies Physical Health & Well-Being and Communication and General Knowledge as consistently having many children in the ‘not ready’ category. ECD programs need to focus on skills in these areas to increase the readiness of children before they enter school.  There are not enough early years’ programs available for the number of children. Most programs in the Selkirk area are full and have a waiting list.  There is a need for more connection between ECD service providers and Kindergarten teachers.  Sidewalk curbs need to be sloped to accommodate strollers and wheelchairs. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 62
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report COMMUNITY DEMOGRAPHICS The 2006 Census results from Statistics Canada were used to look at the demographics of the UEY Selkirk- Interlake community. This information can be used to identify where there is need in the community. Census information reviewed for this report include:  Population Mobility  Education  Employment  Family Income  Family Structure  Ethnic and Linguistic Diversity  Government Transfer Payments  Housing Ownership These demographics are all aspects that make up a community and help it develop appropriate programs and resources. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 63
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Population Mobility UEY Selkirk-Interlake has a relatively low population mobility. In 2005, 10% of the population of UEY Selkirk-Interlake moved while the national average was 14.1%. This shows that, as a whole, the region has stable neighbourhoods in terms of people staying in one place for a longer period of time. When people stay in a neighbourhood for a longer period of time, it is more likely they will know their neighbours, build relationships, and want to invest in their neighbourhood. Changing residences can be viewed as a major stressor for children that probably presents more challenges and needed adjustments for them than it does for adults, not only because children may have fewer coping abilities, but also because they must also adapt to a new school and neighborhood environments. (Ersing et. al, 2009) Map 28 shows the percentage of people who moved from their homes in 2005. The greatest mobility was in ward 5b, while the least mobility was in ward 1 (St. Andrews South). For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 64
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Education More than half of all adults in UEY Selkirk-Interlake have some post-secondary education at 51.4%, which is higher than the Manitoba average of 49.8% but lower than the Canadian average of 56%. On the other hand, nearly a quarter of the adults in the region have no high school certificate at 22.5% which is slightly higher than the Canadian average of 20.5% but lower than the Manitoba average of 25.6%. Education can be an important aspect in child rearing. More educated parents tend to devote more time to childcare. They may do so because they aim at children’s of higher “quality” or because they are more aware of the positive impact of parent-child shared activities on children’s development. As a result of the increase in the average educational level of the population, we may, therefore, expect an increase in parental time. (Gauthier et. al, 2004). The Selkirk & District Learning Centre offers many training and educational opportunities for adults, such as employment programs, computer training, high school upgrading, post secondary education, and a computer lending library which allows families to borrow a computer for a defined period of time. This facility is an asset to the community and gives parents an opportunity to improve their education. This can benefit not only the parents, but the children they are raising. Figure 7 Figure 7 shows a comparison of the percentage of adults age twenty-five and older in UEY Selkirk Interlake that: - do not have a high school diploma - have a high school education - have some post secondary education For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 65
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Map 29 shows location of adults age twenty-five and over that have some post- secondary education. The highest percentage of adults with some post-secondary education live in Wards 1 and 5c, the lowest percentage are in ward5a. Health and learning are closely intertwined and the interaction between them is evident at all ages, from early childhood through to the later stages in life. The equation is a simple one: the higher a person’s education status and ability to learn about health, the better the person’s health. - Health Literacy in Canada (2007) For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 66
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Map 30 shows the location of adults age twenty-five and older that do not have a high school diploma. The highest percentage of adults with less than a high school education are in Ward 5a, the lowest number are in Ward 1. Reading aloud: - teaches a baby about communication (i.e. fluency, tone, expression) - introduces concepts such as numbers, letters, colors and shapes in a fun way - builds listening, memory, and vocabulary skills - gives babies information about the world around them For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 67
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Employment The unemployment rate in UEY Selkirk-Interlake is low at 4.8% compared to both the Canadian and Manitoba average at 6.6% and 5.5% respectively. This is a stable factor in the community. Since the unemployment rate is lower in the region, it should be taken into account when planning programs for families. With many parents working, having evening and weekend programs available is important. Child care is also an issue. As mentioned before, there are 286 licensed child care spaces in UEY Selkirk- Interlake and there are approximately 1875 children under age six. It is a positive aspect of the community to have a lower unemployment rate but in order to support these families, they need to have the option of childcare so they can work if they choose. Some families worry that working will take too much time away from the time they spend with their children. Research shows that paid work does not appear to substantially impinge on the investment that parents are making in children - at least not directly. Employed parents do devote slightly less time to their children than nonemployed parents, but the difference is small compared to the difference in time devoted to paid work. (Gauthier et.al, 2004). Map 31 shows the unemployment rate in the UEY Selkirk-Interlake region. The highest percentage of unemployed individuals are in Wards 3 and 5a, the lowest percentage of unemployed individuals are in ward 2. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 68
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Family Incomes We chose to show the after tax incomes of families as it is more representative of what families are actually dealing with financially. The 2006 Census collected the after-tax income of families for the first time this census period because after-tax income more accurately depicts what families have available to spend. Based on after-tax income, the income gap between different types of families is smaller than if it is based on before-tax income, because after-tax income reflects the fact that people with higher incomes generally pay taxes at a higher rate (Statistics Canada, 2009) The average after-tax family income of UEY Selkirk-Interlake is $64,375, and the median after tax family income is $58, 284. See page 70 for UEY Selkirk-Interlake, Manitoba and Canadian income comparisons. When looking at income we chose Statistics Canada Economic family data. An Economic Family refers to a group of two or more persons who live in the same dwelling and are related to each other by blood, marriage, common-law or adoption. A couple may be of opposite or same sex. For 2006, foster children are included. (Statistics Canada, 2007) Map 32 shows the after tax average family income. The highest average income is in Ward 1, the lowest average income is in Ward 5a. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 69
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Figure 8 Figure 8 shows the before tax and after tax median incomes of UEY Selkirk- Interlake’s families. Figure 9 Figure 9 shows the before and after tax average incomes of UEY Selkirk- Interlake’s families. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 70
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Map 33 shows the after tax median family income in the UEY Selkirk-Interlake region. It varies slightly from the average after tax family income in that Map 32. Both Wards 1 and 4 have the highest median income, while Ward 5a has the lowest median family income. The median value is found by arranging all values from lowest to highest and selecting the middle value. Medians were chosen over averages to map income levels as they tend to be more representative of the incomes of community members as they are less influenced/skewed by incomes that are far above or below typical incomes. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 71
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Map 34 shows the median after tax income of female lone parents in the UEY Selkirk-Interlake region. Female, single parents had the highest median income in Ward 3, while the lowest median income is in Ward 5b. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 72
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Map 35 shows the median after tax income of families headed by a male lone parent. There are a few wards for which there is no data. Generally, this is because there are so few male lone parents that a median income amount could not be given. Male lone parents had the highest median income in Ward 4, and had the lowest median income in Ward 3. Male lone parents made significantly more than female lone parents. See Map 34 for comparison. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 73
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Prevalence of Low Income Statistics Canada determines if a person is living in low income by family size and whether they live in rural or urban areas. For example, a family of seven would have a different low income cut-off than a family of two living in the same community. During the past 25 years, the before-tax low income rate for children changed very little. In 2005, 19.3% of pre-schoolers and 17.0% of school-age children lived in low income families, compared to 20.0% and 18.7%, respectively, in 1980 (Statistics Canada, 2008). The prevalence of children living in low income in the UEY Selkirk-Interlake community varies from one region to another. Throughout the region, 15.6% of children under age six are living in low income before tax. While this is lower than the 19.3% of Canadian children, there is an alarming 33.5% of the City of Selkirk children living in low income before tax. (As with the family income, the maps are made with the after tax number. Page 76 shows both the before and after tax numbers.) Empirical evidence suggests that low SES may have an adverse influence on child development by exacerbating family stresses that reduce the effective functioning of parents. (Conger 2007). Map 36 shows the percentage of individuals in UEY Selkirk-Interlake who are living in low income after tax. The greatest percentage of individuals living in low income are in Ward 5a, while least are in Ward 1. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 74
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Map 37 shows the percentage of children under age six living in low income after tax. The greatest percentage of children living in low income is in Ward 5c, while the least are in Wards 1, 3 and 4, with no children living in low income after tax. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 75
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Figure 10 Prevalaence of low income Figure 10 shows the comparison of individuals living in low income households before and after tax. Figure 11 Prevalence of Low Income Figure 11 shows the comparison of children under age six living in low income households before and after tax. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 76
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Family Structure Dual parent families outnumber single parent families in UEY Selkirk-Interlake, with 14.6 % of the families being headed by a lone parent. This is lower than both the Canadian and Manitoban percentages at 15.9% and 17% respectively. This number varies dramatically between the rural and urban areas of the region. The number of lone parents in the City of Selkirk is approximately 27%, nearly double the UEY Selkirk- Interlake’s average. Father’s are being more involved in child care than ever before. Full-time employed married (or cohabiting) fathers whose youngest child is under five have increased their allocation to childcare activities from 0.6 hours per day in 1971 to 1.4 hours in 1998. (Gauthier et. al, 2004). The above numbers indicate that fathers are more than doubling the amount of time they spend with their children than they did 40 years ago. This is perhaps because more women have entered the work force in the past 40 years and parent’s are taking more of a shared role in child care. Map 38 shows the percentage of lone parent families in the UEY Selkirk-Interlake region. The greatest percentage of lone parent families are in Ward 5a, while the fewest are in Ward 3. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 77
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Figure 12 Figure 12 shows the Family Structure in UEY Selkirk-Interlake. The greatest number of: - dual parent families are in Ward 1 (1195) - lone parent families are in Ward 5b (380) - female lone parents are in Ward 5b (290) - male lone parents are in Ward 5b (85) For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 78
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Map 39 shows the percentage of female lone parents in the UEY Selkirk-Interlake region. The highest percentage of female lone parents is in Ward 5a, while the lowest percentage is in Ward 3. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 79
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Map 40 shows the percentage of families headed by a male lone parent in the UEY Selkirk-Interlake region. The highest percentage of male lone parents is in Ward 5b, while the lowest percentage is in Ward 2. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 80
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Ethnic and Linguistic Diversity There is a small percentage of people in UEY-Selkirk Interlake who do not speak English or French. The highest percentage is in Ward 2 where there is a large German speaking population. The UEY Selkirk- Interlake population of 0.18% that does not speak English or French is significantly lower than Canada’s average of 1.67% Map 41 shows the percentage of individuals in UEY Selkirk-Interlake that do not speak either of the national languages, English or French. The majority of people in the region speak one of the two official languages. There is a small percentage of the population that do not speak either language. The highest percentage is in Ward 2, then Ward 1 and 5b respectively. Tip: Help children learn a second language by expanding on what they say. Add one or two words to make their phrase or sentence more complete or to include a new idea. When children hear their own ideas expressed in slightly more complex ways, they learn new vocabulary as well as how to express themselves using more mature language. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 81
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Immigration UEY Selkirk-Interlake has a significantly lower immigration rate than the rest of Canada and Manitoba. The highest area of immigration, Ward 5a, is half of Manitoba’s percentage of immigration for the time period. Figure 13 Figure 13 shows the percentage of immigration in UEY Selkirk-Interlake. There is a very low immigration rate in UEY Selkirk-Interlake compared to national and provincial percentages. The ward with the highest percentage of immigration in the region is ward 5a with approximately 1.5%. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 82
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Aboriginal Resources UEY Selkirk-Interlake has an aboriginal population of 17.1%, while the City of Selkirk has an aboriginal population of 27.3%. Manitoba’s aboriginal population is 15.4%. It is, therefore, important for the UEY Selkirk-Interlake community to have sufficient cultural resources. For First Nations, Inuit and Métis, learning through experience - including learning from the land, elders, traditions and ceremonies, and parental and family supports - is a widespread, vital form of learning. (Canadian Council on Learning 2007). There is one cultural centre in the City of Selkirk, the Selkirk Friendship Centre. The Windy Hill Learning and Wellness Centre is another cultural centre which is located in Hillside Beach. Map 42 shows the percentage of the aboriginal population in UEY Selkirk- Interlake. The highest percentage of aboriginal people is in Ward 5a, and the lowest percentage is Ward 4. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 83
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Government Transfer Payments Government Transfer payments refer to all cash benefits received from federal, provincial, territorial or municipal governments during 2005. Types of government transfer payments are:  Old Age Security pension and Guaranteed Income Supplement Allowance and Allowance for the Survivor  Benefits from Canada or Quebec Pension Plan  Benefits from Employment Insurance  Child benefits  Other income from government sources The 9.8% of all economic families receiving government transfer payments in UEY Selkirk- Interlake is comparable to the 9.9% Canadian average, and lower than the Manitoba average of 10.9%. There are some similarities between the unemployment rate in the region and the areas that receive higher percentage of government transfer payments. Map 43 shows the percentage of individuals receiving government transfer payments. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 84
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Home Ownership The majority of families in UEY-Selkirk Interlake own their homes (83.8%). In 2005, the Canadian average was 68.4%. Home ownership is one factor that can show stability in a neighbourhood. Home owning should be encouraged because owners take greater responsibility for their families, their communities, and their country and provide a better environment for their children (Green 1997). Map 44 shows the percentage of individuals and families who own their home in the UEY Selkirk-Interlake region. The highest percentage of people who own their homes were in Ward 2 and the lowest was in Ward 5a. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 85
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 86
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report WHAT DOES THE EVIDENCE TELL US? Highlights of Findings  The population of UEY-Selkirk Interlake is 27,705. 1875 are children age six and under which makes up 6.8% of the population.  There are 8365 families in UEY Selkirk-Interlake. 4910 (58.7%) of those families have children at home.  In the 2005-06 school year, there were 305 children registered in kindergarten in the Lord Selkirk School Division. In 2008-09, there were 268 kindergarten students registered, a decline of 37students, which represents enough students for two kindergarten classes. Although there has not been a reduction in the number of classes, class size has been reduced in some schools.  There are 286 licensed child care spaces in UEY Selkirk-Interlake.  UEY Selkirk-Interlake has a relatively low population mobility. For 2005, 10% of the population moved, while the national average was 14.1%.  More than half the adults in UEY Selkirk-Interlake have some post-secondary education at 51.4%. This is higher than the Manitoba average of 49.8% but lower than the Canadian average of 56%.  Nearly a quarter of the adults in the region have no high school certificate (22.5%). This is slightly higher than the Canadian average of 20.5% but lower than the Manitoba average of 25.6%.  The unemployment rate in UEY Selkirk-Interlake is low at 4.8% compared to both the Canadian and Manitoba average at 6.6% and 5.5% respectively.  According to preliminary data results for PIDACS, 17% of the mothers surveyed in UEY Selkirk Interlake were displaying strong signs of depression which is significantly higher than the 10% of mothers in other 2007 UEY sites.  There is only one pediatrician for the 1875 children under age six in UEY Selkirk-Interlake.  The Red River North Regional Library is 5,000 sq feet, far below provincial recommendations. The province recommends 27,000 sq ft for the number of people living in the community.  There are approximately forty-two churches in UEY Selkirk-Interlake.  The average after-tax family income of UEY Selkirk-Interlake is $64,375 and the median after tax family income is $58, 284.  15.6% of children under age six are living in low income before tax. This is lower than the 19.3% of Canadian children. There is an alarming number of 33.5% of children in the City of Selkirk who are living in low income before tax.  14.6 % of the families are headed by a lone parent. This is lower than both the Canadian and Manitoban percentages at 15.9% and 17% respectively. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 87
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report  The number of lone parents in the City of Selkirk is approximately 27%, nearly double the UEY Selkirk-Interlake’s average of 14.6%.  The UEY Selkirk-Interlake population of 0.18% that does not speak English or French is significantly lower than Canada’s average of 1.67%.  UEY Selkirk-Interlake has an aboriginal population of 17.1%, while the City of Selkirk has an aboriginal population of 27.3%. The aboriginal population of Manitoba is 15.4%.  The 9.8% of all economic families receiving government transfer payments in UEY Selkirk-Interlake is comparable to the 9.9% Canadian average, and lower than the Manitoba average of 10.9%.  The majority of families in UEY Selkirk-Interlake own their homes at 83.8% in 2005. The Canadian average is 68.4%. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 88
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report NEXT STEPS Community Action Planning This mapping report is snapshot in time in terms of what the UEY Selkirk-Interlake region has to offer now and what the community demographics were in the 2006 Census. Communities are ever changing. Therefore, it is impossible to give a complete picture of a community at any given time. This mapping report shows information that was available to UEY Selkirk-Interlake at the time the report was written. The information in the report can be used to develop program ideas, identify where the community needs are, and identify who will benefit from the resources. For more information on action planning in UEY Selkirk-Interlake, see the Community Action Plan developed by UEY Selkirk-Interlake. It can be found at www.lssd.ca/ueyselkirkinterlake. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 89
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 90
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report REFERENCES Beach, J., Friendly, M., Ferns, C., Prabhu., Forer, B. Early Childhood Education and Care in Canada 2008. Toronto: Childcare Resource and Research Unit, 2009. Canadian Coalition for the Rights of Children. "The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. How Does Canada Measure up?" Update to Canada's Report to the UN Committee for the Rights of Children, May 2003. Canadian Council on Learning. "Health Literacy in Canada: Initial results from the International Adult Literacy and Skills Survey." Ottawa, 2007. Canadian Council on Learning. "Redefining How Success is Measured in First Nations, Inuit and Metis Learning." Report on Learning in Canada, Ottawa, 2007. Canadian Council on Learning. "Report on the State of Early Childhood Learning in Canada." Report on Learning in Canada, Ottawa, 2007. Canadian Council on Learning. "State of Learning in Canada: No Time for Complacency." Report on Learning in Canada, Ottawa, 2007. Conger, R. D., Donnellan, M. B. "An Interactionist Perspective on the Socioeconomic Context of Human Development." Annual Review Psychology, 58, 2007: 175-199. Ersing, R. L., Sutphen, R. D., Loeffler, D. N.,. "Exploring the Impact and Implications of Residential Mobility: From the Neighbourhood to the School." Advances in Social Work, 10(1), Spring 2009: 1-18. Gauthier, A. H., Smeeding, T. M., Furstenberg, F., Jr. Do we invest less time in children? Trends in parental time in selected industrialized countries since the 1960's. Centre for Policy Research Working Paper No.64, New York: Center for Policy Research Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University, June 2004. Government of Manitoba. Children's Special Services. 2010. http://www.gov.mb.ca/fs/pwd/pubs/chld_special_serv_bookle_en.pdf (accessed March 2010). —. Triple P Positive Parenting Program. 2010. http://www.gov.mb.ca/triplep/ (accessed March 2010). Green, R. K., White, M. J.,. "Measuring the Benefits of Homeowning: Effects on Children." Journal of Urban Economics, 41, 1997: 441-461. Harvey, L. Children with Disabilities and the Families in Canada. National Children's Alliance, 2002. Hawley, T., Gunner M. "Starting Smart How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development 2nd Edition." Ounce of Prevention Fund and ZERO TO THREE, 2000. Janus, M., Duku, E. "The School Entry Gap: Socioeconomic, Family and Health Factors Associated with Children's School Readiness to Learn." Early Education and Development 18(3), 2007: 375-403. Janus, M., Kopechanski, L., Cameron, R., Hughes, D. "In Transition: Experiences of Parents of Children with Special Needs at School Entry." Early Childhood Education Journal, 35, 2008: 479-485. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 91
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Lien, H. M., Wu, W. C., Lin, C. C. New Evidence on the Link between Housing Environment and Children's Educational Attainments: The Case of Taiwan. 2007. http://www.asres2007.umac.mo/papers/253%20- %20PAPER.pdf (accessed March 2010). Ma Mawi Wi Chi Itata Centre. Ma Mawi Wi Chi Itata Centre. http://mamawi.com/ (accessed March 2010). McCain, M. N., Mustard F. J., Shanker, S. Putting Science into Action. Early Years Study 2, Toronto: Council for Early Child Development, 2007. McCain, M., Mustard, F. J. "Reversing the Real Brain Drain." Early Years Study Final Report, Toronto, 1999. McMaster University. CanChild Centre for Childhood Disability Research. http://www.canchild.ca/en/ (accessed March 2010). Mustard, F. J. "Investing in the Early Years: Closing the Gap between what we know and what we do." Adelaide Thinker in Residence, 2008. National Crime Prevention Centre. Family-Based Risk and Protective Factors and their Effects on Juvenile Delinquency: What do we Know? Building the Evidence - Youth at Risk., Public Safety Canada, 2008-YR-01. Olds, D. L., Henderson, C. R. Jr., Phelps, C., Kitzman, H., & Hanks, C. "Effect of prenatal and infancy nurse home visitation on government spending." Medical Care, 31 (2), 1993: 155-174. Peisner-Feinberg, E.S., Burchinal, M. R., Clifford, R. M., Culkin, M. L., Howes, C., Kagan, S. L., Yazejian, N., Byler, P., Rustici, J., & Zelazo, J. The children of the cost, quality, and outcomes study go to school. Technical Report, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center: Chapel Hill, 2000. Sampson, R., S. Raudenbush and F. Earls. "Neighborhoods and Violent Crime: a Multilevel Study of Collective Efficacy." Science, 227(532), 1997: 918-924. Smith, D. 2004. Parenting and Delinquency at Ages 12 to 15. The Edinburgh Study for Youth Transition and Crime (No. 3), Edinburgh: The University of Edinburgh Centre for Law and Society, 2004. Statistics Canada. 2006 Census Release Topics. http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/rt- td/index-eng.cfm (accessed 2010). —. Earnings and Incomes of Canadians over the past Quarter Century. 10 13, 2009. http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/as-sa/97-563/p35-eng.cfm (accessed March 2010). —. Economic Family. June 26, 2007. http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/ref/dict/fam011- eng.cfm (accessed March 2010). —. Family Earnings. 10 13, 2009. http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/as-sa/97-563/p1- eng.cfm#fam_earnings (accessed March 2010). —. Income and Earnings. May 2008. http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/rt-td/inc-rev- eng.cfm (accessed March 2010). Temblay, M.S. and Willms, J.D. "Is the Candadian childhood obesity epidemic related to physical inactivity." International Journal of Obesity, 27 (9), 2003: 1100-1105. For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 92
  • UEY Selkirk-Interlake Community Mapping Report Turner, M., Hartman, J., Bishop, D. "The Effects of Prenatal Problems, Family Functioning, and Neighborhood Disadvantage in Predicting Life-Course-Persistent Offending." Criminal Justice and Behaviour, 34, 2007: 1241-1261. UEY Selkirk-Interlake. "Inventory of Community Services and Programs 2nd Edition." 2009. Willms, J. D. "Early childhood obesity: a call for early surveillance and preventive measures." Canadian Medical Association Journal, 171 (3), 2004: 243-244. Willms, J. D., KSI Research Internation Inc. "Reading Achievement in Canada and the United States: Findings from the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment, Final Report." University of Northern British Columbia. May 2004. http://www.unb.ca/crisp/pdf/0404.pdf (accessed March 2010). Windy Hill Community Learning and Wellness Centre. "Windy Hill Community Learning and Wellness Centre brochure." Mamawi. 2007. http://mamawi.com/files/Windy_Hill_Brochure_Final_2007.pdf (accessed March 2010). For more information on UEY Selkirk-Interlake wards see pages 16 - 22 of this report Page 93