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1. World Energy

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World Energy

World Energy

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  • 1. JAMES A. CRAIG OMEGA 2011
  • 2.  World Energy Production  World Energy Consumption  Types of Energy  Biomass  Hydropower  Nuclear  Renewable (Geothermal, Wind, Solar)  Fossil  Future Energy Use
  • 3.  Energy production has steadily increased.  According to US DOE  215.4 quadrillion BTU in 1970.  417.1 quadrillion BTU in 2003.  Primary energy has increased by 94% from 1970 to 2003.
  • 4. World primary energy production by source (1970 – 2003) Source: US DOE (Annual Energy Review, 2004)
  • 5. Top energy producing countries (2003) Source: US DOE (Annual Energy Review, 2004)
  • 6.  Energy consumption is directly related to quality of life.  Quality of life is quantified (by UN) using HDI (Human Development Index).  Factors considered in HDI include:  Life expectancy  Education  GDP – output of goods & services (economic growth).
  • 7. UN HDI versus annual energy consumed per capita (1999) Sources: UN Human Development Report (2001) & US DOE (2002)
  • 8. World primary energy consumption by region (1980 – 2003) Source: US DOE (International Energy Annual, 2003)
  • 9.  Types to consider:  Biomass  Hydropower  Nuclear  Renewable (Geothermal, Wind, Solar)  Fossil
  • 10.  Biomass (biological mass) refers to organic material (e.g. plant, animal waste, wood, algae & seaweed, and garbage).  They are basically used for lighting, cooking, heating, & making simple artefacts.  Biomass can be converted to biofuel by thermochemical conversion and biochemical conversion.
  • 11. Thermochemical Conversion  Heating biomass in an oxygen-free or low-oxygen atmosphere.  Materials are transformed into simpler substances that can be used as fuels.  Examples include charcoal and methanol.  Anaerobic digestion (in sewage treatment plants) is used to generate methane gas.
  • 12. Biochemical Conversion  Uses enzymes, fungi, or other microorganisms.  High-moisture biomass is converted into liquid or gaseous fuels.  Example includes using bacteria to convert manure, agricultural wastes, paper, and algae into methane.  Using yeast to decompose carbohydrates (e.g. corn and sugar), yielding ethyl alcohol (ethanol). Ethanol can be mixed with gasoline to create gasohol.
  • 13.  Disadvantages of Biomass  Deforestation from cutting down trees, which can in turn leads to soil erosion and mudslides.  Pollution of environment from burning of wood.
  • 14.  Hydropower was originally used to turn waterwheels of mills to grind grains.  Dams (hydropower plants) are built to convert the energy of flowing water into mechanical energy (turning turbines) to create electricity.  In 2006, the world’s largest dam (3 Gorges Dam) was completed on the Yangtze River, China. Capacity is 84.7 billion kWh/year of electricity. Size Electricity Generating Capacity (MW) Micro < 0.1 Small 0.1 – 30 Large > 30
  • 15.  Advantage  Low operating costs.  Disadvantages  Expensive to build  Drought conditions can affect water supply  Reliance on rain and melting snow  Environmental concerns (ruined streams, dried up waterfalls, and altered aquatic habitats).
  • 16.  Nuclear energy can be obtained from 2 principal types of reactions:  Fission – splitting of 1 large nucleus into 2 smaller nuclei.  Fusion – joining of 2 small nuclei into 1 large nucleus.  Nuclear reactors are designed primarily for electricity generation.  They also provide power for ships (submarines & aircraft carriers) and serve as training & research facilities .
  • 17. Pressurized water reactor Source: US DOE (DOE/EP0026, 1981)
  • 18. The Palo Verde Nuclear Power Facility in Arizona, USA.
  • 19. Core of the reactor
  • 20. Top 10 producers of electrical energy from nuclear energy (2000) Source: US DOE (EIA website, 2002)
  • 21. Dependence of nations on nuclear energy (2000) Source: US DOE (EIA website, 2002)
  • 22.  Advantages  A long-term source of abundant energy  Power plants do not produce greenhouse gases (CO2 and methane).  Disadvantages  Waste disposal: end products of nuclear fission are highly radioactive and have half-life in thousands of years.  Nuclear plants can contaminate air, water, the ground, and the biosphere.
  • 23.  Renewable energy is naturally regenerated.  Sources include:  Geothermal – heat of the earth.  Wind  Solar – the sun  Sometimes, hydropower and biomass are included in this category.
  • 24.  Geothermal energy is the natural, internal heat of Earth trapped in rock formations deep underground.  Only a fraction of it can be extracted.  Examples are hot springs, geysers, and fumaroles.  Hot water or steam from these sources are used for heating buildings and processing food.
  • 25.  Pressurized hot water or steam can be directed toward turbines for electricity generation.  Geothermal energy is usable only when it is concentrated in one spot (thermal reservoir).  There are 4 types of reservoirs:  Hydrothermal reservoirs  Dry rock reservoirs  Geopressurized reservoirs  Magma
  • 26. Hydrothermal Reservoirs  Underground pools of hot water covered by a permeable formation through which steam escapes.  At the surface, the steam is purified and piped directly to electrical generating station.  Cheapest and simplest form of geothermal energy. Dry Rock  Most common geothermal sources.  Typical more than 6,000 ft below the surface.  Water is injected into hot rock formations and the resulting steam or water is collected.
  • 27. Geopressurized Reservoirs  They contain hot water & methane gas.  Supplies of geopressurized energy remain uncertain.  Drilling is expensive. Magma  Molten or partially liquefied rock.  Found from 10,000 ft – 30,000 ft below the surface.  Temperature ranges from 900 oC – 1,205 oC.  Extraction is still in the experimental stages.
  • 28.  Disadvantages  Geothermal plants are not efficient.  They must be built near a geothermal source, so accessibility to consumers is a challenge.  Noise pollution.  Harmful pollutants may be released: NH3, H2S, arsenic, boron, & radon.  Collapse of the land & water shortages due to massive water withdrawal.
  • 29.  Historical applications include sailing and driving windmills.  Early windmills were used to pump water and grind grain in mills.  When “harvested” by turbines, wind can be used to generate electricity.  A wind farm (or park) is a collection of wind turbines. The areal extent of the farm depends on the radius of the rotor blades.
  • 30.  Advantages  Clean energy. No emission of greenhouse gases.  Disadvantages  Rotating blades can kill birds, interfering with migration patterns of birds.  Noise pollution.
  • 31. A wind farm in Albany
  • 32.  The luminosity of sun ≈ 3.8 x 1026 W.  Radiation from sun is comparable to the radiation emitted by a black body at 6,000 oK.  Solar constant (≈ 1,370 W/m2) is the amount of radiation from the sun that reaches the earth’s atmosphere.  In the atmosphere, solar radiation can be absorbed or scattered away from the earth’s surface by atmospheric particles (air, water vapour, dust particles, and aerosols).
  • 33. Passive solar  Building design with environmental factors that enable the capture or exclusion of solar energy.  Mechanical devices are not used in applications.  Examples are roof overhang & thermal insulation.
  • 34. Roof overhang L S W  tan  S tan W Thermal insulation H wall Thigh  Tlow  Twall  kwall A  kwall A hwall hwall
  • 35. Active solar  Building design & construction of systems that collect and convert solar energy into other forms of energy (heat & electrical energy).  Mechanical devices are used in applications.  Examples are solar heat collector & solar power plant.
  • 36. Solar heat collector
  • 37. Solar power plant
  • 38.  Fossils are dead, decayed, & transformed organisms (plants & animals).  Fossil energy comes from the combustion of fossil fuels.  Fossil fuels include:  Coal  Hydrocarbon (crude oil & natural gas)  Fuel fuels are still the primary fuels for generating power.
  • 39. Fossils
  • 40.  Coal is a black, combustible, mineral solid.  Coal is formed from organic debris by coalification     process. It developed over millions of years in an airless space under increased temperature & pressure. Organisms that form coal include: algae, zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria decay of plants, & animals. Coal is used as a fuel and in the production of coal gas, water gas, coal-tar compounds, & coke. There are 4 types of coal: anthracite, bituminous, subbituminous, & lignite.
  • 41. Anthracite  Hard coal & jet-black. Highest ranked.  Moisture content < 15%  Heating value ≈ 22 million – 28 million BTU/ton.  Used for electricity generation & space heating. Bituminous  Soft coal, dense & black.  Moisture content < 20%  Heating value ≈ 19 million – 30 million BTU/ton.  Used for electricity generation, space heating, & coke production.
  • 42. Sub-bituminous  Dull black. Also known as black lignite.  Moisture content = 20% – 30%  Heating value ≈ 16 million – 24 million BTU/ton.  Used for electricity generation & space heating. Lignite  Brownish-black. Lowest ranked.  Moisture content high  Heating value ≈ 9 million – 17 million BTU/ton.  Used for electricity generation.
  • 43. Coal Mining  The method used depends on the terrain & the depth of the coal. There are 2 methods:  Underground Mining – coal depth > 200 ft below surface. Some coal must be left untouched to form pillars that prevent the mines from caving in. Popular till early 1970s.  Surface Mining – coal depth < 200 ft. There 2 types: area surface mining & contour surface mining.  Coal is transported to consumers by ground transportation, especially by trains.
  • 44. Shaft mine (underground)
  • 45. Slope mine (underground)
  • 46. Drift mine (underground)
  • 47. Area surface mine (surface)
  • 48. Contour mine (surface)
  • 49. Top coal producing countries (2003) Top coal consuming countries (2003)
  • 50.  Hydrocarbons are organic compounds, composed entirely of carbon and hydrogen.  They may also contain impurities like sulphur, nitrogen, oxygen, & metals.  Another name for hydrocarbon is petroleum. Element Carbon Composition (% by mass) 84 – 87% Hydrogen 11 – 14% Sulphur 0.6 – 8% Nitrogen 0.02 – 1.7% Oxygen 0.08 – 1.8% Metals 0 – 0.14%
  • 51. Phases of Hydrocarbon  Gas – natural gas (free or associated)  Liquid – crude oil  Solid – tar sand, asphalt, pitch blend, waxy crude Components (%) Phase Carbon Hydrogen Sulphur Nitrogen Oxygen Gas 65 – 80 1 – 25 Traces 1 – 15 -- Liquid 82 – 87 11 – 15 0.1 – 6 0.1 – 1.5 0.1 – 4.5 Solid 80 – 85 8 – 11 2–8 0–2 --
  • 52. Content (% in Volume) Constituents Wet Dry Hydrocarbons Methane 84.6 96 Ethane 6.4 2 Propane 5.3 0.6 i-Butane 1.2 0.18 n-Butane 1.4 0.12 i-Pentane 0.4 0.14 n-Pentane 0.2 0.06 Hexanes 0.4 0.01 Heptanes 0.1 0.08 Non-Hydrocarbons Carbon Dioxide 0.5 Helium 0.05 Hydrogen Sulphide 0.5 Nitrogen 0.1 Argon 0.005 Radon, Krypton, Xenon Traces Composition of typical natural gas
  • 53. Classes of Hydrocarbon  Paraffins  Saturated hydrocarbons  CnH2n+2  Examples are methane (CH4) & ethane (C2H6).  Naphthenes  Saturated hydrocarbons with a ring structure.  CnH2n  Example is cyclopentane (C5H10).  Aromatic  Unsaturated hydrocarbons with one or more carbon rings.  Example is benzene (C6H6).
  • 54. Major Impurities & Their Sources  H2 – volcanic activity releases & radioactivity.  N2 – atmospheric; carried by run of water.  CO2 – since hydrocarbon is a covalent bond, ions released can combine to form CO2.  H2S – free sulphur plus hydrogen.  He – radioactivity from volcanic activity.  S – free sulphur.
  • 55. Effects of Major Impurities  H2 – reduces gas combustibility. Forms water.  N2 – affects Energy output per unit volume.  CO2 – negligible effect.  H2S – causes bronchi constriction.  He – negligible effect.  S – causes coking & plugging, increases power consumption in refinery cost, reduces crude oil value.
  • 56. Fluid Classifications Phase No surface liquids Wet gas > 100,000 Condensate 3,000 – 100,000 Volatile oil 1,500 – 3,000 Black oil 100 – 1,500 Heavy oil Liquid Separator GOR (SCF/STB) Dry gas Gas Fluid Type 0  Also, natural gas can be classified by quality:  Sweet gas – little or no H2S present in the gas.  Sour gas – appreciable amount of H2S present in the gas.
  • 57. Density of Crude Oil O API  141.5  131.5 S .G.@60 o F O Baume  140  130 S .G.@60 o F  Degree API is widely used.  10 – 20 oAPI ► Heavy crude.  20 – 30 oAPI ► Medium crude.  30 – 40 oAPI ► Light crude.  > 40 oAPI ► Very light crude and condensate
  • 58. Density of Gas (Gas Specific Gravity) M a  gas  M a  gas  g   M a  air  29  Ma = apparent molecular weight. Nc M a   yi M i i 1  Nc = number of components  yi = mole fraction of component i  Mi = molecular weight of component i
  • 59. Uses of Hydrocarbons  Energy – to run internal combustion (IC) engines.  IC engines are found in automobiles, ships, tractors, generators, & armoured tanks.  Raw materials – used as raw materials in manufacturing of many products.
  • 60. Cooking gas Gasoline Refinery Jet fuel Kerosene Diesel Others Solvent for paints Crude oil Insecticides Enamel, Medicines Synthetic fibers Detergents Petrochemical plant Weed killers & fertilizers Cosmetics, Plastics Synthetic rubber Polish, Roofing Protective paints Photographic films
  • 61. World crude oil production, OPEC, MMBbl/day (1960 – 2004)
  • 62. World crude oil production, non-OPEC, MMBbl/day (1960 – 2004)
  • 63. Top crude oil-producing countries (2004)
  • 64. World petroleum consumption, OECD (2003)
  • 65. World oil reserves. Source: Oil & Gas Journal
  • 66. Middle East – 57% of World oil reserves
  • 67. North America – 18% of World oil reserves
  • 68. Central & South America – 8% of World oil reserves
  • 69. Eastern Europe & Former USSR – 7% of World oil reserves
  • 70. Africa – 6% of World oil reserves
  • 71. Asia & Oceania – 3% of World oil reserves
  • 72. Western Europe – 1% of World oil reserves
  • 73.  Disadvantages of fossil energy  Non-renewable – limited.  Pollution – emission (carbon based) from burning fossil fuel reacts with oxygen & nitrogen in the atmosphere to form Greenhouse gases (CO2, CO, NOx), leading to Global warming.  These gases trap the solar energy reflected by the earth’s surface and reradiate the energy in the form of infrared radiation.  Carbon sequestration is a means of capturing & storing greenhouse gases in geologic formations.
  • 74. The carbon cycle
  • 75.  Today’s Energy  85.5 percent → fossil fuels (oil, gas, coal)  14.5 percent → nuclear and all other sources  By 2025  87 percent → fossil fuels (oil, gas, coal)  13 percent → nuclear and all other sources