Chapter 1 An Introduction to the Human Body <ul><li>Anatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>science of structure </li></ul></ul><ul>...
1- Gross Anatomy Surface Anatomy- general forms & superficial markings. Regional Anatomy- concerned with areas of the body...
Clinical Observational Techniques <ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Palpation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>feel body surface ...
Microscopic Anatomy <ul><li>Cytology  is the study of cell structures.  Trillions of cells in human body, only about 200 d...
1- Physiology The study of how an organism functions. <ul><li>Cell Physiology-  function of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Specia...
Levels of Structural Organization <ul><li>Chemical Level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>atomic and molecular level </li></ul></ul><...
Levels of Structural Organization <ul><li>Organ level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>grouping of 2 or more tissue types into a reco...
Organ Systems <ul><li>Integumentary </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous </li><...
Levels of Structural Organization 1- Figure 1.1 1 Molecules Atoms Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules.
Levels of Structural Organization 1- Figure 1.1 1 2 Smooth muscle cell Molecules Atoms Cellular level Cells are made up of...
Levels of Structural Organization 1- Figure 1.1 1 2 3 Smooth muscle cell Molecules Atoms Smooth muscle tissue Cellular lev...
Levels of Structural Organization 1- Figure 1.1 1 2 4 3 Smooth muscle cell Molecules Atoms Smooth muscle tissue Epithelial...
Levels of Structural Organization 1- Figure 1.1 1 2 4 5 3 Smooth muscle cell Molecules Atoms Smooth muscle tissue Epitheli...
1- <ul><li>INTEGUMENTARY </li></ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Heat Regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory Input </...
1- <ul><li>NERVOUS </li></ul><ul><li>Homeostasis </li></ul><ul><li>Directs Responses to Stimuli immediately </li></ul><ul>...
1- <ul><li>LYMPHATICS </li></ul><ul><li>Immunological Defense </li></ul><ul><li>Return tissue fluid to the bloodstream </l...
1- <ul><li>URINARY </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminates nitrogenous wastes </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates blood volume, pH & ion conc...
Levels of Structural Organization 1- Figure 1.1 1 2 4 5 6 3 Smooth muscle cell Molecules Atoms Smooth muscle tissue Epithe...
Interaction of Organ Systems <ul><li>Interaction of different systems of the body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>skin produces vita...
EXTRACELLULAR MATERIAL AND FLUIDS CELLS  combine to form TISSUES combine to form ORGANS interact in ORGAN SYSTEMS The leve...
Life Processes <ul><li>Metabolism = sum of all chemical processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>building new structural components...
Life Processes <ul><li>Movement at any structural level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the body, an organ, a cell or cell component...
HOMEOSTASIS Necessary Life Functions <ul><li>Maintaining boundaries – the internal environment remains distinct from the e...
Body Fluids <ul><li>Delineation of fluid compartments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>intracellular fluid (ICF) = within cells </li>...
Homeostasis <ul><li>Maintaining the internal environment within physiological limits despite dangerous, unpredictable envi...
Control of Homeostasis <ul><li>Homeostasis is continually being disrupted by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>external stimuli or </l...
Neural and Endocrine Controls <ul><li>Process of maintaining a controlled condition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sensory receptor...
Components of Feedback Loop <ul><li>Receptor  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>monitors a controlled condition </li></ul></ul><ul><li...
Negative & Positive Feedback Loops <ul><li>Negative feedback loop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>original stimulus reversed   </li>...
Homeostasis of Blood Pressure <ul><li>Pressure receptors in walls of certain arteries detect an increase in BP </li></ul><...
Positive Feedback during Childbirth <ul><li>Stretch receptors in walls of uterus send signals to the brain </li></ul><ul><...
Homeostatic Imbalances <ul><li>Disorder = abnormality of function </li></ul><ul><li>Disease = homeostatic imbalance with d...
Basic Anatomical Terminology <ul><li>Anatomical position </li></ul><ul><li>Regions of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomica...
Anatomical Position <ul><li>Standardized position from which to describe directional terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>standing ...
Common Regional Names <ul><li>Clinical terminology based on a Greek or Latin root word. </li></ul>1-
Planes and Sections <ul><li>A plane is an imaginary flat surface that passes through the body.  </li></ul><ul><li>A sectio...
Sagittal Plane <ul><li>Sagittal plane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>divides the body or an organ into left and right sides </li></...
Other Planes and Sections <ul><li>Frontal or coronal plane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>divides the body or an organ into front (...
Planes and Sections of the Brain (3-D anatomical relationships revealed) <ul><li>Horizontal Plane </li></ul><ul><li>Fronta...
Major Directional Terms 1-
Superior or Inferior <ul><li>Superior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>towards the head </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The eyes are super...
<ul><li>Dorsal or Posterior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>at the back of the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The brain is posterio...
Medial or Lateral <ul><li>Medial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nearer to the midline of the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The he...
Proximal or Distal <ul><li>Proximal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nearer to the attachment of the limb to the trunk </li></ul></ul...
Directions <ul><li>The heart lies  ________  to the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>The thumb lies  _______  to the pinky. </li><...
Dorsal Body Cavity <ul><li>Near dorsal surface of body </li></ul><ul><li>2 subdivisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cranial cavi...
Ventral Body Cavity <ul><li>Near ventral surface of body </li></ul><ul><li>2 subdivisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thoracic c...
Abdominopelvic Cavity <ul><li>Inferior portion of ventral body cavity below diaphragm </li></ul><ul><li>Encircled by abdom...
Thoracic Cavity <ul><li>Encircled by ribs, sternum, vertebral column and muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into 2 pleural c...
Mediastinum <ul><li>Midline wall of tissue that contains heart and great vessels, esophagus, trachea and thymus. </li></ul...
Serous Membranes <ul><li>Thin slippery membrane lines body cavities not open to the outside </li></ul><ul><ul><li>parietal...
Pleural & Pericardial Cavities <ul><li>Visceral pleura clings to surface of lungs --- Parietal pleura lines chest wall </l...
Peritoneum <ul><li>Visceral peritoneum --- serous membrane that covers the abdominal viscera </li></ul><ul><li>Parietal pe...
Abdominopelvic Regions & Quadrants <ul><li>Describe locations of organs or source of pain </li></ul><ul><li>Tic-tac-toe gr...
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  • Figure 1.5.1 Tissues are specialized groups of cells and cell products
  • ushas anatomy notes

    1. 1. Chapter 1 An Introduction to the Human Body <ul><li>Anatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>science of structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>relationships revealed by dissection (cutting apart) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>imaging techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physiology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>science of body functions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure follows function (or is it the other way around?) </li></ul>1-
    2. 2. 1- Gross Anatomy Surface Anatomy- general forms & superficial markings. Regional Anatomy- concerned with areas of the body. Systemic Anatomy- concerned with organ systems. Developmental Anatomy- concerned with embryology. Clinical Anatomy- description based on subspecialty.
    3. 3. Clinical Observational Techniques <ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Palpation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>feel body surface with hands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pulses and breathing rates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Auscultation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>listen to body sounds with stethoscope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>abnormal fluid in lungs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Percussion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tap on body surface and listen to echo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air/fluid in lungs & organ size </li></ul></ul></ul>1-
    4. 4. Microscopic Anatomy <ul><li>Cytology is the study of cell structures. Trillions of cells in human body, only about 200 different cell types. </li></ul><ul><li>Histology is the study of tissues (groups of specialized cells that work together to perform a specific function). </li></ul>1-
    5. 5. 1- Physiology The study of how an organism functions. <ul><li>Cell Physiology- function of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Special Physiology- function of specific organs. </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic Physiology- function of specific organ systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Pathological Physiology- studies the effects of disease on organs & organ systems. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Levels of Structural Organization <ul><li>Chemical Level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>atomic and molecular level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cellular level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>smallest living unit of the body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tissue level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>group of cells and the materials surrounding them that work together on one task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 basic tissue types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>epithelium, muscle, connective tissue, and nerve </li></ul></ul></ul>1-
    7. 7. Levels of Structural Organization <ul><li>Organ level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>grouping of 2 or more tissue types into a recognizable structure with a specific function. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organ system level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>collection of related organs with a common function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sometimes an organ is part of more than one system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organism level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one living individual. </li></ul></ul>1-
    8. 8. Organ Systems <ul><li>Integumentary </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous </li></ul><ul><li>Endocrine </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular </li></ul>1- <ul><li>7. Lymphatic </li></ul><ul><li>8. Respiratory </li></ul><ul><li>Digestive </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary </li></ul><ul><li>Reproductive </li></ul>
    9. 9. Levels of Structural Organization 1- Figure 1.1 1 Molecules Atoms Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules.
    10. 10. Levels of Structural Organization 1- Figure 1.1 1 2 Smooth muscle cell Molecules Atoms Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules.
    11. 11. Levels of Structural Organization 1- Figure 1.1 1 2 3 Smooth muscle cell Molecules Atoms Smooth muscle tissue Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells. Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules.
    12. 12. Levels of Structural Organization 1- Figure 1.1 1 2 4 3 Smooth muscle cell Molecules Atoms Smooth muscle tissue Epithelial tissue Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Blood vessel (organ) Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells. Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues. Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules.
    13. 13. Levels of Structural Organization 1- Figure 1.1 1 2 4 5 3 Smooth muscle cell Molecules Atoms Smooth muscle tissue Epithelial tissue Heart Blood vessels Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Blood vessel (organ) Cardiovascular system Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells. Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues. Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely. Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules.
    14. 14. 1- <ul><li>INTEGUMENTARY </li></ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Heat Regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory Input </li></ul><ul><li>SKELETAL </li></ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Mineral Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Blood Cells Prod. </li></ul><ul><li>MUSCULAR </li></ul><ul><li>Locomotion </li></ul><ul><li>Organ Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Organ Support </li></ul><ul><li>Heat Generation </li></ul>
    15. 15. 1- <ul><li>NERVOUS </li></ul><ul><li>Homeostasis </li></ul><ul><li>Directs Responses to Stimuli immediately </li></ul><ul><li>CARDIOVASCULAR </li></ul><ul><li>Distributes nutrients, gases, minerals & hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Distributes Heat </li></ul><ul><li>Removes Wastes </li></ul><ul><li>ENDOCRINE </li></ul><ul><li>Homeostasis by directing slow, large, long term changes in target organs. </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Changes associated with Growth & Maturation. </li></ul>
    16. 16. 1- <ul><li>LYMPHATICS </li></ul><ul><li>Immunological Defense </li></ul><ul><li>Return tissue fluid to the bloodstream </li></ul><ul><li>RESPIRATORY </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen for body </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 removal </li></ul><ul><li>Sound for Communicaton </li></ul><ul><li>DIGESTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>Breaks down food into absorbable units </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminates undigestable foodstuffs as feces </li></ul>
    17. 17. 1- <ul><li>URINARY </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminates nitrogenous wastes </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates blood volume, pH & ion concentrations </li></ul><ul><li>REPRODUCTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>Perpetuation of species </li></ul><ul><li>Production of hormones for secondary sexual charactheristics. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Levels of Structural Organization 1- Figure 1.1 1 2 4 5 6 3 Smooth muscle cell Molecules Atoms Smooth muscle tissue Epithelial tissue Heart Blood vessels Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Blood vessel (organ) Cardiovascular system Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells. Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues. Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely. Organismal level The human organism is made up of many organ systems. Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules.
    19. 19. Interaction of Organ Systems <ul><li>Interaction of different systems of the body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>skin produces vitamin D needed for calcium absorption and bone growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bone marrow produces cells which help resist infection. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pancreas produces enzymes for digestion, and also hormones as part of the Endocrine system. </li></ul></ul>1-
    20. 20. EXTRACELLULAR MATERIAL AND FLUIDS CELLS combine to form TISSUES combine to form ORGANS interact in ORGAN SYSTEMS The levels of organization in the body, with the four primary tissue types highlighted EPITHELIAL TISSUE CONNECTIVE TISSUE MUSCLE TISSUE NEURAL TISSUE Organism Levels of Structural Organization
    21. 21. Life Processes <ul><li>Metabolism = sum of all chemical processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>building new structural components (proteins) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>breakdown of large molecules into small </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>providing chemical energy for cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Responsiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>detect & respond to changes in internal or external environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some typical responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>muscle contraction, electrical signals, hormone or glandular secretion </li></ul></ul></ul>1-
    22. 22. Life Processes <ul><li>Movement at any structural level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the body, an organ, a cell or cell component </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increase in number or size of cells or the material found between cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>specialization of cells for a specific function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stem cells give rise to cells that specialize </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>formation of new cells or new individuals </li></ul></ul>1-
    23. 23. HOMEOSTASIS Necessary Life Functions <ul><li>Maintaining boundaries – the internal environment remains distinct from the external environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellular level – accomplished by plasma membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organismal level – accomplished by the skin </li></ul></ul>1-
    24. 24. Body Fluids <ul><li>Delineation of fluid compartments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>intracellular fluid (ICF) = within cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extracellular fluid (ECF) = outside cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>intercellular fluid = tissue fluid = interstitial fluid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>plasma = fluid portion of blood=intravascular </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CSF = cerebrospinal fluid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Composition of fluids change as substances move between compartments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nutrients, oxygen, ions and wastes move in both directions across capillary walls </li></ul></ul>1-
    25. 25. Homeostasis <ul><li>Maintaining the internal environment within physiological limits despite dangerous, unpredictable environmental changes </li></ul><ul><li>Autoregulation is intrinsic (e.g. cells release chemicals to dilate blood vessels if ↓ O 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Extrinsic reglation (e.g. Insulin helps maintain blood glucose level within the narrow range 80-120mg/100ml) </li></ul><ul><li>-Nervous system is fast acting and short-lived </li></ul><ul><li>-Endocrine system is slow acting but long- lasting </li></ul>1-
    26. 26. Control of Homeostasis <ul><li>Homeostasis is continually being disrupted by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>external stimuli or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>intense heat, cold , and lack of oxygen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>internal stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>psychological stresses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>exercise result in chemical changes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Disruptions are usually mild & temporary </li></ul><ul><li>If homeostasis is not maintained (disease process), death may result </li></ul>1-
    27. 27. Neural and Endocrine Controls <ul><li>Process of maintaining a controlled condition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sensory receptors detect change in a monitored variable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nervous system and/or endocrine system responds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example of control of blood gas level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>exercise increases blood CO 2 levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sensory receptors detect change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nervous system increases heart and breathing rates to remove excess CO 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adrenal gland releases epinephrine to increase heart and breathing rates </li></ul></ul>1-
    28. 28. Components of Feedback Loop <ul><li>Receptor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>monitors a controlled condition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control center - CNS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>determines next action (integration) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effector </li></ul><ul><ul><li>receives directions from the control center and produces a response that changes the controlled condition </li></ul></ul>1-
    29. 29. Negative & Positive Feedback Loops <ul><li>Negative feedback loop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>original stimulus reversed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>most feedback systems in the body are negative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used for conditions that need frequent adjustment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>body temperature, blood sugar levels, blood pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Positive feedback loop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>original stimulus intensified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>seen during normal childbirth </li></ul></ul>1-
    30. 30. Homeostasis of Blood Pressure <ul><li>Pressure receptors in walls of certain arteries detect an increase in BP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blood pressure = force of blood on walls of vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brain receives input and signals heart and blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Heart rate slows and arterioles dilate (increase in diameter) </li></ul><ul><li>BP returns to normal </li></ul>1-
    31. 31. Positive Feedback during Childbirth <ul><li>Stretch receptors in walls of uterus send signals to the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Brain releases hormone (oxytocin) into bloodstream </li></ul><ul><li>Uterine smooth muscle contracts more forcefully </li></ul><ul><li>More stretch, more hormone, more contraction etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Cycle ends with birth of the baby & decrease in stretch </li></ul>1-
    32. 32. Homeostatic Imbalances <ul><li>Disorder = abnormality of function </li></ul><ul><li>Disease = homeostatic imbalance with distinct </li></ul><ul><ul><li>symptoms---changes in body function felt by the patient such as nausea and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>signs----changes in body function that can be observed by the doctor such as rash or fever </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis---skill of distinguishing one disease from another </li></ul><ul><li>Epidemiology----how disease is transmitted </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmacology --- use of drugs to treat disease </li></ul>1-
    33. 33. Basic Anatomical Terminology <ul><li>Anatomical position </li></ul><ul><li>Regions of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomical planes, sections and directional terms </li></ul>1-
    34. 34. Anatomical Position <ul><li>Standardized position from which to describe directional terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>standing upright </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>facing the observer, head level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eyes facing forward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>feet flat on the floor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>arms at the sides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>palms turned forward </li></ul></ul>1- anatomical position?
    35. 35. Common Regional Names <ul><li>Clinical terminology based on a Greek or Latin root word. </li></ul>1-
    36. 36. Planes and Sections <ul><li>A plane is an imaginary flat surface that passes through the body. </li></ul><ul><li>A section is one of the 2 surfaces (pieces) that results when the body is cut by a plane passing through it. </li></ul>1-
    37. 37. Sagittal Plane <ul><li>Sagittal plane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>divides the body or an organ into left and right sides </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Midsagittal plane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>produces equal halves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parasagittal plane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>produces unequal halves </li></ul></ul>1-
    38. 38. Other Planes and Sections <ul><li>Frontal or coronal plane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>divides the body or an organ into front (anterior) and back (posterior) portions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transverse(cross-sectional) or horizontal plane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>divides the body or an organ into upper (superior) or lower (inferior) portions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oblique plane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>some combination of 2 other planes </li></ul></ul>1-
    39. 39. Planes and Sections of the Brain (3-D anatomical relationships revealed) <ul><li>Horizontal Plane </li></ul><ul><li>Frontal Plane </li></ul><ul><li>Midsagittal Plane </li></ul>1-
    40. 40. Major Directional Terms 1-
    41. 41. Superior or Inferior <ul><li>Superior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>towards the head </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The eyes are superior to the mouth. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inferior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>away from the head </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The stomach is inferior to the heart. </li></ul></ul>1-
    42. 42. <ul><li>Dorsal or Posterior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>at the back of the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The brain is posterior to the forehead. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ventral or Anterior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>at the front of the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The sternum is anterior to the heart. </li></ul></ul>Dorsal or Ventral 1-
    43. 43. Medial or Lateral <ul><li>Medial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nearer to the midline of the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The heart lies medial to the lungs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lateral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>farther from the midline of the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The thumb is on the lateral side of the hand. </li></ul></ul>1-
    44. 44. Proximal or Distal <ul><li>Proximal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nearer to the attachment of the limb to the trunk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The knee is proximal to the ankle. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>farther from the attachment of the limb to the trunk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The wrist is distal to the elbow. </li></ul></ul>1-
    45. 45. Directions <ul><li>The heart lies ________ to the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>The thumb lies _______ to the pinky. </li></ul><ul><li>The knee is _______ to the groin. </li></ul><ul><li>The head is _________ to the torso. </li></ul><ul><li>The elbow is _________ to the hand. </li></ul><ul><li>The mouth is ________ to the eyes. </li></ul><ul><li>The organs are _____ to the skin. </li></ul>1- Medial Lateral Distal Superior Proximal Inferior Deep
    46. 46. Dorsal Body Cavity <ul><li>Near dorsal surface of body </li></ul><ul><li>2 subdivisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cranial cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>holds the brain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>formed by skull </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vertebral or spinal canal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>contains the spinal cord </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>formed by vertebral column </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Meninges line dorsal body cavity </li></ul>1-
    47. 47. Ventral Body Cavity <ul><li>Near ventral surface of body </li></ul><ul><li>2 subdivisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thoracic cavity above diaphragm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>abdominopelvic cavity below diaphragm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diaphragm = large, dome-shaped muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Organs called viscera </li></ul><ul><li>Organs covered with serous membrane </li></ul>1-
    48. 48. Abdominopelvic Cavity <ul><li>Inferior portion of ventral body cavity below diaphragm </li></ul><ul><li>Encircled by abdominal wall, bones & muscles of pelvis </li></ul>1-
    49. 49. Thoracic Cavity <ul><li>Encircled by ribs, sternum, vertebral column and muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into 2 pleural cavities by mediastinum </li></ul><ul><li>Mediastinum contains all thoracic organs except lungs </li></ul>1-
    50. 50. Mediastinum <ul><li>Midline wall of tissue that contains heart and great vessels, esophagus, trachea and thymus. </li></ul>1-
    51. 51. Serous Membranes <ul><li>Thin slippery membrane lines body cavities not open to the outside </li></ul><ul><ul><li>parietal layer lines walls of cavities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>visceral layer covers viscera within the cavities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Serous fluid reduces friction </li></ul>1-
    52. 52. Pleural & Pericardial Cavities <ul><li>Visceral pleura clings to surface of lungs --- Parietal pleura lines chest wall </li></ul><ul><li>Visceral pericardium covers heart --- Parietal pericardium lines pericardial sac </li></ul>1-
    53. 53. Peritoneum <ul><li>Visceral peritoneum --- serous membrane that covers the abdominal viscera </li></ul><ul><li>Parietal peritoneum --- serous membrane that lines the abdominal wall </li></ul>1-
    54. 54. Abdominopelvic Regions & Quadrants <ul><li>Describe locations of organs or source of pain </li></ul><ul><li>Tic-tac-toe grid or intersecting lines through navel </li></ul>1-
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