Used in Asia for a Long time
Also known as “SOROBAN” perform
addition and subtraction
Wooden rack holding two horizontal wires
with beads strung on them.
Rules memorized by the user
Regular arithmetic problems can be done
John Napier a Scottish Mathematician
Set of eleven animal bones later it was
replaced by rod
Number marked on them, they placed
side by side
Products and quotients of large
numbers could be obtained
Invented in 17th century based on
the emerging work on logarithms by
Perform all arithmetic &
Final value can be straight away
read on scale
PASCAL’S CALCULATING MACHINE (PASCALINE)
Blaise Pascal a French mathematician
developed mechanical calculating machine
called Pascal’s calculating machine in 1642 CE
First real desktop calculating device that could
add and subtract.
Construct of set of toothed wheels or gears.
Each wheel having 0 through 9.
Arithmetic operation performed by turning
Concept still seen in conventional electric
meter and taxi meter
LEIBNITZ’S IMPROVED PASCAL MACHINE
Pascal machine perform only addition and
Pascal machine was improved in 1673 CE
Introduced wheel could perform
multiplication, division and square root
Punched cards were first used around 1725
by Basile Bouchon and Jean-Baptiste Falcon
and greatly improved by Joseph Marie Jacquard
Control textile looms, invented punched
Cards with holes were used to make
attractive design on fiber
Presence and absence of punched hole
represented two states for raisers or lowers of
CHARLES BABBAGE’S ENGINES.
Charles Babbage (1792-1871) made
a machine called Difference Engine.
Evaluate accurate algebraic expression
and mathematical tasks up to 20
This machine is also called as
Babbage's difference engine,
Later adopted by insurances
companies for computing life tables.
Later modified the device as
If had memory unit, operation
Produced the output in punched
Parts and working principle of
Analytical Engine similar to today
Charles Babbage is called “Father
Dr.Herman Hollerith of U.S.A, working
in U.S.A as census offices
Developed a card reading machine
and used punched cards for tabulating
and calculating data,
Data was being compiled and
MARK-I DIGITAL COMPUTER
All calculating machines are invented basically
First electro-mechanical computer developed by
Used Hollerith's punched cards and principle of
computer stated by Charles Babbage
Automatically perform a sequence of arithmetic
Huge mechanical calculator which occupied
Inside several miles of electrical wires and
electro mechanical relays and mechanical counter
for arithmetic calculations
FIRST ELECTRONICS COMPUTER
(ABC) Atanasoff-Berry Computer
Dr. John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry
developed first electronic computer.
It is called as ABC.
Use vaccum tubes for storage , arithmetic
and logical function.
Special purpose used to solve
It could perform 500 addition or 350
multiplication in one second.
Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator
Developed by Prof. Presper Eckert and John
Produced in 1940 for U.S.army
It used 18000 V.T 70000 resistor 10000
capacitor and 60000 switches (27 tons)
Occupy 5000 s7 suet of space.
Perform 300 multiplication/second
ENIAC was considered a significant
development because the speed was first
experience with ENIAC.
Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computers
First electronic stored program
Electronics computers developed in
EDVAC different form ENIAC.
1.use of binary and electronic
2.Internal storage of instructions were
written in digital forms.
Electronics Delay Storage AutomatiC
Developed by group of scientist headed by
Using EDSAC , addition operation was
accomplished in 1500 microseconds and
multiplication operator in 4000 micro
Manchester Mark 1
Small experimental computer.
Performs operation based on stored
Designed Manchester university by a
group of scientist headed by Prof. M.H.A
Storage capacity of only 32words, each
of 31 binary digits.
Limited to stored data and instruction.
UNIVersal Automatic Computer I
Second commercial computer
produced in the United States.
Made by the inventors of the ENIAC.
UNIVAC –I is first computer used for
business in 1954
The machine was simply known as
Microprocessor chip INTEL 4004 was
developed in 1969 by INTEL.
perform only few instruction and very
small amount of data.
1971 INTEL 8008 MP was developed.
Foundation for development of
A System on a Chip or System on Chip (SoC) is an
integrated circuit (IC) that integrates all components of a
computer or other electronic system into a single chip
Integrates almost all components into a single silicon
chip. Along with a CPU, an SoC usually contains a GPU,
memory, USB controller, power management circuits, and
Whereas a CPU cannot function without dozens of other
chips, it’s possible to build complete computers with just
a single SoC
PERSONAL COMPUTERS (PC)
First PC (with MP) developed in 1974.
In 1977 first successful micro
(PC) developed by a young technician
named Steve Wozniak.
This was called the computer Apple-1
Created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–
Motorola alliance, known as AIM.
Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC – Performance Computing
Pentium is a brand used for a series of
produced by Intel.
Pentium CPU based computers were
most commonly used Computers few
Intel Core is a brand name that Intel
uses for various mid-range to high-end
consumer and business microprocessors.
In general, processors sold as Core are
more powerful variants of the same
processors marketed as entry-level
Celeron and Pentium