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08. Central Processing Unit (CPU)


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CPU - Central Processing Unit …

CPU - Central Processing Unit
Computer, Hardware, පරිගණක, දෘඩාංග, Information Technology, තොරතුරු තාක්ෂණය

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  • 1. CPU Central Processing Unit
  • 2. Central Processing Unit  Microprocessor  The Chip  The Processor 2
  • 3. CPUs 3
  • 4. CPU  The brain of a computer system where calculations and decisions are made  The main part of the computer that manages, stores, and uses data  A silicon chip which normally contains millions of transistors  processing unit  4
  • 5. Components of a CPU Two main components  Arithmetic Logic Unit  Control Unit Other components  Registers  Cache … etc 5
  • 6.  The unit that performs arithmetic and logic operations such as addition, subtraction, shifting operations and logic instructions (boolean comparisons, such as AND, OR, XOR, and NOT operations)  ALUs are designed to perform integer calculations. Therefore, besides adding and subtracting, ALUs often handle the multiplications, since the result is also an integer  FPU (Floating-Point Unit) ● ALUs typically do not perform division operations, as the result may be a fraction, or a "floating point" number. Instead, division operations are usually handled by the FPU, which also performs other non-integer calculations 6 ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)
  • 7. 7 ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)
  • 8.  The control unit is basically circuitry inside the CPU, controlling the operations inside the CPU and "directing traffic" in a sense. The functions a control unit performs can depend on the type of CPU, since the varying degrees of architecture between all the different CPUs will determine the functions of the control unit  Handles all processor control signals. It directs all input and output flow, fetches code for instructions from microprograms and directs other units and models by providing control and timing signals 8 Control Unit (CU)
  • 9. Registers  Local storage space on a CPU that holds data that is being processed. Registers generally occupy the top-most position in the memory hierarchy, providing high-speed and fast access  Generally measured in terms of bits to determine the amount of data they can hold. For example, the two most frequently used terms, 32-bit processor’ and 64-bit processor, generally refer to the size of the register on the processor  Processor registers are normally made of static or dynamic random access memory (RAM) cells. Static RAM offers faster access to data than dynamic RAM, which is relatively slow  Categories of Registers ● 9
  • 10. Cache  CPU Cache is a data storage section of a CPU or processor. Its purpose is to "cache" (or "keep in hand") the next set of instructions and data that is currently needed  Slower than Registers, Faster than Main Memory  Comes in different levels. L1, L2, L3  L3 normally used to found outside the CPU usually in Motherboard of High End machines (Gaming, Servers etc.). Certain newer CPUs contain on-die L3 cache  Speed (performance): L1 > L2 > L3  Size (capacity): L1 < L2 < L3  Typical Core I CPU contains ● L1 cache 64 kB per core ● L2 cache 256 kB per core ● L3 cache 1 MB to 8 MB shared  55 10
  • 11. CPU Diagrams 11
  • 12. CPU Vendors  Intel  AMD (Advanced Micro Devices) 12
  • 13. CPU Vendors  List of Intel microprocessors  List of AMD microprocessors Different manufacturers use different CPU architectures and technologies. Therefore similar CPU related terms such as Cache may different as well… 13
  • 14. Microarchitecture  The microword definition, data flow, timing constraints, and precedence constraints that characterize a given microprogrammed computer ● ● rchitectures ● 14
  • 15. Intel Microarchitectures   Semiconductor device fabrication ● Semiconductor manufacturing processes measured by nanometers ●  Intel Tick-Tock ● Every "tick" is a shrinking of process technology of the previous microarchitecture and every "tock" is a new microarchitecture ● 15
  • 16. Intel Microarchitectures 16 Microarchitecture Fabrication process Major CPUs NetBurst 65 nm Pentium 4 Core 65 nm, 45 nm Core 2 Nehalem 45 nm, 32 nm Core i3 Core i5 Core i7 Sandy Bridge Sandy Bridge 32 nm Ivy Bridge 22 nm Haswell Haswell 22 nm Broadwell 14 nm Notable Microarchitectures
  • 17. Intel Core CPU Generations  Processor Generation of a Core I CPU is a term used to identify certain CPU families  Instead of using microarchitecture names, simply a generation name is used  Generation can be determined by the relevant Sub Microarchitecture Codename or CPU model no.  1st Generation: Nehalem (~45nm)  2nd Generation: Sandy Bridge (~32nm)  3rd Generation: Ivy Bridge (~22nm)  4th Generation: Haswell (~22nm) 17
  • 18. 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th Core Generations 18 Generation CPU Model No. Sample 1st Core i# - ### Core i5 - 750 2nd Core i# - 2### Core i5 - 2310 3rd Core i# - 3### Core i5 - 3450 4th Core i# - 4### Core i5 - 4570  CPU Generation or its Microarchitecture Codename can be determined by the CPU model no. Here # is a number. Not a letter
  • 19. CPU Socket  A CPU socket or CPU slot is a mechanical component that provides mechanical and electrical connections between a microprocessor and the motherboard  Typically made of plastic. Has a lever or latch and metal contacts for each of the pins or lands on the CPU. Many packages are keyed to ensure the proper insertion  Earlier Sockets had holes, as older CPUs had pins, and newer sockets have pins as newer CPUs are pin-less ● ● 19
  • 20. CPU Socket 20 Socket Major CPUs Socket 478 Pentium 4 LGA 775 Core 2 Duo LGA 1156 Core i3, i5 (1st Gen) LGA 1155 Core i3, i5 (2nd, 3rd Gen) LGA 1150 Core i3, i5 (4th Gen) Notable Intel CPU Sockets
  • 21. CPU Socket 21
  • 22. Threads  In computer science, a thread of execution is the smallest sequence of programmed instructions that can be managed independently by an operating system scheduler  Multithreading ● Multithreading CPUs have hardware support to efficiently execute multiple threads  Hyperthreading ● Hyper-Threading Technology or HT Technology is Intel's proprietary simultaneous multithreading (SMT) implementation used to improve parallelization of computations  Here a Logical Core is called as a thread 22
  • 23. Multicore  A multi-core processor is a single computing component with two or more independent actual processing units (Physical Cores)  Normally a Core means a Physical Core and a Thread means a Logical Core  Multicore systems have more than one Cores  Dual-Core and Quad-Core CPUs are common 23
  • 24. Multicore  Dual-Core ● Pentium D ● Core 2 Duo ● Core i3 Dual Core  Quad-Core ● Core 2 Quad ● Core i5 Quad Core  Intel's Core i# numbering scheme o i#-6## and down: dual core o i#-7## and up: quad core 24
  • 25. Multicore Multicore Cache Distribution 25
  • 26. Multicore 26Multicore Cache Distribution
  • 27. Processor Types  Server Processors  Desktop Processors  Mobile (Notebook) CPUs  CPUs for other Mobile Devices 27
  • 28. Server Processors  High Speed  Multiple CPUs used  Bigger Cache  Examples ● Intel Xeon, AMD Opteron 28
  • 29. Mobile (Notebook) CPUs  Compared to Desktop CPUs ● Smaller Cache ● Less Power Consumption ● Less Performance  Typically vendors include special letters like M (for mobile) in notebook CPUs 29
  • 30. CPUs for other Mobile Devices  Mobile Devices like Mobile Phones, Tabs use CPUs  Newer high end devices use Multicore CPUs  Examples ● Sony Xperia Z: 1.5 GHz quad-core Qualcomm Krait ● Samsung Galaxy S4 1.2 GHz quad-core Cortex-A7, 1.6 GHz quad-core 1.6 GHz quad-core Cortex-A15 + 30
  • 31. Future: SoC  A System on a Chip or System on Chip (SoC) is an integrated circuit (IC) that integrates all components of a computer or other electronic system into a single chip  Integrates almost all components into a single silicon chip. Along with a CPU, an SoC usually contains a GPU, memory, USB controller, power management circuits, and wireless radios.  Whereas a CPU cannot function without dozens of other chips, it’s possible to build complete computers with just a single SoC ● 31
  • 32. SoC (System on a Chip)  SoC vs. CPU ● CPUs are on the way out. Eventually, SoCs will almost completely consume CPUs ● battle-for-the-future-of-computing 32
  • 33. SoC (System on a Chip) 33ARM server SoC: Calxeda EnergyCore ECX-1000 Block Diagram
  • 34. CPU: Considerations  Motherboard ● Socket ● Chipset 34
  • 35. More Links and References  of_Intel_processors   35
  • 36. Thank You! Ayubowan!