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  2. 2. ANGUAGE is the shared knowledge of sounds, words, meanings and grammatical rules that people use to send and receive messages.• Language is source of communication with the help of which we can communicate.• Along with our extreme reliance on the social learning of culture, the ability to communicate complex and precise information is the main mental capability that makes humanity distinct from other animals
  3. 3. Definition of linguistics Linguistics can be defined as the scientific or systematic study of language. It is a science in the sense that it scientifically studies the rules, systems and principles of human languages.
  4. 4. Scope of linguistics Micro linguistics includes phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, seman tics and pragmatics. Macro linguistics includes sociolinguistics,Psycholinguistics, neurolinguistics, stylistics, discourse analysis, computational linguistics, cognitivelinguistics, applied linguistics.
  5. 5. Macro linguistics Sociolinguistics studies the relations between language and society: how social factors influence the structure and use of language. Psycholinguistics is the study of language and mind: the mental structures and processes which are involved in the acquistion, comprehension and production of language. Neurolingistics is the study of language processing and language representation in the brain. It typically studies the disturbances of language comprehension and production
  6. 6. Microlinguistics is the scientific study of speech Phonetics sounds. It studies how speech sounds are articulated, transmitted, and received. Phonology is the study of how speech sounds function in a language, it studies the ways speech sounds are organized. It can be seen as the functional phonetics of a particular language. Morphology is the study of the formation of words. It is a branch of linguistics which breaks words into morphemes. It can be considered as the grammar of words as syntax is the grammar of sentences.
  7. 7. Microlinguistics Grammar deals with sentence construction .Syntax and Morphology are two major components. Semantics is a branch of linguistics which is concerned with the study of meaning in all its formal aspects. Words have several types of meaning. Pragmatics can be defined as the study of language in use. It deals with how speakers use language in ways which cannot be predicted from lingistic knowledge alone, and how hearers arrive at the intended meaningof speakers. PRAGMATICS =MEANING-
  8. 8. Definition of Grammar The systematic study and description of language is called Grammar. A set of rules dealing with Syntax and word structure of language. In linguistics, grammar is the set of structural rules that govern the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language. the study of such rules, and this field includes morphology, syntax, and phonology, often complemented by phonetics, semantics, and 8 pragmatics.
  9. 9. Noam Chomsky One of the most influential linguists of the 20th century Interested in grammaticality: how humans use a finite set of structures and rules to produce an infinite number of grammatically correct sentences “It takes a big ego to withstand the fact that you‟re saying something different from everyone else.” Chomsky (qt in Smith, 2004).
  10. 10. Innatism Limitations of Behaviorist view of language acquisition led in 1960‟s to the alternative „generative‟ account of language. Main Argument: Children must be born with an innate capacity for language development. Main Figure: Noam Chomsky Children are born with an innate propensity for language acquisition, and that this ability makes the task of learning a first language easier than it would otherwise be.
  11. 11. Innatism: LAD & UG Chomsky theorized that children were born witha hard-wired language acquisition device (LAD) in their brains. LAD is a set of language learning tools, intuitive at birth in all children. He later expanded this idea into that of universal grammar, a set of innate principles and adjustable parameters that are common to all human languages. The child exploits its LAD to make sense of the utterances heard around it, deriving from this „primary linguistic data‟ – the grammar of the language
  12. 12. THE “LAD” (Chomsky, 1965) The language acquisition Device (LAD) is a postulated organ of the brain that is supposed to function as a congenital device for learning symbolic language (i.e., language acquisition).
  13. 13. LAD (Language acquisition Device) The L.A.D is a pre programmed box. L.A.D is a function of the brain that is specifically for learning language. It is an innate biological function of human beings just like learning to walk. LAD explain human acquisition of the syntactic structure of language. It encodes the major principles of a language and its grammatical structures into the child‟s brain. It enables the children to analyze language and extract the basic rules.
  14. 14. Mechanism of Innate Theory According to Noam Chomsky, the mechanism of language acquisition formulates from innate processes.
  15. 15. Innatism: Universal grammar or generative grammar. we are born with set of rules about language in our brains. “Children are equipped with an innate template or blueprint for language and this blueprint aids the child in the task of constructing a grammar for their language.” This is known as “Innateness Hypothesis.”
  16. 16. All children share the same innateness Chomsky thus proposes that "all children share the same internal constraints which characterize narrowly the grammar they are going to construct." (Chomsky, 1977, p.98)
  17. 17. Universal grammar…Chomsky says: The UG does not have the actual rules of each language but it has PRINCIPLES & PARAMETERS. The rules of language are derived from the Principles & parameters.
  18. 18. Principles & Parameters: Principles: universal basic features of Grammar e.g.. Nouns, Verbs & Structure Dependency etc. Parameters: the variation across language that determines one or more aspects of Grammar e.g. Pro, Drop and Head Direction. The Parameters are set during Language Acquisition.
  19. 19. Competence and Performance• “competence is knowledge of language. That part of our knowledge which is exclusively linguistic. It includes knowledge of the vocabulary, of phonology, of syntax, and of semantics. The part of such knowledge which is different from language to language is learnt; the part which is universal is innate.”• “Performance is the use of language in speaking and understanding utterances is linguistic performance. Performance is dependent on one‟s linguistic knowledge (competence) and in part on non-linguistic knowledge of an encyclopedia or cultural kind, as well as on extraneous factors as mood, tiredness and so on”
  20. 20. • The distinction between performance and competence (grammaticality and acceptability) is distinction between sentence and utterance. a. Sentences are abstract objects which not tied to a particular context, speaker or time of utterance. They are tied to a particular grammar. b. Utterances are datable events, tied to a particular speaker, occasions, and context.
  21. 21. Competence and Performance• There are some utterances which could never be a grammatical sentence, but still they are acceptable.• e.g. John‟s being a real idiot-I suppose cela va sans dire.• On the other hand, there some grammatical sentences which can never be realized as fully acceptable utterances because their semantic, syntactic or phonological content.• e.g.: 1.we finally sent Edinburgh man, for for four Forfar men to go would have seemed like favoritism. 2. If because when Mary came in John left Harry cried, I‟d be surprised.
  22. 22. II. Types of Grammar A. Mental Grammar: Internal linguistic knowledge B. Developmental Grammar: a learner‟s grammar C. Prescriptive Grammar: a set of prescribed rules which tells people how to speak/write D. Descriptive Grammar: how people do speak in actual utterances. E. Pedagogical Grammar: teaching grammar widely used in schoolsYun-Pi Yuan 22
  23. 23. A. Mental Grammar: Internal linguistic knowledge Grammar Phonology (Morphology) Syntax Semantics  Linguistic knowledge in the mind  Here, we‟ll just consider grammatical knowledge as structural knowledge; but NOTE you also must know how to USE the structural knowledge.Yun-Pi Yuan 23
  24. 24. B. Developmental Grammar: a learner’s grammar  The mental grammar in the developmental stage  Type of lang. produced by learners who are in the process of learning a language.  In the language use of a L1 or L2 learner; which is the result of a normal pattern of development, and is common among language learners. e.g. “comed,” “goed,” “breaked”  Because of overgeneralizations; a natural orYun-Pi Yuan 24 developmental stage in lang. learning.
  25. 25. C. Descriptive Grammar: how people do speak in actual utterances  Linguistic description of the structures of a language as they are observed to be used, with no evaluation (non- judgmental) of social correctness.  Descriptive rules are more general and more basic than prescriptive rules in the sense that all sentences of a language are formed in accordance with them, not just the subset of sentences that count as correct or socially acceptable.Yun-Pi Yuan 25
  26. 26. Descriptive Grammar What native speakers know (tacitly) about their language. We have to distinguish between different variants of one language, versus things that are impossible in all varieties Example:  Grammatical according to style/register, dialect  I didn‟t see anybody.  I didn‟t see nobody.  Ungrammatical  *I did anybodyn‟t see.  *See did nobody I not.
  27. 27. D: Prescriptive Grammar: a set of prescribed rules which tells people how to speak/write  Traditional Grammar and the prescriptive approach: Grammar as „linguistic etiquette‟, i.e. the identification of the best/proper structures to be used;  A set of “rules” about how you SHOULD speak or write; gives judgments on which structures are CORRECT and which are INCORRECT  Their influence lives on in the handbook of usage widely found today. e.g. double negative(=affirmative), *ain‟t *it‟s me, ending sentences with preposition (*Who are you talking to?)Yun-Pi Yuan 27
  28. 28.  Prescriptive grammar is taught in primary school (elementary school). The term "grammar school" historically refers to a school teaching Latin grammar to future Roman citizens, orators, and, later, Catholic priests. In its earliest form, "grammar school" referred to a school that taught students to read, scan, interpret, and declaim Greek and Latin poets
  29. 29. Prescriptive Grammar Rules of “good” or “proper” usage, which dictate what is “good grammar” and what is “bad grammar”Example: (1) She doesn‟t know him. (2) She don‟t know him.Example (1) is supposed to be “good”, while (2) is supposed to be “bad” Is there a logic to this judgment? Technically, what the example shows is the absence of 3rd person singular agreement -s Agreement morphemes on a verb mark who the subject of the verb is (in some languages…) Is the absence of agreement somehow bad or illogical?
  30. 30. Dubious appeals to „Logic‟ Is the standard always „more logical‟? Consider reflexive pronouns like „myself‟: Reflexive Possessive St. myself my car yourself your car himself his car herself her car Non-St. myself my car yourself your car hisself his car herself her car --> In the non-standard variety, the reflexive form is always the same as the possessive; this is more systematic than the standard, where this is true in only three of the four cases above.
  31. 31. Prescriptive vs. Descriptive  Rules of etiquette or laws of society  Rules of scientific  Rules about correct or observations socially accepted sentences  Rules about all sentences of  Rules explicitly taught a language  Based on the more favored  Rules followed effortlessly and consistently variants  Document all variants without discrimination There‟s some boxes left on the porch There are some boxes left on the porch © BTexact Technologies 2001
  32. 32. E. Pedagogical Grammar: teaching grammars widely used in schools  A “teaching grammar”—designed for developing students‟ awareness of their mother tongue, or for teaching a language as a foreign language.  Often a combination of descriptive & prescriptive grammars; more contemporary pedagogical grammars moving away from prescriptive. e.g. M. Swam. Practical English Usage or aYun-Pi Yuan 32 textbook ; a grammar book.
  33. 33. Elements of Grammar Grammar Syntax Morphology 33
  34. 34. Definition of Syntax (1)  “syntaxis” (Greek) = “arrangement”  The rules of sentence formation; the study of the structure of sentences. Syntax: the study of the structure of sentences and the grammatical rules governing the way words are combined to form sentences. Language Structure Phonology Grammar Semantics morphology syntax (the specific sense; more traditional)Yun-Pi Yuan 34
  35. 35. • Morph (form) + ology (science of)• -- > Morphology (the science of word forms)• The study of the internal structure of words, and the rules by which words are formed.
  36. 36.  The study of the internal structure and form of words in language. Morphology is the study of systematic formation of meaningful words. Morphology is the study of the combination of morphemes to yield words. The study of words and the rules for word formation in (a) language.
  37. 37.  To know a word means to know aspects of a word: sound, meaning, spelling, grammatical properties, collocations, connotations, context, etym ology, etc.  But what is crucial is to segment from a string of sounds a basic unit of meaning, like Isleptfortenhoursyesterday.☞ To know a word thus means the ability to map a string of sounds with a particular meaning and specific grammatical properties.
  38. 38.  Phonological word (Deer is dear but dear) Lexical item Lexeme (take,took,taken…) Grammatical word form Morphosyntactic word (ball, balls) Semantic words (table, table)
  39. 39.  Lexicography
  40. 40. • Content words denote concepts such as subjects, actions, and ideas noun, verb, adjective, adverb• Content words are open class words new words can be added• Example of new words : Steganography the art of hiding information in electronic text
  41. 41. • Function words express Grammatical Functions e.g., preposition, article, conjunctions, pron ouns• Function words connect the content words to the larger grammatical context.• Functions words are also called ‘closed class’ words no new words assed to this class.