Need of biodiversity.
Classification of biodiversity.
Biodiversity at international level.
Biodiversity at national level.
Causes of biodiversity:
Threats to biodiversity.
Effects of biodiversity.
Conservation of biodiversity:
Methods to prevent biodiversity.
‗Biological diversity‘ or biodiversity is that part of nature which
includes the differences in genes among the individuals of a
species, the variety and richness of all the plant and animal
species at different scales in space, locally, in a region, in the
country and the world, and various types of ecosystems, both
terrestrial and aquatic, within a defined area.
The word BIODIVERSITY
originates from the Greek word BIOS = LIFE
and Latin word DIVERSITAS = VARIETY or DIFFERENCE.
The whole word BIO DIVERSITY generally therefore means:
VARIETY OF LIFE.
Why is biodiversity important?
Everything that lives in an ecosystem is part of the web of
life, including humans. Each species of vegetation and each
creature has a place on the earth and plays a vital role in the
circle of life. Plant, animal, and insect species interact and
depend upon one another for what each offers, such as food,
shelter, oxygen, and soil enrichment.
Maintaining a wide diversity of species in each ecosystem is
necessary to preserve the web of life that sustains all living
things. In his 1992 best-seller, "The Diversity of Life," famed
Harvard University biologist Edward O. Wilson -- known as
the "father of biodiversity," -- said, "It is reckless to suppose
that biodiversity can be diminished indefinitely without
threatening humanity itself."
diversity is the
species that are
a collection of
diversity refers to
the diversity of a
place at the level
The term differs
which refers to
variation in species
Genetic diversity, the level of biodiversity refers to
the total number of genetic characteristics in the
genetic makeup of a species.
Includes diversity above
the species level.
Biologists have viewed
diversity above the
species level in various
ways. Some alternative ways to
categorize it include:
species = a particular type of
organism; a population or group
of populations whose members
share certain characteristics and
can freely breed with one another
and produce fertile offspring
› Species diversity = the number
or variety of species in a
• Includes the differences
in DNA composition
within a given species.
› Species richness = number of
• Adaptation to particular
environmental conditions may
weed out genetic variants that
are not successful.
› Evenness, or relative abundance
= extent to which numbers of
different species are equal or
• But populations benefit from
some genetic diversity, so as
to avoid inbreeding or disease
•India is known for its rich heritage of biodiversity.
• India is one of the 17 mega-diverse countries in the world.
• With only 2.4 % of the world‘s area, India accounts for 7–8 % of the world‘s
recorded plant and animal species.
• India‘s ten biogeographic zones possess an exemplary diversity of ecological
habitats like alpine forests, grasslands, wetlands, coastal and marine ecosystems,
and desert ecosystems.
• Amongst the existing biota, 91,307 species of animals of which 2,557 Protista,
12,470 general invertebrates, 69,903 arthropods, 4,994 vertebrates, and 45,500
species of plants as well as 5,650 microbial species have been documented in its
10 bio-geographic regions.
• India has four out of thirty-four global biodiversity hotspots, which is an indicator
of high degree of endemism (of species) in India.
• About 5,150 plant species and 1,837 animal species are endemic to India.
•India‘s biodiversity includes wild relatives of agricultural crops and domesticated
India has 16 major types and 251 subtypes of forests.
Indigenous medicine systems utilize nearly 6,500 native plants for both human and
India‘s diverse preponderance of native tribal and ethnic groups has contributed
significantly in the conservation and diversification of biodiversity. Its cultural and ethnic
diversity includes over 550 tribal communities of 227 ethnic groups spread over 5,000
forested villages. India proudly upholds the tradition of nature conservation.
In 252 B.C., the Emperor Asoka established protected areas (PAs) for mammals, birds,
fish and forests through a proclamation. Jim Corbett National Park covering an area of
325 sq km came into being as the India‘s first and world‘s third National Park in 1936.
India has currently 4.79 % of total geographic area under an elaborate network of PAs,
which includes 99 National Parks, 513 wildlife sanctuaries, 43 conservation reserves, 4
community reserves and 3 biodiversity heritage sites.
India has a National Wildlife Action Plan, which envisages 10 % of the geographical
area of the country under PA coverage.
BENEFITS OF BIODIVERSITY
Batter crop varieties
Education and Research
Balance of nature
Regulation of climate
Degradation of waste
Cleaning of air and water
Cycling of nutrients
Control of potential pest and disease causing species
Detoxification of soil and sediments
Stabilization of land against erosion
Carbon sequestration and global climate change
Maintenance of Soil fertility
Flora and fauna diversity depends onClimate
Presence of other species
Most of the biodiversity concentrated in Tropical region.
A region with high biodiversity with most of spices being
India have two Biodiversity Hotspots- East Himalayan Region
and Western Ghat
THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY
Narrow geographical area
Low breeding rate
Overexploitation of selected species
Innovation by exotic species.
Global warming and climate change
Species and taxonomy
Each species is classified within
a hierarchy reflecting
Two related species might be in
the same genus; two related
genera in the same family, etc.
Diversity of subspecies
Endangered golden lion
tamarin, endemic to Brazil’s
Atlantic rainforest, which has
been almost totally destroyed.
diversity exists in
had 8 subspecies.
5 persist today,
Conservation approaches: International treaties
• Various treaties have helped conserve biota.
• A major one is CITES, the Convention on International Trade in
Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, prepared in 1973.
• It bans international trade and transport of body parts of endangered
Conservation approaches: International treaties
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), from the Rio Conference in 1992, aims to:
• Use it sustainably
• Ensure fair distribution of its benefits
The CBD has been signed by 188 nations, but not by the United States.
Biodiversity is the variety of life forms on earth and the essential
interdependence of all living things.
As defined in convention on Biological diversity singed at Rio De Jenerio
(Brazil) in 1992 by 154 countries, the Biodiversity defined as “the variability among
living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other
aquatic eco-systems and the ecological complexes of which the area part- this
include diversity with in species, between species and of ecosystem.”
According to IUCN in 1998, “the variety and variability of species of their
population, the variety of species of their life forms, the diversity of the complex
association with species with their interaction and their ecological process which
The first convention on biodiversity organized at Rio De
Janerio, capital of Brazil from June 5 to 16, 1992 named as United
Nation Conference On Environment and Development
(UNCED), batter known as Rio Summit to maintain ecological
balance and enrich biodiversity. The agreement on biodiversity
signed by 150 countries including three programmes To ensure conservation of biodiversity
Sustainable use of biodiversity
Rational and equitable share of profit to accrue from use of
The second convention organized at Johannesburg in 2002
called World Summit On Sustainable Development (WSSD)
where the Biodiversity and Sustainable Ecosystem Management
was the issue.
The International Conference held on Biodiversity in
Relation to Food & Human Security in a warming planet 15-17
February, 2010 in Chennai.
International Conference on Wildlife & Biodiversity
Conservation held on 3 to 5 June, 2010 at Dal lake, Srinagar,
Indian Biodiversity Congress (IBC) & Indian Biodiversity
Expo(IBE) will be held on 27-31 December at
CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY: INSITU AND EX-SITU
Conservation of a species is best done by protecting
its habitat along with all the other species
that live in it in nature.
However, there are situations in which an endangered species is so close to extinction that
methods are instituted, the species may be rapidly
driven to extinction.
Conserving Biodiversity in protected HabitatsIn situ conservation
Ex situ conservation
Seed Bank, Gene Bank, Pollen Bank, DNA
Restoration of Biodiversity
Imparting Environmental Education
Enacting, strengthening and enforcing Environmental
Reviewing the agriculture practice
Conservation through Biotechnology
Seed Bank, Gene
Biodiversity loss and species extinction
• Extinction = last member of a species dies and the species vanishes
forever from Earth
• Extirpation = disappearance of a particular population, but not the
entire species globally
• These are natural processes.
On average one species goes extinct naturally
500–1,000 years—this is the background rate of extinction.
• 99% of all species that ever lived are now extinct.
Benefits of biodiversity: Biophilia
Biophilia = human love for and attachment to other living things; ―the
connections that human beings subconsciously seek out with the rest of
Affinity for parks and wildlife
Keeping of pets
Valuing real estate with landscape views
Interest in escaping cities to go hiking, birding, fishing, hunting,
Do we have an ethical responsibility to prevent species
On one hand, as humans we need to use resources and consume
other organisms to survive.
On the other hand, we have conscious reasoning ability and are able
to make conscious decisions.
• Scientific discipline devoted to understanding the factors, forces,
and processes that influence the loss, protection, and restoration of
biological diversity within and among ecosystems.
• Applied and goal-oriented: conservation biologists
intend to prevent extinction.
• This discipline arose in recent decades as biologists grew alarmed
at the degradation of natural systems they had spent their lives
Equilibrium theory of island biogeography
• Explains how species diversity patterns arise on islands, as a result of:
• Island size
• Distance from the mainland
• The theory originally developed as basic science for oceanic islands.
• Then it was found to apply to islands of habitat (fragments) within terrestrial
systems, for conservation biology.
Conservation approaches: Captive breeding
• Many endangered species are being bred in zoos, to boost populations and
reintroduce them into the wild.
• This has worked so far for the
(in photo, condor hand puppet feeds
chick so it imprints on birds, not
• But this is worthless if there is not
adequate habitat left in the wild.
Conservation approaches: Umbrella species
• When habitat is preserved to meet the needs of an ―umbrella species,‖
it helps preserve habitat for many other species. (Thus, primary species
serve as an ―umbrella‖ for others.)
• Large species with large home ranges (like tigers and other top predators) are
good umbrella species.
• So are flagship species, or charismatic species that win public affection, like the
Conservation approaches: Biodiversity hotspots
Biodiversity hotspot = an area
that supports an especially high
number of species endemic to
the area, found nowhere else in
Conservation approaches: Biodiversity hotspots
Conservation approaches: Community-based conservation
• Many environmentalists from developed nations who want to establish reserves in developing
nations have been viewed with resentment by local people.
• But today many efforts work with local communities to get them invested in the conservation of their
own natural resources.
• This community-based conservation makes efforts more complex, but will probably be more
successful in the long run.
Conservation approaches: Economic incentives
Debt-for-nature swaps = a non-governmental organization (NGO) raises money and offers to pay off
debt for a developing country, in exchange for parks, reserves, habitat protection
Conservation concession = an NGO offers money to a developing nation‘s government for a
concession to some of its land—for conservation, rather than for resource extraction
Biodiversity is our life. If the Biodiversity got lost at this rate then in
near future, the survival of human being will be threatened. So, it is
our moral duty to conserve Biodiversity as well our Environment.
Long-term maintenance of species and their management requires
co-operative efforts across entire landscapes. Biodiversity should be
dealt with at scale of habitats or ecosystems rather than at species