Biodiversity and its conservation


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Biodiversity and its conservation

  2. 2. Index: Biodiversity: Biodiversity meaning. Need of biodiversity. Classification of biodiversity. Biodiversity at international level. Biodiversity at national level. Causes of biodiversity: Threats to biodiversity. Effects of biodiversity. Conservation of biodiversity: Methods to prevent biodiversity. Conservation approaches. Conclusion.
  4. 4. Biodiversity Bio = Diversity = Variety
  5. 5. Definition: ‗Biological diversity‘ or biodiversity is that part of nature which includes the differences in genes among the individuals of a species, the variety and richness of all the plant and animal species at different scales in space, locally, in a region, in the country and the world, and various types of ecosystems, both terrestrial and aquatic, within a defined area. The word BIODIVERSITY originates from the Greek word BIOS = LIFE and Latin word DIVERSITAS = VARIETY or DIFFERENCE. The whole word BIO DIVERSITY generally therefore means: VARIETY OF LIFE.
  6. 6. Why is biodiversity important? Everything that lives in an ecosystem is part of the web of life, including humans. Each species of vegetation and each creature has a place on the earth and plays a vital role in the circle of life. Plant, animal, and insect species interact and depend upon one another for what each offers, such as food, shelter, oxygen, and soil enrichment. Maintaining a wide diversity of species in each ecosystem is necessary to preserve the web of life that sustains all living things. In his 1992 best-seller, "The Diversity of Life," famed Harvard University biologist Edward O. Wilson -- known as the "father of biodiversity," -- said, "It is reckless to suppose that biodiversity can be diminished indefinitely without threatening humanity itself."
  7. 7. Species Ecosystem diversity is the effective number of different species that are represented in a collection of individuals diversity refers to the diversity of a place at the level of ecosystems. The term differs from biodiversity, which refers to variation in species rather than ecosystems. Genetic diversity, the level of biodiversity refers to the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species.
  8. 8. Ecosystem diversity Genetic diversity SPECIES DIVERSITY  Includes diversity above the species level. Biologists have viewed diversity above the species level in various ways. Some alternative ways to categorize it include:  Community diversity  Habitat diversity  Landscape diversity species = a particular type of organism; a population or group of populations whose members share certain characteristics and can freely breed with one another and produce fertile offspring › Species diversity = the number or variety of species in a particular region • Includes the differences in DNA composition among individuals within a given species. › Species richness = number of species • Adaptation to particular environmental conditions may weed out genetic variants that are not successful. › Evenness, or relative abundance = extent to which numbers of different species are equal or skewed • But populations benefit from some genetic diversity, so as to avoid inbreeding or disease epidemics.
  9. 9. •India is known for its rich heritage of biodiversity. • India is one of the 17 mega-diverse countries in the world. • With only 2.4 % of the world‘s area, India accounts for 7–8 % of the world‘s recorded plant and animal species. • India‘s ten biogeographic zones possess an exemplary diversity of ecological habitats like alpine forests, grasslands, wetlands, coastal and marine ecosystems, and desert ecosystems. • Amongst the existing biota, 91,307 species of animals of which 2,557 Protista, 12,470 general invertebrates, 69,903 arthropods, 4,994 vertebrates, and 45,500 species of plants as well as 5,650 microbial species have been documented in its 10 bio-geographic regions. • India has four out of thirty-four global biodiversity hotspots, which is an indicator of high degree of endemism (of species) in India. • About 5,150 plant species and 1,837 animal species are endemic to India. •India‘s biodiversity includes wild relatives of agricultural crops and domesticated animals.
  10. 10.  India has 16 major types and 251 subtypes of forests. Indigenous medicine systems utilize nearly 6,500 native plants for both human and animal healthcare. India‘s diverse preponderance of native tribal and ethnic groups has contributed significantly in the conservation and diversification of biodiversity. Its cultural and ethnic diversity includes over 550 tribal communities of 227 ethnic groups spread over 5,000 forested villages. India proudly upholds the tradition of nature conservation. In 252 B.C., the Emperor Asoka established protected areas (PAs) for mammals, birds, fish and forests through a proclamation. Jim Corbett National Park covering an area of 325 sq km came into being as the India‘s first and world‘s third National Park in 1936. India has currently 4.79 % of total geographic area under an elaborate network of PAs, which includes 99 National Parks, 513 wildlife sanctuaries, 43 conservation reserves, 4 community reserves and 3 biodiversity heritage sites. India has a National Wildlife Action Plan, which envisages 10 % of the geographical area of the country under PA coverage.
  11. 11. Causes of BIODIVERSITY
  12. 12. BENEFITS OF BIODIVERSITY Consumptive value: Food/Drink Fuel Medicine Batter crop varieties Industrial Material Non-Consumptive Value: Recreation Education and Research Traditional value Ecological services: Balance of nature Biological productivity Regulation of climate Degradation of waste Cleaning of air and water Cycling of nutrients Control of potential pest and disease causing species Detoxification of soil and sediments Stabilization of land against erosion Carbon sequestration and global climate change Maintenance of Soil fertility
  13. 13. Flora and fauna diversity depends onClimate Altitude Soils Presence of other species  Most of the biodiversity concentrated in Tropical region. BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOTS: A region with high biodiversity with most of spices being Endemic. India have two Biodiversity Hotspots- East Himalayan Region and Western Ghat
  14. 14. THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY Natural causes: Narrow geographical area Low population Low breeding rate Natural disasters Anthropogenic causes: Habitat modification Overexploitation of selected species Innovation by exotic species. Pollution Hunting Global warming and climate change Agriculture Domino effect
  15. 15. Species and taxonomy Each species is classified within a hierarchy reflecting evolutionary relationships. Two related species might be in the same genus; two related genera in the same family, etc.
  16. 16. Threatened endangered species In India
  17. 17. Diversity of subspecies Endangered golden lion tamarin, endemic to Brazil’s Atlantic rainforest, which has been almost totally destroyed. Within species, diversity exists in subspecies, or geographic variations. The tiger, Panthera tigris, had 8 subspecies. 5 persist today, including Panthera tigris altaica, the Siberian tiger.
  19. 19. Conservation approaches: International treaties • Various treaties have helped conserve biota. • A major one is CITES, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, prepared in 1973. • It bans international trade and transport of body parts of endangered organisms.
  20. 20. Conservation approaches: International treaties The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), from the Rio Conference in 1992, aims to: • Conserve biodiversity • Use it sustainably • Ensure fair distribution of its benefits The CBD has been signed by 188 nations, but not by the United States. Biodiversity is the variety of life forms on earth and the essential interdependence of all living things. As defined in convention on Biological diversity singed at Rio De Jenerio (Brazil) in 1992 by 154 countries, the Biodiversity defined as “the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic eco-systems and the ecological complexes of which the area part- this include diversity with in species, between species and of ecosystem.”  According to IUCN in 1998, “the variety and variability of species of their population, the variety of species of their life forms, the diversity of the complex association with species with their interaction and their ecological process which influences perform.”
  21. 21. BIODIVERSITY CONVENSIONS The first convention on biodiversity organized at Rio De Janerio, capital of Brazil from June 5 to 16, 1992 named as United Nation Conference On Environment and Development (UNCED), batter known as Rio Summit to maintain ecological balance and enrich biodiversity. The agreement on biodiversity signed by 150 countries including three programmes To ensure conservation of biodiversity Sustainable use of biodiversity Rational and equitable share of profit to accrue from use of genetic resources. The second convention organized at Johannesburg in 2002 called World Summit On Sustainable Development (WSSD) where the Biodiversity and Sustainable Ecosystem Management was the issue.
  22. 22. The International Conference held on Biodiversity in Relation to Food & Human Security in a warming planet 15-17 February, 2010 in Chennai. International Conference on Wildlife & Biodiversity Conservation held on 3 to 5 June, 2010 at Dal lake, Srinagar, Kashmir. Indian Biodiversity Congress (IBC) & Indian Biodiversity Expo(IBE) will be held on 27-31 December at Thriuvananthapuram, Kerala
  23. 23. CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY: INSITU AND EX-SITU In-situ conservation: Conservation of a species is best done by protecting its habitat along with all the other species that live in it in nature. Ex-sittu conservation: However, there are situations in which an endangered species is so close to extinction that unless alternate methods are instituted, the species may be rapidly driven to extinction. Biodiversity inventories Conserving Biodiversity in protected HabitatsIn situ conservation Ex situ conservation Seed Bank, Gene Bank, Pollen Bank, DNA Bank Restoration of Biodiversity Imparting Environmental Education Enacting, strengthening and enforcing Environmental Legislation Population Control Reviewing the agriculture practice Controlling Urbanization Conservation through Biotechnology
  24. 24. Biodiversity Conservation Ex situ In situ Sacred groves and lakes Biosphere Reserves Terrestrial National parks, wildlife sanctuaries Sacred plant home garden Seed Bank, Gene bank, Cryopreservation Marine Botanical garden, Zoological garden, Aquaria
  25. 25. Biodiversity loss and species extinction • Extinction = last member of a species dies and the species vanishes forever from Earth • Extirpation = disappearance of a particular population, but not the entire species globally • These are natural processes. On average one species goes extinct naturally every 500–1,000 years—this is the background rate of extinction. • 99% of all species that ever lived are now extinct.
  26. 26. Benefits of biodiversity: Biophilia Biophilia = human love for and attachment to other living things; ―the connections that human beings subconsciously seek out with the rest of life‖: • • • • Affinity for parks and wildlife Keeping of pets Valuing real estate with landscape views Interest in escaping cities to go hiking, birding, fishing, hunting, backpacking, etc.
  27. 27. Ethics? Do we have an ethical responsibility to prevent species extinction? On one hand, as humans we need to use resources and consume other organisms to survive. On the other hand, we have conscious reasoning ability and are able to make conscious decisions.
  28. 28. Conservation biology • Scientific discipline devoted to understanding the factors, forces, and processes that influence the loss, protection, and restoration of biological diversity within and among ecosystems. • Applied and goal-oriented: conservation biologists intend to prevent extinction. • This discipline arose in recent decades as biologists grew alarmed at the degradation of natural systems they had spent their lives studying.
  29. 29. Equilibrium theory of island biogeography • Explains how species diversity patterns arise on islands, as a result of: • Immigration • Extinction • Island size • Distance from the mainland • The theory originally developed as basic science for oceanic islands. • Then it was found to apply to islands of habitat (fragments) within terrestrial systems, for conservation biology.
  30. 30. Conservation approaches: Captive breeding • Many endangered species are being bred in zoos, to boost populations and reintroduce them into the wild. • This has worked so far for the California condor (in photo, condor hand puppet feeds chick so it imprints on birds, not humans). • But this is worthless if there is not adequate habitat left in the wild.
  31. 31. Conservation approaches: Umbrella species • When habitat is preserved to meet the needs of an ―umbrella species,‖ it helps preserve habitat for many other species. (Thus, primary species serve as an ―umbrella‖ for others.) • Large species with large home ranges (like tigers and other top predators) are good umbrella species. • So are flagship species, or charismatic species that win public affection, like the panda.
  32. 32. Conservation approaches: Biodiversity hotspots Biodiversity hotspot = an area that supports an especially high number of species endemic to the area, found nowhere else in the world
  33. 33. Conservation approaches: Biodiversity hotspots Global map of biodiversity hotspots, as determined by Conservatio n International.
  34. 34. Conservation approaches: Community-based conservation • Many environmentalists from developed nations who want to establish reserves in developing nations have been viewed with resentment by local people. • But today many efforts work with local communities to get them invested in the conservation of their own natural resources. • This community-based conservation makes efforts more complex, but will probably be more successful in the long run. Conservation approaches: Economic incentives Debt-for-nature swaps = a non-governmental organization (NGO) raises money and offers to pay off debt for a developing country, in exchange for parks, reserves, habitat protection Conservation concession = an NGO offers money to a developing nation‘s government for a concession to some of its land—for conservation, rather than for resource extraction
  35. 35. CONCLUSION Biodiversity is our life. If the Biodiversity got lost at this rate then in near future, the survival of human being will be threatened. So, it is our moral duty to conserve Biodiversity as well our Environment. Long-term maintenance of species and their management requires co-operative efforts across entire landscapes. Biodiversity should be dealt with at scale of habitats or ecosystems rather than at species level.
  36. 36. The end REPORTED BY •Anil •akhil