A TECHNICAL PAPER
“SEDIMENTARY BASINS OF INDIA”
AKHILESH KUMAR MAURYA
Enrollment No: R040307003
Under the guidance of
MR. M. SASI SEKHAR
Department of Communication.
UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM & ENERGY STUDIES
(ISO 9001:2000 Certified& NAAC Accredited)
Regional Center, GIET Campus, NH-5 Velugubanda Village
Rajanagaram Mandal, Rajahmundry -533294, East Godavari Dist, Andhra Pradesh.
I hereby declare that this technical paper entitled “SEDIMENTARY BASINS
OF INDIA” has been prepared by me during the months of April-May 2009
under the Guidance of Mr. M. SASI SEKHAR (faculty member) to fulfill the
requisites for the paper of technical communication.
I also declare that this project is a result of my own effort and that it
has not been submitted to any other University or published any time before.
Date: AKHILESH KUMAR MAURYA
With completion of report on “Sedimentary Basins Of India” I would like to express my
gratitude to all of people who helped me and guided.
I extend my gratitude to our Technical Communication faculty Mr. M. SASI SEKHAR,
Lecturer, Dept. of Comm for his support and guidance throughout the period.
I also would like to extend my thanks to Ms. M. Harsini Devi, Lecturer, Dept. of Comm. For
extending kind support.
Last but not the least I would like to thank Mr. Kumar Abhinav, (MBA-UAM) who guided me
throughout the project .
I would like to thank all once again.
Akhilesh Kumar Maurya
Based on the exploration carried out so far and status of knowledge in terms of occurrence of
hydrocarbon sedimentary basin of India is divided into 4 categories.
The petroliferous basin with proved hydrocarbon reserves and where commercial production has
These basins are:
Sedimentary basin with proved occurrence of hydrocarbons but from which no commercial
production has been obtained yet.
These basins are:
Andaman – Nicobar
Sedimentary basins with no significant oil & gas shows but which on Geological considerations
are considered to be prospective.
These basins are:
Petroliferous basins with uncertain prospects which require basic data to be generated for
prognosis. It includes the basins which bear an analogy with similar hydrocarbon producing
basins in the world and may be prospective.
Kashmir valley (Karewa)
Assam –Arakan Basin
It includes Assam, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Mizoram and Tripura. The eastern
limit is defined by Patkai, Barali and associate ranges forming the Nagga hills and to the north,
Himalayas culminating in Narmcha Barwa. The principal oil fields of OIL & ONGC, to the
South-West lie in the Mikir Hills which are probably the North-Eastern prolongation of the
The Assam shelf has an extent of 40,000 sq.km. and includes the Shillong Plateau, the Garo,
Khasi, Jaintia, Mikir Hills and the upper Assam valley. The Southern edge of the platform is
demarcated by the mobile belt of the Assam-Arakan Geosyncline with very thick molasse and fly
ash sediments of Cretaceous and Tertiaryage. The shelf sediments of the same age also observed
in outcrop in Mikir Hills and Shillong plateau. The Geosynclinal sediments are exposed in South
of Naga thrust.
The Dauki Fault separates the sediments of Bengal Basin from exposed shelf sediments leaving
platform closed by the convergence of Himalayas and Naga Hills in the North-East in the area of
Minshmi Hills of Arunachal Pradesh.
GEOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF UPEER ASSAM SHELF
Pre – tertiary
it comprises of Precambrian Quartz and other metamorphic rocks. It also consists of some lava
flows of Jurasic age and lower gondwana beds in Eastern Himalayas.
It consists of a shelf facies and geosynclical facies. The shelf facies is found in the Shilong
Platue and the Mikir Hills whereas geosynclinals facies are found in Naga Hills. Both of facies
are separated by Schuppen Belt.
Paleocene- Eocene Deposition
The development of this basin started with the deposition of Basal sandstones and Sylhet
Limestones In Paleocene- Eocene time. The deposition was lagoonal to shallow marine.
Eocene- Oligocene deposition.
Kopili and barail formations were deposited during this age. The shelf was unstable.sedimantion
kept pace with subsidence intermittent period of slight emergency of the basin during this
Milo- Pilocene deposition
Miocene sediments are represented by Surma and Tipam groups of sediments. Surma is
identified by inter bedded sand stone & shales and change in heavy mineral.
Tipam group is further subdivided in 4 formations: geleki sandstone, Lakwa sandstone, Girujan
sandstone and Nazira sandstone. The Tipam sediments of Mio-Pliocene age were deposited
disconformably over partially eroded Barail surface with an overlap towards North-West. Tipam
sediments were deposited mainly in fresh water environmental but influence of some back water
was also observed. All oil producing sands of Digboi oil field lie in this group and in
In the Mio-Pliocene and later orogenic phases, the northern rim and part of the eastern rim of the
Assam-Arakan basin were raised and driven forward in a series of overthrust masses towards and
over a comparatively stable spur forming part. of the Indian shield.
During this period, some of the criss-cross basement controlled faults got reactivated and
resulted in formation of structures like Geleki, Lakwa etc.
The tectonic movements during this period also resulted in initial formation of the Brahmaputra
Arch and the fore deep in front of the rising Himalayas.
During the Plio-Pleistocene time, Assam platform formed part of the frontal deep of the
Himalayas and was consequently depressed northwards. It accommodates a huge thickness of
molasses derived from the rising Himalayas. During the same time, intense orogenic activity was
observed in the Naga Mobile Belt.
Habitat of oil in Upper Assam Shelf
The habitat of oil mainly depends on basinal configuration and stratigraphic occurrence. As per
recent studies it is found that towards the shelf-geosynclinal margin, Tipam oil and gas
accumulation increases in frequency and volume (Lakwa, Geleki, Jorajan).
The Lakwa & Geleki have oil accumulation both inBarail and Tipam reservoirs.
The Argillaceous beds of Lower Tertiary age are the main source rocks for hydrocabon
generation in this field.
THE CAMBAY BASIN
The Cambay Basin occupies an area of approximately 56,000 sq.km. The Cambay Basin is an
intra -cratonic graben and bounded by series of faults one after another paralleling the Dharwar
trend and cuts across the Narmada and Aravalli trends. This basin extends to the North in
offshore as a narrow graben. The graben is parallel with the
coast between mainland and Bombay High.
The Cambay Basin can be divided into six tectonic blocks :
The Cambay basin has developed in three structural stages. The lower stage is represented by
Mesozoic rocks, middle stage by thick basaltic lava flow which is better known as Deccan Trap
and finally upper stage represented by Neogene sequences. The Mesozoic rocks are exposed in
the Western and Southern part of the basin and also encountered during drilling in the North-
West part of the basin.
The sedimentary sequences found in this basin may be classified into six major stratigraphic
Mesozoic sedimentary sequence.
Paleocene-Lower Eocene sequence.
Lower to Middle Eocene sequence.
Middle and Upper Eocene sequence.
Late Eocene to Early Oligocene sequence.
Hydrocarbon habitat in Cambay Basin
The Cambay Shale is the main source rock in this basin. The organic matter content averages to
2.5% and mainly of sapropelic and humic in nature. The sandstone and siltstone of Ankleshwar,
Kalol and Kadi Formations are the main reservoir rocks in this basin.
The traps are structural, stratigraphic and combination type in this basin. Cambay Shale acts as
cap rock for hydrocarbon deposits in Kadi Formation and VagadKhol Formation, whereas in the
northern part, Tarapur Shale acts as cap rock. Telwa Shale of Ankleshwar Formation and Kanwa
Shale in South of Mahisagar river also serve as cap rock
BOMBAY OFFSHORE BASIN
The Bombay offshore region of the western continental shelf of India forms an important
hydrocarbon bearing province and comprises sediments of Cenozoic age.
This basin is extending from Saurashtra Coast in the North to Vengurla arch near Goa in the
South. It covers an area of about 1,20,000 sq.km. upto 200 m isobaths.
Evolution of Bombay Offshore started during break-up of Gondwana Land in Late Cretaceous.
This basin experienced deposition of thick Tertiary sedimentary sequences over a predominantly
Deccan Trap floor. Tectonically I the basin can be subdivided into Surat depression, Bombay
High platform, Ratnagiri block, Shelf margin basin and the Shelf-edge basement arc.
The sedimentary sequences deposited in this basin are of Paleogene and Neogene age which are
at places more than 5000 m thick. However, the thickness of sediments over the giant oil field
"Bombay High" is considerably less and vary in thickness from 1800 m -2000 m.
(1) Basement: The Archean basement is present over the paleohigh (viz. Bombay High,
Heera) and encountered in some of the wells directly below the Tertiary sediments.
(2) Paleocene-Lower Eocene sedimentarysequence: This unit is represented by Panna,
Jafarabad and Devgarh Formations.
Panna Formation is spread over the entire Bombay Offshore Basin excepting the
Paleohighs. It is represented by sandstone, claystone, shale andn coal bed at the middle.
It overlies Deccan Trap or Archean basement and is overlain unconformably by
Bassein/Belapur/Pipavav Formation which coincides with H-4 seismic marker. This
formation has deposited in shallow marine environment.
(3) Middle Eocene-Upper Eocene sequence: The Middle Eocene is represented by
Belapur Formation and Bassein Formation in Bombay Offshore Basin. The Belapur
Formation extends over Tapti-Da~an block, Mahim, Shelf margin and Diu block. It
unconformably overlies the Panna Formation qnd is overlain by Bassein Formation and
Diu Formation. Calcareous shale, claystone and limestone constitutes the dominant
The Bassein Formation is present throughout the Basin except in Tapti- Daman, Diu,
Bombay High and eastern part of South Ratnagiri. The Bassein Formation is represented
by limestone(porous packstone to wackestone). This formation is unconformably
underlain by Panna Formation and the H-4 seismic marker corresponds to the contact
between the two.
(4) Lower Oligocene sequence: This unit is represented by Mahuva Formation, Mukta
Formation and Heera Formation. The Mahuva Formation extends over Tapti-Daman
block and Diu block and is represented by shale with thin streaks of limestone.
Limestone generally disappears in Tapti area and shale becomes silty. This formation
has deposited in deltaic to inner neritic depositional environment.
Mukta formation is present in most part of the Bombay Offshore Basin excepting
Tapti- Daman block. It has sharp but comfortable relation with underlying Heera
formation. The formation consist of Argillaceous limestone.
(5) Upper Oliocene to Basal Miocene sequence: this unit is represented by Daman
formation in Tapti- Daman block, Alibag formation in Panna- Bassein block, Shelf
Margin block, Diu block, eastern part of Bombay high- DCS block, Eastern and central
part of Ratnagiri Block and Panvel formation in most part of Bombay High-DCS block,
western part of Ratnagiri block.
(6) Lower Miocene sequence: this unit is represented by Bombay Formation, Mahim
Formation and Ratnagiri Formation (lower- middle Miocene).
The Bombay Formation extends over eastern part of Bombay High-DC8 block, most of
Diu block and parts of Panna-Bassein block and is represented by mainly limestone
interspersed with thin shale layers. It has good porosity.
Mahim Formation is underlain by Bombay Formation with conformable contact in
central part of the Bombay Offshore Basin but unconformably underlain by
Daman/Alibag Formation and overlain by Tapti Formation. This formation consists
dominantly of shale with a few siltstone and limestone layers.
(7) Middle Miocene Sequence: This unit is represented by Tapti Formation and Bandra
Formation in Bombay Offshore Basin. The Bandra Formation deposited over Diu,
Bombay High, DCS and southern part of Panna-Bassein block consists mainly of
limestone with thin shale layers.
(8) Upper Miocene to Recent sequence: The Chinchini Formation is present through out
Bombay Offshore Basin. The formation consists of soft, sticky clays with intercalations
of claystone `and shale. Its contact with underlying litho units is characterised by a
regional unconformity. This formation has deposited in shallow marine environment
varying from inner neritic to outer neritic.
HABITAT OF HYDROCARBON IN BOMBAY OFFSHORE BASIN
Bombay Offshore Basin is producing nearly 70% oil and gas of India’s toltal hydrocarbon
production. The Bombay High is the only giant oil field so far discovered in Bombay offshore
Basin as well as in India. The medium sized Oil field are Panna, Neelam, Heera and Ratnagiri.
The Bassein, Daman, Mid Tapti and south Tapti are the major gas fields in this basin.
The major Producing horizons are Miocene limestone(Bombay High), Middle Eocene(Ratnagiri,
Panna, Mukta, Neelam, Bassein, Heera), Oligocene (Tapti- Daman) and other sequences.
The main source rock of Hydrocarbon generation is the pre-Middle Miocene shales in the Surat
Depression and Shelf Margin area. The Shales alternate with the limestone, deposited in local
depression of the above age, also act as source rock. The limestone of early Miocene- Eocene
sequence also contributed for hydrocarbon generation.
The main reservoir rock in this basin is limestone sequence of different ages. In addition to it,
sand, stone and siltstone sequence also occur as reservoir rocks( Daman, Tapti and Basal Clastics
etc.) . the post middle Miocene Shales mainly act as a cap rock in the basin.
KRISHNA GODAVARI BASIN
Krishna – Godavari Basin encompasses an area of about 15,000 sq. km. of onland and the East-
coast of India, West and North western limits are demarcated by Archaean outcrops.
To the east it exerted offshore into shelf. To the North, it is delimited by Pitha-puram cross trend.
The southern limit of the basin is demarcated by Pennar and Krishna ridge faults. The basin is
divided into six sub-basin by ridges, faults and Archaean outcrops.
(1) Mandapeta Sub-basin
(2) West Godavari sub-basin
(3) East Godavari sub-basin
(4) Krishna sub-basin
(5) Nizamapatnam sub-basin
(1) Pre-Cambrain metamorphic complex
(2) Lower Gondwana group (Premian- Triassic)
(3) Nizampatnam Group (Jurassic to Early Cretaceous)
(4) Gudivada Group (Early to Late Cretaceous)
(5) Vasishta Group (Paleocene to early Miocene)
(6) Gowthami Group (Oligocene to Pilocene)
(7) Andhra Alluvium (Quaternary)
HYDROCARBON HABITAT IN KRISHNA-GODAVARI BASIN
Qualitatively the Paleocene- Eocene shale and possibly the Eocene limestone can considered
good source rocks for the generation of oil. The deltaic sediments themselves could generate
hydrocarbon in still deeper parts of the basin where they were likely to have reached thermal
The cretaceous section in a large part of the basin can be considered to have given rise to gaseous
hydrocarbon from its predominant humic organic content.
Cretaceous clastics, platform facies, Late tertiary clastics serve as reservoir rocks. The offshore
producing field ‘Ravva’ consists of thin and thick layers of sandstone alternating with thick clay
LITHO-STRATIGRAPHIC SECTION ALONG A NE – SW PROFILE,
KRISHNA GODAVARI BASIN
NW-SE GEOLOGICAL CROSS SECTION, KRISHNA GODAVARI
The Cauvery Basin, situated 160 to 460 km south of Madras city, encompasses an area of 25,000
sq. km. falls in Indian territorial waters.
The basin is limited with West and Northwest by the basin margin fault and basement outcrops.
In the East, it is limited by the Srilankan Massif and the basin margin fault with southern part,
while the basin extends offshore on the shelf with northern part. Towards south the basin extends
upto the Gulf of Mannar.
The basin is subdivided into six sub-basin:-
I. Ariyalur Pondicherry sub-basin.
II. Tranquebar sub-basin
III. Thannjavur sub-basin
IV. Nagapatinam sub-basin
V. Ramnad Palk Bay sub-basin
VI. Mannar sub-basin
Pre-Cambrian Metamorphic Complex
Upper Gondwana Group
Uttatur Group (Early Cretaceous)
Ariyalur Group (Late Cretaceous)
Nagore Group (Paleocene to Eocene)
Narimanam Group (Oligocene to Recent)
HYDROCARBON HABITAT IN CAURVEY BASIN
The potential source beds in the Cretaceous section must have generated hydrocarbons.
Moderately lean, gas prone thermally immature source rocks are also present.
Clastic reservoir rocks are generally developed along the western margin of the Cauvery Basin
and along the flanks of the substance ridges.
Good development of suitable traps are expected in the basin due to basement drape, tilting and
faulting growth faults and diapirism in deltaic sequence, updip seals of porous clastics and
carbonates and onlap by major shales over sloping basement.