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HEALTHHealth is the general condition of aperson in all aspects. It is also a level offunctional and/or metabolic efficiency ofan organism, often implicitly human.health was defined as being "a state ofcomplete physical, mental, and socialwell-being and not merely the absenceof disease or infirmity". AkiHar
Medicine is the science andartof healing humans. Itincludes a variety ofhealth care practices evolvedto maintain and restorehealth by the prevention andtreatment of illness. AkiHar
Heart Attack A heart attack occurs when the supply of blood and oxygen to an area of heart muscle is blocked, usually by a clot in a coronary artery. Sudden death from heart attack is most often due to an arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat or rhythm) called ventricular fibrillation. If a person survives a heart attack, the injured area of the heart muscle is replaced by scar tissue. This weakens the pumping action of the heart and can lead to heart failure and other complications. AkiHar
Stroke A stroke is the rapidly developing loss of brain function(s) due to a disturbance in the blood supply to the brain. This can be due to ischemia (lack of blood supply) caused by thrombosis or embolism or due to a hemorrhage. As a result, the affected area of the brain is unable to function, leading to inability to move one or more limbs on one side of the body, inability to understand or formulate speech or inability to see one side of the visual field. AkiHar
Kidney Failure The main function of the kidneys is to get rid of waste products from our body that are created by the bodys constant metabolism. They filter all the natural toxins as impure blood passes through them, sending these toxins combined with excess water to the bladder for storage until urinated. Kidney failure occurs when both the kidneys fail to function as desired and are not able to rid the body of these harmful toxins and excess fluid. The toxic blood and excess water in turn will cause many other complications, leading to severe ailments, at times fatal. AkiHar
CancerCancer is a class of diseases in which agroup of cells display uncontrolled growth(division beyond the normal limits), invasion(intrusion on and destruction of adjacenttissues), and sometimes metastasis (spreadto other locations in the body via lymph orblood). These three malignant properties ofcancers differentiate them from benigntumors, which are self-limited, and do notinvade or metastasize. Most cancers form atumor but some, like leukemia, do not. Thebranch of medicine concerned with thestudy, diagnosis, treatment, and preventionof cancer is oncology. AkiHar
TREATMENT OF THESE PROBLEMS HEART ATTACK How Is a Heart Attack Treated? Early treatment can prevent or limit damage to the heart muscle. Acting fast, at the first symptoms of heart attack, can save your life. Medical personnel can begin diagnosis and treatment even before you get to the hospital. Certain treatments are usually started right away if a heart attack is suspected, even before the diagnosis is confirmed. These include: Oxygen Aspirin to prevent further blood clotting Nitroglycerin, to reduce the workload on the heart and improve blood flow through the coronary arteries Treatment for chest pain Once the diagnosis of heart attack is confirmed or strongly suspected, treatments to try to restore blood flow to the heart are started as soon as possible. Treatments include medicines and medical procedures. AkiHar
STROKEA stroke is a medical emergency. Immediate treatment can save lives and reduce disability. Call 911 or your local emergency number or seek immediate medical care at the first signs of a stroke.It is important to get the person to the emergency room immediately to determine if the stroke is due to bleeding or a blood clot so appropriate treatment can be started within 3 hours of when the stroke began .Treatment depends on the severity and cause of the stroke. A hospital stay is required for most strokes. AkiHar
KIDNEY FAILUREPrevention is always the goal with kidney failure. Chronic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes are devastating because of the damage that they can do to kidneys and other organs. Lifelong diligence is important in keeping blood sugar and blood pressure within normal limits. Specific treatments are dependent upon the underlying diseases.Once kidney failure is present, the goal is to prevent further deterioration of renal function. If ignored, the kidneys will progress to complete failure, but if underlying illnesses are addressed and treated aggressively, kidney function can be preserved, though not always improved. AkiHar
CANCER Biologic therapies help the immune system to function better by using substances that occur naturally in your body. The therapy may stimulate your body to make more of the substance, or the therapy may be a man-made version of that natural substance itself. Other types of therapies use cells from the patients body, which are then altered in a laboratory and given back to the patient. Alternative names for biologic therapies include biologic agents, biological, biological response modifiers (BRMs), or immunotherapy. The bodys immune system helps to prevent disease, but it also plays a role in preventing cancer from developing or spreading. The goal of biologic therapy is to enhance this natural defense and its ability to fight cancer. Doctors do not completely understand how these therapies work to fight cancer, but the treatments are thought to stop or slow the growth of cancer cells, to make it easier for the immune system to destroy these cells, and to prevent cancer from spreading to other parts of the body. AkiHar
Obesity is a medical OBESITY condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems. body mass index (BMI), a measurement which compares weight and height, defines people as overweight (pre-obese) when their BMI is between 25 kg/m2 and 30 kg/m2, and obese when it is greater than 30 kg/m2.AkiHar AkiHar
REASONS FOR OBESITYObesity increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularly heart disease, type 2 diabetes, breathing difficulties during sleep, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis.Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive dietary calories, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility, although a few cases are caused primarily by genes, endocrine disorders, medications or psychiatric illness. AkiHar
Evidence to support the view that some obese people eat little yet gain weight due to a slow metabolism is limited; on average obese people have a greater energy expenditure than their thin counterparts due to the energy required to maintain an increased body mass.The primary treatment for obesity is dieting and physical exercise. To supplement this, or in case of failure, anti-obesity drugs may be taken to reduce appetite or inhibit fat absorption.In severe cases, surgery is performed or an intragastric balloon is placed to reduce stomach volume and/or bowel length, leading to earlier satiation and reduced ability to absorb nutrients from food AkiHar
Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, with increasing prevalence in adults and children, and authorities view it as one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century.Obesity is stigmatized in much of the modern world (particularly in the Western world), though it was widely perceived as a symbol of wealth and fertility at other times in history, and still is in some parts of the world AkiHar
OBESITY IN CHILDHOOD AND EFFECTSChildhood obesity is a condition where excess body fat negatively affects a childs health or wellbeing.Problems occur in obese children are usually emotional or psychological. Childhood obesity however can also lead to life- threatening conditions including diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, sleep problems, cancer, and other disorders. AkiHar
WORLDS MOST OBESE PERSON WALTER HUDSON(1944–1991),
INDIAS FIRST MEDICAL TRAIN LIFE LINE EXPRESS AkiHar
The Lifeline Express or Jeevan Rekha Express is a mobile hospital train run by the Impact India Foundation. It was developed in collaboration with the Indian Railways and Health Ministry and has been funded by Impact UK, international charitable sources, Indian corporate houses and individuals. It started on 16 July 1991; so far the service has benefitted 400,000 Indians in the remotest rural parts of the country over the course of approximately ninety-three projects. AkiHar
Sociology of MedicineCentral notions:Social inequalities are important in explaining health and illness in modern societies.Medicine is a system of social regulation. AkiHar
Figure 14.2 Private Insurance by Race and Ethnicity AkiHar
HealthHealth:The normal functioning of an organism. Examples of health depend on a given society’s definition of which functions are “normal,” reflecting the society’s concept of the good life. AkiHar
DiseaseDisease: A general lack of comfort. Examples of disease depend on a given society’s definition of what is “comfortable,” reflecting the society’s concept of the good life.
Health and DiseaseA society’s conception of health necessarily tends to involve a moral description of “the good life.”The description of the average is often used as a measure of morality. AkiHar
Medicalization of DevianceMedicalization of Deviance: The process by which medicine has taken over some of the functions previously attributed to religion and the law in terms of defining what is normal or desirable versus what is deviant.
Table 14.1 Global Summary of the AIDS Epidemic
Figures 14.4 and 14.5 Adultsand Children with HIV/AIDS AkiHar
Figure 14.6 Deaths of Adults and Children Due to AIDS, 2005
Figure 14.7 Sub-Saharan Africa HIV/AIDS Statistics AkiHar
Sick roleAs defined by Talcott Parsons, a role governed by social expectations. On the one hand, the sick role is a form of deviance insofar as it enables a person to ignore his or her social obligations and responsibilities; on the other, it is legitimate if the individual expresses a desire to be well again and seeks out appropriate treatment.
StigmaA label that changes the way an individualis viewed in society, typically in a negativemanner. For example, because AIDS hasbecome associated with homosexuals anddrug users, it carries a stigma—despitethe fact that its sufferers include newbornbabies.
American Medical AssociationEstablished in 1847Founders adhered to the medical belief system dubbed allopathyIn the early decades of the twentieth century, the AMA achieved a dominant position in the medical profession
Biomedical ModelThe dominant set of beliefs, values, and assumptions in Western medicine. ◦ Assumes a separation between mind and body ◦ Treatment concentrates on the body like it were a machine ◦ Takes very little account of social, psychological, or behavioral factors
Table 14.2 Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Emile DurkheimAccording to Durkheim, variations in certain mortality rates, such as suicides, could be regarded as signs of whether a society had a healthy or “pathological” level of social integration.
DurkheimDurkheim hypothesized that both excessive individualism and excessive social integration were pathological.
DurkheimThe two most common forms of pathological integration in modern society were those in which individuals were left without moral support, giving rise to “egoistic suicide,” and those in which individuals were given too little guidance about attainable norms and thus were likely to have unrealistic goals, resulting in “anomic suicide.”
Life expectancyA measure that refers to the average number of years individuals are expected to liveSocial factors, such as nutrition, housing, unsanitary living conditions, types of occupation, family situation, and lifestyle affect life expectancy
Life expectancy in the U.S.Black Americans have a significantly lower life expectancy than white Americans. Why?Life expectancy: BlacksWhites in 1920 45.3 54.9 in 2012 72.3 77.7
Reason for disparityHigher infant mortality among blacksThe rate for blacks is now 2.4 times that for whitesEven allowing for greater poverty and other material inequalities, experts are now suggesting that some of the difference may be attributable to the stress of racial discrimination and minority status experienced by black mothers.
Gender differencesWomen are more likely than men to consult a doctor and use medically prescribed drugs. ◦ It may be that women are more willing than men to express and report their symptoms to others. ◦ It may also be that women are socialized in ways that lead them to be more focused on health matters. ◦ There may also be a difference in the “vocabulary of illness” available to women compared to men.