CHAPTER - 3FIBRE TO FABRIC
1) Animal fibres :-   The common animal fibres are wool and silk.   Wool is obtained from sheep, goat, yak, camel, llama, ...
Goat
Yak
Camel
Llama
Alpaca
Silkworm
2) Wool :-  Wool is obtained from the fleece (hair ) of sheep, goat,camel, yak, llama, alpaca and other animals. These ani...
3) From fibres to wool :-   For obtaining wool sheep are reared and then their hair is cut and processed into wool. a) Rea...
b) Processing fibres into wool :-     The processing of fibres into wool is done in six steps :-  i) The fleece (hair) of ...
4a) Silk :-   Silk is obtained from silkworms.   The rearing of silkworms for obtaining silk is called   sericulture. b) L...
Silk mothsMale                Female
Life history of silk moth                  Larva               (Caterpiller)Eggs                                 Pupa     ...
Life history of silk moth                 Adult silk moth      Female silk moth with eggsCocoon with developing moth      ...
Mulberry tree
5) From cocoon to silk :-  Silk moths are reared and their cocoons are collected toget silk yarns (threads).a) Rearing of ...
From cocoon to silk
Rearing of silkworms
Processing of silk
Fibretofabric
Fibretofabric
Fibretofabric
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Fibretofabric

  1. 1. CHAPTER - 3FIBRE TO FABRIC
  2. 2. 1) Animal fibres :- The common animal fibres are wool and silk. Wool is obtained from sheep, goat, yak, camel, llama, alpaca etc. Silk is obtained from silk worm. Sheep
  3. 3. Goat
  4. 4. Yak
  5. 5. Camel
  6. 6. Llama
  7. 7. Alpaca
  8. 8. Silkworm
  9. 9. 2) Wool :- Wool is obtained from the fleece (hair ) of sheep, goat,camel, yak, llama, alpaca and other animals. These animals have a thick coat of hair on their bodiesbecause the hair traps air and air is a poor conductor ofheat. So the hair keeps their body warm. The most common wool is sheep wool. Yak wool is common in Tibet and Ladakh. The wool obtained from Angora goats of Jammu Kashmir is soft wool used for making shawls. Camel hair is also used as wool. Llama and Alpaca found in South America also yield wool.
  10. 10. 3) From fibres to wool :- For obtaining wool sheep are reared and then their hair is cut and processed into wool. a) Rearing and breeding of sheep :- Sheep are reared in many parts our country like Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttaracnhal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat etc. Sheep feed on grass and leaves. They are also fed with a mixture of pulses, corn, jowar, oilcakes and minerals. In winter sheep are kept indoors and fed on leaves, grain and dry fodder. Some breeds of sheep have thick hair on their body which yield good quality wool in large quantities. They are selectively bred to get sheep of good breed.
  11. 11. b) Processing fibres into wool :- The processing of fibres into wool is done in six steps :- i) The fleece (hair) of the sheep is removed from its body along with a thin layer of skin by using machines. This process is called shearing.ii) The sheared skin with hair is washed in tanks to remove grease, dust and dirt. This process is called scouring.iii) The hairy skin is sent to a factory where hairs of different textures are separated. This process is called sorting.iv) The small fluffy fibres called burrs are separated from the hairs and again washed and dried. v) The fibres are then dyed in different colours.vi) The fibres are then straightened, combed and rolled into yarn. They are then spun and woven into fabric.
  12. 12. 4a) Silk :- Silk is obtained from silkworms. The rearing of silkworms for obtaining silk is called sericulture. b) Life history of silk moth :- The female silk moth lays eggs which hatch into larvaecalled caterpillars or silk worms. The larva feeds onmulberry leaves and grows in size. Then it secretes fibersmade of protein and weaves the fibres around itselfcompletely and forms pupa. This covering is calledcocoon. The pupa then develops into a young silk moth.Silk yarn (thread) is obtained from the cocoon of the silkmoth. The most common silk moth is the mulberry silk moth.
  13. 13. Silk mothsMale Female
  14. 14. Life history of silk moth Larva (Caterpiller)Eggs Pupa (Cocoon) Adult silk moth
  15. 15. Life history of silk moth Adult silk moth Female silk moth with eggsCocoon with developing moth Eggs Cocoon (Pupa) Caterpiller (Larva)
  16. 16. Mulberry tree
  17. 17. 5) From cocoon to silk :- Silk moths are reared and their cocoons are collected toget silk yarns (threads).a) Rearing of silkworms :- The female silk moth layseggs. The eggs are warmed to a suitable temperature.Theeggs hatch into larvae called caterpiller or silk worms. Thesilkworms are kept in bamboo trays and feeds on mulberryleaves and grows in size. After 30 to 40 days the silk wormsstop eating and begins to spin cocoons. Inside the cocoonthe silk worm develops into silk moth.b) Processing of silk :- The cocoons are collected and keptin sunlight or boiled or exposed to steam. The silk fibresseparate out. The process of taking out the fibres from thecocoons is called reeling. Reeling is done by machines. Thesilk fibres are then spun into threads and woven into silkcloth.
  18. 18. From cocoon to silk
  19. 19. Rearing of silkworms
  20. 20. Processing of silk
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