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ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE                          QuickTime™ and a                       Photo CD Decompressor               ...
QuickTime™ and aPhoto CD Decompressorneeded to use this picture                               1-1 LIVING                  ...
Questions to ask• How the Earth works?• How are we affecting the Earth’s life supports  system?• How to deal with environm...
What do you think is our most serious environmental problem?a)    Corruption in governments and businesses,      and bad e...
Six important environmental                issues•   Population growth•   Increasing resource use•   Global climate change...
LIVING SUSTAINABLY         • SOLAR CAPITAL -           PROVIDES 99%OF OUR           ENERGY WE USE ON           EARTH.     ...
SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE      HARVEST          • SUPPLY OF            RESOURCES THAT            CAN BE            HARVESTED EA...
SUSTAINABLE EARTH• EARTH CAPITAL ARE USED AND  MAINTAINED OVER TIME.
What is sustainability?1.   Satisfying basic needs without     depleting or degrading             90%     resources2.   Ma...
SUSTAINABLE SOCIETY• MANAGES ITS ECONOMY AND  POPULATION SIZE WITHOUT EXCEEDING  ALL OR PART OF THE PLANET’S ABILITY  TO A...
CARRYING CAPACITY• DEFINED AS THE  MAXIMUM  NUMBER OF                QuickTime™ and a                        Photo CD Deco...
CARRYING CAPACITY• VARIES BY LOCATION• GLOBAL CHANGES• TYPES OF TECHNOLOGY USES TO  EXTRACT AND PROCESS THE  RESOURCES
QuickTime™ and a   Photo CD DecompressorARE WE LIVING OFF THE                     INTEREST OR THE PRINCIPAL?are needed to ...
QuickTime™ and a   Photo CD Decompressorare needed to use this picture
1-2GROWTH AND THE WEALTH GAP
LINEAR POPULATION        GROWTH• IS A QUANTITY THAT INCREASES AT  A CONSTANT AMOUNT PER UNIT OF  TIME.• IF PLOTTED ON A GR...
EXPONENTIAL GROWTH• IS WHERE THE QUANTITY INCREASES BY A  FIXED PERCENTAGE OF THE WHOLE IN A GIVEN  TIME AS EACH INCREASE ...
World Population Reached     1 billion in 1804     2 billion in 1927 (123 years later)     3 billion in 1960 (33 years lat...
The earth’s population is currently 6.6 billion people. The rate of population growth is 1.2 percent. How large will the e...
Which of the following would not be an example of sound science?1.   Calculating the destruction of trees in a forest     ...
Because developingnations make up81% of the world’s                        50%   50%population, theygenerate most of thepo...
Based on the map, inwhich three countrieswould you not expectto find high levels of                                 25%   ...
How many people live on the              earth?                       25%   25%   25%   25%1.   About 5 million2.   About ...
QuickTime™ and a   Photo CD Decompressorare needed to use this picture                                    Clip            ...
DEVELOPING COUNTRIES• LOW INDUSTRIALIZATION AND PER CAPITA  GNPs.• MAKES UP 80% OF THE WORLDS POPULATION.• 15% OF THE WORL...
Most population growth is     projected to occur in:                    50%     50%1. Developed   countries2. Developing  ...
QuickTime™ and a   Photo CD Decompressorare needed to use this picture                More Developed   Less Developed     ...
QuickTime™ and a   Photo CD Decompressorare needed to use this picture
QuickTime™ and a   Photo CD Decompressorare needed to use this picture
QuickTime™ and a   Photo CD Decompressorare needed to use this picture
QuickTime™ and aPhoto CD Decompressorneeded to use this picture
WHAT CAN BE DONE ABOUT THE WEALTH GAP?• NOTHING, BECAUSE PEOPLE MAKE THEIR OWN  BED SO THE MUST LIVE IN IT. IF WE HELP THE...
TOO MANY RICH PEOPLE      WEIGHING RELATIVE BURDENS ON THE PLANET•   READ PAUL EHRLICH’S ESSAY.•   WRITE A COUNTER POINT E...
1-3RESOURCES
Nonrenewable resources:                           25%   25%   25%   25%1. Are fixed in quantity2. Include solar energy3. D...
WHAT IS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT?• IS THE CURRENT GROWTH RATE SUSTAINABLE IN THE FUTURE?• THIS IDEA ASSUMES THAT WE RIGHT T...
ECOLOGICAL VS. ECONOMIC           RESOURCES• ECOLOGICAL RESOURCE - IS ANYTHING  REQUIRED BY AN ORGANISM FOR NORMAL  MAINTE...
RENEWABLE RESOURCES• RENEWABLE RESOURCES - SOLAR.• POTENTIALLY RENEWABLE RESOURCES -  CAN BE REPLENISHED FAIRLY RAPIDLY  T...
Which of the following countries has the     highest ecological footprint per capita?                           25%   25% ...
Per Capita Ecological Footprint    Country                         (Hectares of land per person)                          ...
Total Ecological Footprint    Country                                 (Hectares)                                          ...
QuickTime™ and a   Photo CD Decompressorare needed to use this picture
Some Major Problems     Fig. 1–13a   © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP
More Major Problems    Fig. 1–13b   © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP
Still More Major Problems       Fig. 1–13c   © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP
QuickTime™ and a   Photo CD Decompressorare needed to use this picture
QuickTime™ and a   Photo CD Decompressor         THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS.are needed to use this picture         “ IF I ...
QuickTime™ and a   Photo CD Decompressor          POSSIBLE SOLUTIONSare needed to use this picture      •USE THE COMMON-PR...
What is the tragedy of the                commons?                                 25%   25%   25%   25%1.   The depletion...
1-4POLLUTION
POINT SOURCE - COMES FROM A SINGLE, IDENTIFIABLESOURCE.NONPOINT SOURCE - RUNOFFTHREE FACTORS DETERMINED HOW SEVERE THEHARM...
SOLUTIONS TO POLLUTION• POLLUTION CONTROL-INPUT CONTROLTHREE Rs• POLLUTION PREVENTION- OUTPUT CONTROL1. TEMPORARY BANDAGE....
1-5 ENVIRONMENTAL ANDRESOURCE PROBLEMS: CAUSE     AND CONNECTIONS
• RAPID POPULATION GROWTH• RAPID AND WASTEFUL USE OF RESOURCES WITH TOOLITTLE EMPHASIS ON POLLUTION PREVENTION ANDWASTE RE...
QuickTime™ and a   Photo CD Decompressorare needed to use this picture                   Population X Affluence X Technolo...
QuickTime™ and a   Photo CD Decompressorare needed to use this picture
1-6Is our present course sustainable
Are things getting better or          worse?
1-8ENVIRONMENTAL WORLD VIEWS    AND SUSTAINABILITY
WHAT’S THE USE OF A HOUSE IF YOUDON’T HAVE A DECENT PLANET TOPUT IT ON? THOREAU• ENVIRONMENTAL WORLDVIEWS• PLANETARY MANAG...
SUSTAINABILITY– PLANETARY MANAGEMENT WORLDVIEW WE ARE THE BEST • THERE IS ALWAYS MORE • ALL EC. GROWTH IS GOOD • SUCCESS =...
Environmental wisdom view• Nature exist for all• There is not always more• Some economic growth is good while some  might ...
Working Toward SustainabilitySome Guidelines• Leave the earth as good or better than we found it.• Take no more than we ne...
Ch 1 apes
Ch 1 apes
Ch 1 apes
Ch 1 apes
Ch 1 apes
Ch 1 apes
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  • How the earth work How are we affecting the Earth’s life support system How do deal with those problems
  • Transcript of "Ch 1 apes"

    1. 1. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE QuickTime™ and a Photo CD Decompressor are needed to use this pictureINTERDISCIPLINARYECOLOGYCHEMISTRYECONOMICSPOLITICSGEOLOGYSYSTEMS
    2. 2. QuickTime™ and aPhoto CD Decompressorneeded to use this picture 1-1 LIVING SUSTAINABLY
    3. 3. Questions to ask• How the Earth works?• How are we affecting the Earth’s life supports system?• How to deal with environmental problems? – What laws? When do we phase it in?
    4. 4. What do you think is our most serious environmental problem?a) Corruption in governments and businesses, and bad economic policiesb) Destruction of biodiversityc) Environmental impacts from human poverty and hungerd) Genetic engineering of organisms 36%e) Greenhouse Effect (global warming) and resulting climatic changesf) Human diseases (cancer, malaria, AIDS, etc.)g) Human overpopulationh) Nuclear, chemical and biological weapons of 21% mass destructioni) Poor farming techniques (soil erosion, 14% overuse of pesticides, livestock wastes, etc.)j) Wasting of valuable and nonrenewable resources 7% 7% 7% 7% 0% 0% 0% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
    5. 5. Six important environmental issues• Population growth• Increasing resource use• Global climate change• Premature extinction of plants and animals• Pollution• Poverty
    6. 6. LIVING SUSTAINABLY • SOLAR CAPITAL - PROVIDES 99%OF OUR ENERGY WE USE ON EARTH. • EARTH CAPITAL - LIFE-SUPPORT AND ECONOMIC SERVICES. • SUSTAINABILITY - IS THE ABILITY OF A SPECIFIED SYSTEM TO SURVIVE AND FUNCTION OVER A SPECIFIED TIME.
    7. 7. SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE HARVEST • SUPPLY OF RESOURCES THAT CAN BE HARVESTED EACH YEAR.
    8. 8. SUSTAINABLE EARTH• EARTH CAPITAL ARE USED AND MAINTAINED OVER TIME.
    9. 9. What is sustainability?1. Satisfying basic needs without depleting or degrading 90% resources2. Maximizing resource use3. Reducing resource use even if it means some big sacrifices by human beings4. Halting further resource use and limiting human progress 10% 0% 0% 1 2 3 4
    10. 10. SUSTAINABLE SOCIETY• MANAGES ITS ECONOMY AND POPULATION SIZE WITHOUT EXCEEDING ALL OR PART OF THE PLANET’S ABILITY TO ABSORB ENVIRONMENTAL INSULTS, REPLENISH ITS RESOURCES, AND SUSTAIN HUMAN AND OTHER FORMS OF LIFE OVER A SPECIFIED PERIOD. HUNDREDS OF YEARS.
    11. 11. CARRYING CAPACITY• DEFINED AS THE MAXIMUM NUMBER OF QuickTime™ and a Photo CD Decompressor ORGANISMS A are needed to use this picture LOCAL,REGIONAL, OR GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT CAN SUPPORT OVER A SPECIFIED PERIOD.
    12. 12. CARRYING CAPACITY• VARIES BY LOCATION• GLOBAL CHANGES• TYPES OF TECHNOLOGY USES TO EXTRACT AND PROCESS THE RESOURCES
    13. 13. QuickTime™ and a Photo CD DecompressorARE WE LIVING OFF THE INTEREST OR THE PRINCIPAL?are needed to use this picture
    14. 14. QuickTime™ and a Photo CD Decompressorare needed to use this picture
    15. 15. 1-2GROWTH AND THE WEALTH GAP
    16. 16. LINEAR POPULATION GROWTH• IS A QUANTITY THAT INCREASES AT A CONSTANT AMOUNT PER UNIT OF TIME.• IF PLOTTED ON A GRAPH IT WOULD BE A STRAIGHT LINE.
    17. 17. EXPONENTIAL GROWTH• IS WHERE THE QUANTITY INCREASES BY A FIXED PERCENTAGE OF THE WHOLE IN A GIVEN TIME AS EACH INCREASE IS APPLIED TO THE BASE FOR FURTHER GROWTH.• IS J SHAPED.• DOUBLING TIME - THE RULE OF 70.• 70/% OF GROWTH RATE = DOUBLING TIME IN YEARS.• k = (1/t)ln(N/N0)• t = (1/k)ln(N/N0)
    18. 18. World Population Reached 1 billion in 1804 2 billion in 1927 (123 years later) 3 billion in 1960 (33 years later) 4 billion in 1974 (14 years later) 5 billion in 1987 (13 years later) 6 billion in 1999 (12 years later) World Population May Reach 7 billion in 2013 (14 years later) 8 billion in 2028 (15 years later) 9 billion in 2050 (22 years later) Figure 1-2 Page 4 Slide 2http://www.ibiblio.org/lunarbin/worldpop
    19. 19. The earth’s population is currently 6.6 billion people. The rate of population growth is 1.2 percent. How large will the earth’s population be after 58 years? 33% 33% 33%1. 10.2 billion people2. 12.6 billion people3. 13.2 billion people 1 2 3
    20. 20. Which of the following would not be an example of sound science?1. Calculating the destruction of trees in a forest based on historical cut rates2. Calculating the pollution in a stream based on chemical analysis3. Developing a plan on how to conserve 25% 25% 25% 25% resources based on opinion polls4. Forecasting CO2 levels in a region based on historical emissions 1 2 3 4
    21. 21. Because developingnations make up81% of the world’s 50% 50%population, theygenerate most of thepollution and wasteas well as using mostof the world’sresources.1. True2. False 1 2
    22. 22. Based on the map, inwhich three countrieswould you not expectto find high levels of 25% 25% 25% 25%poverty?1. United States, Argentina, Japan2. United States, China, Australia3. Greenland, Kenya, South Africa4. Mexico, Brazil, Canada 1 2 3 4
    23. 23. How many people live on the earth? 25% 25% 25% 25%1. About 5 million2. About 2 billion3. Over 6 billion4. Over 10 billion 1 2 3 4
    24. 24. QuickTime™ and a Photo CD Decompressorare needed to use this picture Clip 6739359653
    25. 25. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES• LOW INDUSTRIALIZATION AND PER CAPITA GNPs.• MAKES UP 80% OF THE WORLDS POPULATION.• 15% OF THE WORLD’S WEALTH AND INCOME.• ONLY USE 12% OF THE WORLD’S RESOURCES.
    26. 26. Most population growth is projected to occur in: 50% 50%1. Developed countries2. Developing countries 1 2
    27. 27. QuickTime™ and a Photo CD Decompressorare needed to use this picture More Developed Less Developed Country Country
    28. 28. QuickTime™ and a Photo CD Decompressorare needed to use this picture
    29. 29. QuickTime™ and a Photo CD Decompressorare needed to use this picture
    30. 30. QuickTime™ and a Photo CD Decompressorare needed to use this picture
    31. 31. QuickTime™ and aPhoto CD Decompressorneeded to use this picture
    32. 32. WHAT CAN BE DONE ABOUT THE WEALTH GAP?• NOTHING, BECAUSE PEOPLE MAKE THEIR OWN BED SO THE MUST LIVE IN IT. IF WE HELP THEM WE WILL BE CREATING A WELFARE STATE. THUS HURTING THEM IN THE LONG RUN.• SOMETHING, BECAUSE THE POOR ARE DYING. THE POOR SOMETIMES HAVE A MORE ADVERSE AFFECT ON THE ENVIRONMENT THAN THE DEVELOPED COUNTRIES.
    33. 33. TOO MANY RICH PEOPLE WEIGHING RELATIVE BURDENS ON THE PLANET• READ PAUL EHRLICH’S ESSAY.• WRITE A COUNTER POINT ESSAY.• TYPED 2 pages.• 20 POINTS. Test points• Due Friday the 9th
    34. 34. 1-3RESOURCES
    35. 35. Nonrenewable resources: 25% 25% 25% 25%1. Are fixed in quantity2. Include solar energy3. Degrade quickly once they have been extracted from the earth4. Can be exhausted completely 1 2 3 4
    36. 36. WHAT IS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT?• IS THE CURRENT GROWTH RATE SUSTAINABLE IN THE FUTURE?• THIS IDEA ASSUMES THAT WE RIGHT TO USE THE EARTH’S RESOURCES AND EARTH CAPITAL TO MEET OUR NEEDS BUT THAT WE HAVE THE OBLIGATION TO PASS ON THE EARTH’S RESOURCES AND SERVICES TO FUTURE GENERATIONS IN AS GOOD OR BETTER SHAPE THAN THESE CONDITIONS WERE PASSED ON TO US.• SHOULD WE LIVE FOR TODAY AND NOT CARE ABOUT HOW FUTURE WILL BE AFFECTED?
    37. 37. ECOLOGICAL VS. ECONOMIC RESOURCES• ECOLOGICAL RESOURCE - IS ANYTHING REQUIRED BY AN ORGANISM FOR NORMAL MAINTENANCE, GROWTH, AND PRODUCTION.• ECONOMIC RESOURCE - IS ANYTHING OBTAINED FROM THE ENVIRONMENT TO MEET HUMAN NEEDS AND WANTS.
    38. 38. RENEWABLE RESOURCES• RENEWABLE RESOURCES - SOLAR.• POTENTIALLY RENEWABLE RESOURCES - CAN BE REPLENISHED FAIRLY RAPIDLY THROUGH NATURAL PROCESSES.• BIODIVERSITY GENETIC DIVERSITY SPECIES DIVERSITY ECOLOGICAL DIVERSITY VARIETY PROVIDES MORE RESOURCES.
    39. 39. Which of the following countries has the highest ecological footprint per capita? 25% 25% 25% 25%1. India2. The Netherlands3. The United States4. All are about the same 1 2 3 4
    40. 40. Per Capita Ecological Footprint Country (Hectares of land per person) 10.9 United States 5.9The Netherlands 1.0 India Figure 1-8 (1) Page 10 Slide 8
    41. 41. Total Ecological Footprint Country (Hectares) 3 billion United States hectaresThe Netherlands 94 million hectares 1 billion India hectares Figure 1-8 (2) Page 10 Slide 9
    42. 42. QuickTime™ and a Photo CD Decompressorare needed to use this picture
    43. 43. Some Major Problems Fig. 1–13a © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP
    44. 44. More Major Problems Fig. 1–13b © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP
    45. 45. Still More Major Problems Fig. 1–13c © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP
    46. 46. QuickTime™ and a Photo CD Decompressorare needed to use this picture
    47. 47. QuickTime™ and a Photo CD Decompressor THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS.are needed to use this picture “ IF I DO NOT USE THIS RESOURCE, SOMEONE ELSE WILL. THE LITTLE BIT I USE OR POLLUTE IS NOT ENOUGH TO MATTER.” WITH ONLY A FEW USES, THIS LOGIC WORKS. HOWEVER, THE CUMULATIVE EFFECT OF MANY PEOPLE TRYING TO EXHAUSTS OR RUINS IT. THEN NO ONE CAN BENEFIT FROM IT, AND THEREIN LIES THE TRAGEDY.
    48. 48. QuickTime™ and a Photo CD Decompressor POSSIBLE SOLUTIONSare needed to use this picture •USE THE COMMON-PROPERTY RESOURCE AT RATES BELOW WHAT IS SUSTAINABLE BY REDUCING POPULATION AND REGULATING ACCESS. PROBLEMS - • CONVERT THE COMMON-PROPERTY TO PRIVATE OWNERSHIP. PROBLEMS - • COMMAND-AND-CONTROL IS THE USE OF TAXES AND THE FREE- MARKET PROBLEMS -
    49. 49. What is the tragedy of the commons? 25% 25% 25% 25%1. The depletion of non- renewable resources2. The degradation of renewable free-access resources3. The seizing of natural resources by government4. The underuse of resources that could benefit needy people 1 2 3 4
    50. 50. 1-4POLLUTION
    51. 51. POINT SOURCE - COMES FROM A SINGLE, IDENTIFIABLESOURCE.NONPOINT SOURCE - RUNOFFTHREE FACTORS DETERMINED HOW SEVERE THEHARMFUL EFFECTS OF A POLLUTANT ARE. 1. THE CONCENTRATION LEVEL. ppm ppt 2. CHEMICAL NATURE. How active and harmful it is in nature? 3. HALF LIFE OR THE PERSISTENCE OF THE POLLUTANT. ex BIODEGRADABLE DDT IS AN EXAMPLE OF A PERSISTENT POLLUTANT.
    52. 52. SOLUTIONS TO POLLUTION• POLLUTION CONTROL-INPUT CONTROLTHREE Rs• POLLUTION PREVENTION- OUTPUT CONTROL1. TEMPORARY BANDAGE.2. THE CLEANUP OF ONE TYPE OF POLLUTANT MAY CAUSE ANOTHER TYPE OF POLLUTION PROBLEM.3. COST IS TO HIGH.ONLY 1 % IS SPENT ON PREVENTION
    53. 53. 1-5 ENVIRONMENTAL ANDRESOURCE PROBLEMS: CAUSE AND CONNECTIONS
    54. 54. • RAPID POPULATION GROWTH• RAPID AND WASTEFUL USE OF RESOURCES WITH TOOLITTLE EMPHASIS ON POLLUTION PREVENTION ANDWASTE REDUCTION•POVERTY• FAILURE OF POLICIES THAT ENCOURAGE SUSTAINABLEGROWTH
    55. 55. QuickTime™ and a Photo CD Decompressorare needed to use this picture Population X Affluence X Technology = Impact IMPORTANT
    56. 56. QuickTime™ and a Photo CD Decompressorare needed to use this picture
    57. 57. 1-6Is our present course sustainable
    58. 58. Are things getting better or worse?
    59. 59. 1-8ENVIRONMENTAL WORLD VIEWS AND SUSTAINABILITY
    60. 60. WHAT’S THE USE OF A HOUSE IF YOUDON’T HAVE A DECENT PLANET TOPUT IT ON? THOREAU• ENVIRONMENTAL WORLDVIEWS• PLANETARY MANAGEMENT WORLDVIEW.
    61. 61. SUSTAINABILITY– PLANETARY MANAGEMENT WORLDVIEW WE ARE THE BEST • THERE IS ALWAYS MORE • ALL EC. GROWTH IS GOOD • SUCCESS = CONTROL OF EARTH FOR OUR BENEFIT
    62. 62. Environmental wisdom view• Nature exist for all• There is not always more• Some economic growth is good while some might effect the environment
    63. 63. Working Toward SustainabilitySome Guidelines• Leave the earth as good or better than we found it.• Take no more than we need.• Try not to harm life, air, water, soil.• Protect biodiversity.• Help maintain Earths capacity for self repair.• Dont use potentially renewable resources faster than they are replenished.• Dont waste resources.• Dont release pollutants faster than Earths natural processes can dilute or degrade them.• Slow the rate of population growth.• Reduce poverty. © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP
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