Carbon compounds2 3


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Carbon compounds2 3

  1. 1. Section 2–3 Carbon CompoundsThis section explains how the elementcarbon able to form millions of carbon, ororganic, compounds.It describes the four groups of organiccompounds found in living things.
  2. 2. The Chemistry of Carbon
  3. 3. How many valence electrons does each carbon atom have?Each carbon atom has four electrons.
  4. 4. What gives carbon the ability toform chains that are almostunlimited in length?A carbon atom can bond to other carbon atoms.
  5. 5. Many of the molecules in livingcells are so large that they areknown as.Macromolecules
  6. 6. What is the process called by whichmacromolecules are formed?Polymerization
  7. 7. When monomers join together,what do they form?Polymers
  8. 8. What are four groups of organiccompounds found in living things?CarbohydratesProteinsLipidsNucleic Acids
  9. 9. What atoms make upcarbohydrates?Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms make up carbohydrates.
  10. 10. Circle the letter of each sentencethat is true about carbohydrates.a. Starches and sugars are examples of carbohydrates.b. Living things use them as their main source of energy.c. The monomers in sugar polymers are starch molecules.d. Plants and some animals use them for strength and rigidity.
  11. 11. Single sugar molecules are alsocalled .
  12. 12. Circle the letter of eachmonosaccharide.
  13. 13. 11. What are polysaccharides?They are large macromolecules formed from monosaccharides.
  14. 14. 12. How do plants and animalsstore excess sugar?a.Plants use a polysaccharide called plant starch, whereas animals use a polysaccharide called glycogen.
  15. 15. Chapter 2, The Chemistry ofLife
  16. 16. LipidsWhat kinds of atoms are lipidsmostly made of?They are made mostly of carbon and hydrogen atoms.
  17. 17. What are three commoncategories of lipids?
  18. 18. glycerol molecule combines withcompoundscalled .
  19. 19. 16. Circle the letter of each waythat fats are used in living things.a. As parts of biological membranesb. To store energyc. To give plants rigidityd. As chemical messengers
  20. 20. 17. Complete the table aboutlipids.
  21. 21. 18. Nucleic acids contain whatkinds of atoms?They contain hydrogen, oxygen,nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorusatoms.
  22. 22. 19. The monomers that make upnucleic acids are known as .
  23. 23. 20. A nucleotide consists of whatthree parts? It consists of a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a 5-carbon sugar.
  24. 24. 21. What is the function of nucleicacids in living things?Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information.
  25. 25. Kind of Lipid Description
  26. 26. SaturatedEach carbon atom in a lipid’s fatty acid chain is joined to another carbon atom by a single bond.
  27. 27. UnsaturatedThere is at least one carbon-carbon double bond in a fatty acid.
  28. 28. PolyunsaturatedA lipid’s fatty acids contain more than one double bond.
  29. 29. Chapter 2, The Chemistry ofLife
  30. 30. 22. What are two kinds of nucleicacids?• Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)• Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
  31. 31. 23. Proteins contain what kinds ofatoms? They contain nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms.
  32. 32. 24. Proteins are polymers ofmolecules called .
  33. 33. 25. What are four roles thatproteins play in living things?• Some control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes.• Some are used to form bones and muscles.• Some transport substances into or out of cells.• Some help to fight diseases.