Section 2–3 Carbon CompoundsThis section explains how the elementcarbon able to form millions of carbon, ororganic, compounds.It describes the four groups of organiccompounds found in living things.
How many valence electrons does each carbon atom have?Each carbon atom has four electrons.
What gives carbon the ability toform chains that are almostunlimited in length?A carbon atom can bond to other carbon atoms.
Many of the molecules in livingcells are so large that they areknown as.Macromolecules
What is the process called by whichmacromolecules are formed?Polymerization
When monomers join together,what do they form?Polymers
What are four groups of organiccompounds found in living things?CarbohydratesProteinsLipidsNucleic Acids
What atoms make upcarbohydrates?Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms make up carbohydrates.
Circle the letter of each sentencethat is true about carbohydrates.a. Starches and sugars are examples of carbohydrates.b. Living things use them as their main source of energy.c. The monomers in sugar polymers are starch molecules.d. Plants and some animals use them for strength and rigidity.
22. What are two kinds of nucleicacids?• Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)• Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
23. Proteins contain what kinds ofatoms? They contain nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms.
24. Proteins are polymers ofmolecules called .
25. What are four roles thatproteins play in living things?• Some control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes.• Some are used to form bones and muscles.• Some transport substances into or out of cells.• Some help to fight diseases.