Animal tissue 2007

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Animal tissue 2007

  1. 1. AkiHarANIMAL TISSUES
  2. 2. AkiHarCATEGORIES OF TISSUES Epithelium Connective Muscle Nervous
  3. 3. AkiHarEPITHELIUM  Lines, covers, and protects other tissues and organs.  Characterized by:  Cells tightly junked together  The presence of a cell secretion called the basement membrane.  Named by:  Cell shape  Other characteristics of the cells.  Squamous, Cuboidal, and Columnar
  4. 4. AkiHarSQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM Cells very thin, much wider than they are thick.  Simple Squamous Epithelium  Air sacs of respiratory  Lining of blood vessels, heart and lymphatic tubes  Stratified Squamous Epithelium  Skin  Vagina  Esophagus  Mouth
  5. 5. AkiHarEXAMPLES OF SIMPLE SQUAMOUSEPITHELIUM
  6. 6. AkiHarSTRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM
  7. 7. AkiHar CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM Cells cube shaped- secretion and absorption.  Kidney tubules  Duct and small glands  Surface of ovary
  8. 8. AkiHarCOLUMNAR EPITHELIUM Elongated cells, much longer than they are wide.  Simple Columnar Epithelium  A single layer of cells that line the digestive tract, gallbladder and excretory ducts of some glands. Has microvilli at surface for absorption.  Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium  Lines the bronchi, trachea, uterine tubes and some of the uterus. Propels mucus or reproductive cells by ciliary action.
  9. 9. AkiHarSIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM
  10. 10. AkiHarPSEUDOSTRATIFIED CILIATED COLUMNAREPITHELIUM
  11. 11. AkiHarCONNECTIVE TISSUE Characterized by the cells widely separated from each other in a matrix that is produced by the cells. Tissue protects and supports. Cell Matrix composed of two regions  Ground  Liquid (sol), Gel, Gum or solid  Fibers  Non-elastic (= white or Collagen)  Elastic (= yellow fibers) Types of Connective tissue
  12. 12. AkiHarTYPES OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE Loose (Areolar) Connective Tissue Dense Connective Tissue Adipose Cartilage Bone Blood
  13. 13. AkiHarLOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE (AREOLAR)  Gel like ground with both elastic and non- elastic fibers running though the ground in many directions.  Wraps and cushions organs  Under the skin
  14. 14. AkiHarDENSE REGULAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE  Nuclei and fibers arranged in parallel rows.  Tendons and ligaments  Fibers mostly non-elastic
  15. 15. AkiHarADIPOSE (FAT)  Function as storage cells for adipose (lipids)  Adipose cells contain a large vacuole which in the live cell contains lipids.  Cell nucleus and cytoplasm are pushed out to edge of cell membrane.
  16. 16. AkiHarCARTILAGE Ground of matrix is gum like. Cells are found in Lacunae within the matrix. Fibers may be elastic or non-elastic, or a form of non-elastic called reticular(where the non-elastic fibers of very thin)  Hyaline Cartilage-example on the ends of bones  Elastic Cartilage- example ear cartilage  Non-elastic Cartilage- example nose cartilage.
  17. 17. HYALINE CARTILAGE
  18. 18. AkiHarELASTIC CARTILAGE
  19. 19. AkiHarBONE Ground of matrix is Solid (Calcium carbonate). Has blood supply and nerves running through the Haversian canal systems.
  20. 20. AkiHarVASCULAR TISSUE (BLOOD) Liquid matrix = plasma  90% water  10%Plasma proteins, electrolytes, hormones, oxygen, glucose etc. Formed elements  Erythrocytes -48billion(female) to 54 billion (male) cell / ml of blood in humans. Mammals are enucleated while rest of the vertebrates they have nuclei  Leukocytes -about 7.5 million / ml of blood  Platelets -blood clotting
  21. 21. BLOOD AkiHar
  22. 22. AkiHarMUSCLE TISSUE Tissue with cells having fibers specialized for contraction.  Skeletal Muscle (Striated, voluntary)  Parallel elongated cells (fibers)  multinucleated and each cell is the length of the muscle.  Light meat, Dark meat—Slow twitch, fast twitch muscle  Smooth Muscle (Visceral, involuntary)  Cells are long and tapered.  Organized into sheets of muscle.  Cardiac Muscle  Intercalated disc  Myogenic  branched
  23. 23. AkiHarSKELETAL MUSCLE
  24. 24. AkiHarSMOOTH MUSCLE
  25. 25. AkiHarCARDIAC MUSCLE
  26. 26. AkiHarNERVOUS TISSUE  Cells specialized to polarize and depolarize.  Cell is a neuron
  27. 27. AkiHarFOUR TYPES OF ANIMAL TISSUES
  28. 28. AkiHarEPITHELIAL TISSUE(COVERING) Tightly-joined closely-packed cells One side of epithelium exposed to air or internal fluid, other side attached to a basement membrane, a dense mat of extracellular matrix (connective tissue) Covers the outside of the body and lines the internal organs and cavities Barrier against mechanical injury, invasive microorganisms, and fluid loss Provides surface for absorption, excretion and transport of molecules
  29. 29. AkiHarTYPES OFEPITHELIAL TISSUE Cell shape  Squamous  Cuboidal  Columnar Number of cell layers  Simple  Pseudostratified  Columnar RELATE STRUCTURE TO FUNCTION!
  30. 30. AkiHarCONNECTIVE TISSUE(FRAMEWORK) Main function: binding and support other tissues Large amount of extra- cellular matrix with fewer cells Connective tissue cells secrete the extra- cellular matrix Extracellular matrix consists of network of fibers in liquid, jelly-like or solid matrix
  31. 31. AkiHar
  32. 32. AkiHar Composed of long cells calledMUSCLE TISSUE  muscle fibers(MOVEMENT)  Contraction  movement
  33. 33. AkiHarNERVOUS TISSUE(CONTROL) Senses stimuli and transmits signals called nerve impulses Axon from one part of an animal to another Dendrite Consists of a cell body and long extensions Cell body called dendrites (towards cell body) and axons (towards another cell or an effector)
  34. 34. AkiHar Tissue Type Epithelial Connective Muscle Nerve Cell Shape Flattened, Irregular or round Elongated Cell appendages cuboidal, branched columnar Cell Single  Scattered in In sheets or Isolated or Arrangement multilayered matrix bundles networked Location Body covering or Supports other Lining internal Concentrated in lining organs or organs organs, make brain and spinal cavities skeletal muscles cord + all over the bodySurface Feature Cilia, microvilli - - - of Cells Matrix Type Basement Varied – protein - - membrane fibers + liquid, gelatinous, firm to calcifiedMatrix Amount Minimal Extensive Absent AbsentUnique Feature No direct blood Cartilage has no Can generate Can generate supply, except for blood supply electrical signals, electrical signal glands force and movement

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